Skip to main content

Full text of "Carlyle S Works V Frederick The Great Volume I"

See other formats



Boo* I. 





1. Friedcich then, and Friedrich now, p. 6. 
8. Eighteenth Century, 9. 





fruit IL 





End of the lint Shadbwy line, p. 69. 
Second Shadowy line, 70. 

Substantial Markgraves: Glimpse of tile Contemporary Kai- 
sers, 72. 



Conrad has become Bnrggraf of Numberg (A.D. 1170), p. 84. 
, Of the HofaencoUem Bur g gra r e,.s en arally ) 87, 




First Symptom; Donauworth, 1608, p. 253. 
Second Symptom; Seizure of Jiilica by the Kaiser, and Siege 
and Becapture of it by the Protestant parties, 1610. Where, 
upon " Catholic league" to balance "Evangelical Union." 

Symptom Third; a Dinner-scene at DusseHorf. 1618: Span- 
iards and Dutch shoulder arms in Cleve, 257. 
Symptom Fourth, and Catastrophe upon tie heels of it, Ml. 
What became of the Cleve-Jnlich Heritage, and of the Preussen 
one, 268. 



Second Act, or Epoch, 1624-1629. A second Uncle put to the 

BSD, and Pommern snatched away, p. 270. 
Third Act, and what the Kurfurst suffered in it, 272. 


Duke of JSgeradorf, Elector's Uncle, is put under Ban, p. 276. 


What became of Pommern at the Peace; final Glance into Cleve- 

Jiilicli, p. 282. 

The Great Kurforsf s Wan : what he achieved in War and 
Peace, 288. 


How Austria settled the Silesian Claim*, p. 290. 
His real Character, 299. 


The Twelve HohenzoUern Electors, p. 308. 
Genealogical Diagram ; the Two Cnlmbach lanes, 809*. 

33a<* IV. 



First Educational Element, tie French one, p. 311. 


Of the Dessauer, not yet " CHd," p. 818. 



The Devil in harness : Create the Finance-Minister, p . 956. 






Of Kur-Pfalz Karl Philip : How he got a Wife long since, and 

did Feats in the World, p. 896. 
Earl Philip and his Heidelberg Protestants, 398. 
Friedrich Wilhelm's Method j proves remedial in Heidelberg, 

Prussian Majesty has displeased the Kaiser and the King of 

Poland, 409. 

There is an absurd Flame of War, blown ont by Admiral Byng ; 
and a new Man of Genius announces himself to the dim Popu- 
lations, 406. 

The Noltenius-and-Panzendorf Drill-exercise, p. 412. 


INTO. 1723-1726. 


Queen Sophie-Dorothee has taken Time by the Forelock, p. 426. 
Princess Amelia cornea into the World, 487. 
Friedrich WUhelm's Ten Children, 439. 


Imperial Majesty on the Treaty of Utrecht, p. 441. 
Imperial Majesty has got happily wedded, 443. 
Imperial Majesty and the Termagant of Spain, 446. 
Imperial Majesty's Pragmatic Sanction, 447. 
Third Shadow: Imperial Majesty's Ostend Company, 451. 

viii .CONTENTS. 



Congress of Cambrai, p. 454. 

Congress of Cambrai get* the Floor pulled from under it, 457. 
France utd the Britannic Majesty trim the Ship again : How 
> Frifidrieh Wilhelm came into it Treaty of Hanover, 1725, 

Travail-Throes of Nature for Baby Carlos'i Italian Apanage; 

Seven in number, 462. 



Gtavi-JfhucH, BiiBBBTH-AirspACH tofacef.'to& 



From a Dutch Print. Etched by 8. A. SCHOFP. 










ABOUT fourscore years ago, there used to be seen saunter- 
ing on the terraces of Sans Souci, for a short time in the 
afternoon, or you might have met him elsewhere at an earlier 
hour, riding or driving in a rapid business manner on the 
open roads or through the scraggy woods and avenues of that 
intricate amphibious Potsdam region, a highly interesting 
lean little old man, of alert though slightly stooping figure; 
whose name among strangers was King Friedrich the Second, 
or Frederick the Great of Prussia, and at home among the 
common people, who much loved and esteemed him, was Voter 
Fritz, Father Fred, a name of familiarity which had not 
bred contempt in that instance. He is a King every inch of 
him, though without the trappings of a King. Presents him- 
self in a Spartan simplicity of vesture : no crown but an old 
military cocked-hat, generally old, or trampled and kneaded 
into absolute softness, if new; no sceptre but one like Aga- 
memnon's, a walking-stick cut from the woods, which serves 
also as a riding-stick (with which he hits the horse "between 
the ears," say authors) ; and for royal robes, a mere soldier's 


blue coat with red facings, coat likely to be old, and sure to 
hare a good deal of Spanish snuff on the breast of it ; rest of 
the apparel dim, unobtrusive in color or cut, ending in high 
over-knee military boots, which may be brushed (and, I hope, 
kept soft with an underhand suspicion of oil), but are not per- 
mitted to be blackened or varnished ; Day and Martin with 
their soot-pots forbidden to approach. 

The man is not of godlike physiognomy, any more than of 
imposing stature or costume : close-shut mouth with thin lips, 
prominent jaws and nose, receding brow, by no means of 
Olympian height; head, however, is of long form, and has 
superlative gray eyes in it. Not what is called a beautiful 
man ; nor yet, by all appearance, what is called a happy. On 
the contrary, the face bears evidence of many sorrows, as they 
are termed, of much hard labor done in this world ; and seems 
to anticipate nothing but more still coming. Quiet stoicism, 
capable enough of what joy there were, but not expecting any 
worth mention ; great unconscious and some conscious pride, 
well tempered with a cheery mockery of humor, are written 
on that old face ; which carries its chin well forward, in spite 
of the slight stoop about the neck ; snuffy nose rather flung 
into the air, under its old cocked-hat, tike an old snuffy 
lion on the watch ; and such a pair of eyes as no man or lion 
or lynx of that Century bore elsewhere, according to all the 
testimony we have. "Those eyes," says Mirabeau, "which, 
at the bidding of his great soul, fascinated you with seduction 
or with terror (portaient, au gre de son dme hermque, la sedve- 
tion ou la terreur)." 1 Most excellent potent brilliant eyes, 
s-wift-darting as the; stars, steadfast as the sun ; gray, we said, 
of the azure-gray color; large enough, not of glaring size ; the 
habitual expression of them vigilance and penetrating sense, 
rapidity resting on depth. Which is an excellent combina- 
tion; and gives us the notion of a lambent outer radiance 
springing from some great inner sea of light and fire in the 
man. The voice, if he speak to you, is of similar physiog- 
nomy: clear, melodious and sonorous; all tones are in it, 
* Mirabea^ H,*cire Seated* la Cov de BaVn, Lett* 88- (24 Septan- 
bw 1786), p. 1*8 (in edition of Pwig, 1841). 


from that of ingenuous inquiry, graceful sociality, light- 
flowing banter (rather prickly for most part), up to definite 
word of command, up to desolating word of rebuke and 
reprobation; a voice "the clearest and most agreeable in 
conversation I ever heard," says witty Dr. Moore. 1 "He 
speaks a great deal," continues the doctor; "yet those who 
hear him, regret that he does not speak a good deal more. 
His observations are always lively, very often just ; and few 
men possess the talent of repartee in greater perfection." 

Just about threescore and ten years ago, 8 his speakings 
and his workings came to finis in this World of Time ; and 
he vanished from all eyes into other worlds, leaving much 
inquiry about him in the minds of men; which, as my 
readers and I may feel too well, is yet by no means satisfied. 
As to his speech, indeed, though it had the worth just ascribed 
to it and more, and though masses of it were deliberately put 
on paper by himself, in prose and verse, and continue to be 
printed and kept legible, what he spoke has pretty much van- 
ished into the inane; and except as record or document of 
what he did, hardly now concerns mankind. But the things 
he did were extremely remarkable ; and cannot be forgotten 
by mankind. Indeed, they bear such fruit to the present 
hour as all the Newspapers are obliged to be taking note of, 
sometimes to an unpleasant degree. Editors vaguely account 
this man the "Creator of the Prussian Monarchy;" which 
has since grown so large in the world, and troublesome to the 
Editorial mind in this and other countries. He was indeed 
the first who, in a highly public manner, notified its creation ; 
announced to all men that it was, in very deed, created; stand- 
ing on its -feet there, and would go a great way, on the impulse 
it had got from him and others. As it has accordingly done ; 
and may still keep doing to lengths little dreamt of by the 
British Editor in our time; whose prophesyings upon Prussia, 
and insights into Prussia, in its past, or present or future, are 
truly as yet inconsiderable, in proportion to the noise he 

i Moore, Vita / Society o*f JTowers in f mace, Swtoabnd tad Germany 
(London, 1779 J.ii. 246. 
* A.B. 1856, 17th August, 1781 


makes with them ! The more is the pity for Tyni, and for 
myself too in the Enterprise now on hand. 

It is of this Figure, whom we see by the mind's eye in 
those Potsdam regions, visible for the last time seventy years 
ago, that we are now to treat, in the way of solacing ingenu- 
ous human curiosity. We are to try for some Historical 
Conception of this Man and King; some answer to the 
questions, What was he, then ? Whence, how ? And what 
did he achieve and suffer in the world ? " such answer as 
may prove admissible to ingenuous mankind, especially such 
as may correspond to the Fact (which stands there, abstruse 
indeed, but actual and unalterable), and so be sure of admis- 
sibility one day. 

An Enterprise which turns out to be, the longer one looks 
at it, the more of a formidable, not to say unmanageable 
nature! Concerning which, on one or two points, it were 
good, if conveniently possible, to come to some preliminary 
understanding with the reader. Here, flying on loose leaves, 
are certain incidental utterances, of various date: these, as 
the topic is difficult, I will merely label and insert, instead 
of a formal Discourse, which were too apt to slide into some- 
thing of a Lamentation, or otherwise take an unpleasant 

1. FriedricJi then, and Friedrieh now. 

.This was a man of infinite mark to his contemporaries; 
who had witnessed surprising feats from him in the world; 
very questionable notions and ways, which he had contrived 

original man has always to do ; much more an original ruler 
of men. The world, in fact, had tried hard to put him down, 
as it does, unconsciously or consciously, with all such; and 
after the most conscious exertions, and at one time a dead- 
lift spasm of all its energies for Seven Years, had not been 
able. Principalities and powers, Imperial, Royal, Czarish, 
Papal, enemies innumerable as the sea-sand, had risen against 
him, only one helper left among the world's Potentates (and 


that one only while there should be help rendered in return) ; 
and he led them all such a dance as had astonished mankind 
and them. 

No wonder they thought him worthy of notice. Every 
original man of any magnitude is; nay, in the long-run, 
who or what else is ? But how much more if your original 
man was a king over men; whose movements were polar, 
and carried from day to day those of the world along with 
them. The Samson Agonistes, were his life passed like 
that of Samuel Johnson in dirty garrets, and the produce of 
it only some bits of written paper, the Agonistes, and how 
he will comport himself in the Philistine mill; this is always 
a spectacle of truly epic and tragic nature. The rather, if 
your Samson, royal or other, is not yet blinded or subdued to 
the wheel; much more if he vanquish his enemies, not by 
suicidal methods, but march out at last flourishing his miracu- 
lous fighting implement, and leaving their mill and them in 
quite ruinous circumstances. As this King Friedrich fairly 
managed to do. 

For he left the world all bankrupt, we may say ; fallen into 
bottomless abysses of destruction ; he still in a paying condi- 
tion, and with footing capable to carry his affairs and him. 
When he died, in 1786, the enormous Phenomenon since called 
FRENCH REVOLTJTIOIT was already growling audibly in the 
depths of the world ; meteoric-electric coruscations heralding 
it, all round the horizon. Strange enough to note, one of Fried- 
rich's last visitors was Gabriel Honor Biquetti, Comte de 
Mirabeau. These two saw one another; twice, for half an 
hour each time. The last of the old Gods and the first of 
the modern Titans ; before Pelion leapt on Ossa ; and the foul 
Earth taking fire at last, its vile mephitic elements went np in 
volcanic thunder. This also is one of the peculiarities of Fried- 
rich, that he is hitherto the last of the Kings ; that he ushers 
in the French Revolution, and closes an Epoch of World-His- 
tory. Finishing off forever the trade of King, think many ; 
who have grown profoundly dark as to Kingship and him. 

The French Eevolution may be said to have, for about half 
a century, quite submerged Friedrich, abolished him from the 


f men; and now on coining to light again, he is 
found defaced under strange mud-incrustations, and the eyes 
of mankind look at him from a singularly changed, what we 
must call oblique and perverse point of vision. This is one of 
the difficulties in dealing with his History ; especially if you 
happen to believe both in the French Revolution and in him ; 
that is to say, both that Real Kingship is eternally indis- 
pensable, and also that the destruction of Sham Kingship (a 
frightful process) is occasionally so. 

On the breaking-out of that formidable Explosion, and 
Suicide of his Century, Friedrich sank into comparative ob- 
scurity; eclipsed amid the ruins of that universal earth- 
quake, the very dust of which darkened all the air, and 

only by the blaze of conflagrations ; wherein, to our terri- 
fied imaginations, were seen, not men, French and other, but 
ghastly portents, stalking wrathful, and shapes of avenging 
gods. It must be owned the figure of Napoleon was titanic ; 
especially to the generation that looked on him, and that 
waited shuddering to be devoured by him. In general, in 
that French Revolution, all was on a huge scale; if not 
greater than anything in human experience, at least more 
grandiose. All was recorded in bulletins, too, addressed to 
the shilling-gallery; and there were fellows on the stage 
with such a breadth of sabre, extent of whiskerage, strength 
of windpipe, and command of men and gunpowder, as had 
never been seen before. How they bellowed, stalked and 
flourished about ; counterfeiting Jove's thunder to an amazing 
degree! Terrific Drawcansir figures, of enormous whisker- 
age, unlimited command of gunpowder ; not without sufficient 
ferocity, and even a certain 'heroism, stage-heroism, in them ; 
compared with whom, to the shilling-gallery, and frightened 
excited theatre at large, it seemed as if there had been no 
general* or sovereigns before; as if Friedrich, Gtwtavus, 
Cromwell, William Conqueror and Alexander the Great were 
not worth speaking of henceforth. 

AU this, however, in half a century is considerably altered. 
Thf Drawcansir equipments getting gradually torn off, the 


natural size is seen better; translated from the bulletin style 
into that of fact and history, miracles, even to the shilling- 
gallery, are not so miraculous. It begins to be apparent 
that there Hved great men before the era of bulletins and 
Agamemnon. Austerlitz and Wagram shot away more gun- 
powder, gunpowder probably in the proportion of ten to 
one, or a hundred to one; but neither of them was tenth- 
part such a beating to your enemy as that of Rossbach, 
brought about by strategic art, human ingenuity and intre- 
pidity, and the loss of 165 men. Leutheu, too, the battle 
of Leuthen (though so few English readers ever heard of it) 
may very well hold up its head beside any victory gained by 
Napoleon or another. For the odds were not far from three 
to one; the soldiers were of not far from equal quality; 
and only the General was consummately superior, and the 
defeat a destruction. Napoleon did indeed, by immense ex- 
penditure of men and gunpowder, overrun Europe for a time : 
but Napoleon never, by husbanding and wisely expending 
his men and gunpowder, defended a little Prussia against 
all Europe, year after year for seven years long, till Europe 
had enough, and gave up the enterprise as one it could not 
manage. So soon as the Drawcansir equipments are well torn 
off, and the shilling-gallery got to silence, it will be found 
that there were great kings before Napoleon, and likewise 
an Art of War, grounded on veracity and human courage and 
insight, not upon Drawcansir rodomontade, grandiose Dick- 
Turpinism, revolutionary madness, and unlimited expenditure 
of men and gunpowder. "You may paint with a very big 
brush, and yet not be a great painter," says a satirical friend 
of mine ! This is becoming more and more apparent, as the 
dust-whirlwind, and huge uproar of the last generation, 
gradually dies away again. 

2. Eighteenth Century. 

One of the grand difficulties in a -History of Friedrich is, 
all along, this same, That he lived in a Century which has 
no History and can have little or none. A Century so opu- 


lent in accumulated falsities, sad opulence descending on 
it by inheritance, always at compound interest, and always 
largely increased by fresh, acquirement on such immensity 
of standing capital ; opulent in that bad way as never 
Century before was I Which had no longer the conscious- 
ness of being false, so false had It grown ; and was so 
steeped in falsity, and impregnated with it to the very 
bone, that in fact the measure of the thing was full, and 
a French Revolution had to end it. To maintain much 
veracity in such an element, especially for a king, was no 
doubt doubly remarkable. But now, how extricate the man 
from his Century ? How show the man, who is a Reality 
worthy of being seen, and yet keep his Century, as a Hy- 
pocrisy worthy of being hidden and forgotten, in the due 
abeyance ? 

To resuscitate the Eighteenth Century, or call into men's 
view, beyond what is necessary, the poor and sordid per- 
sonages and transactions of an epoch so related to us, can 
be no purpose of mine on this occasion. The Eighteenth 
Century, it is well known, does not figure to me as a lovely 
one; needing to be kept in mind, or spoken of unneces 
sarily. To me the Eighteenth Century has nothing grand 
in it, except that grand universal Suicide, named Trench 
Revolution, by which it terminated its otherwise most worth- 
less existence with at least one worthy act; setting fire 

explosions, in a truly memorable and important manner. A 
very fit termination, as I thankfully feel, for such a Century. 
Century spendthrift, fraudulent-bankrupt; gone at length 
utterly insolvent, without real money of performance in its 
pocket, and the shops declining to take hypocrisies and spe- 
ciosities any f arther : what could the poor Century do, 
but at length admit, "Well, it is so. I am a swindler- 
century, and have long been ; having learned the trick of it 
from my father and grandfather ; knowing hardly any trade 
but that in false bills, which I thought foolishly might last 
forever, and still bring at least beef and pudding to the 
favored of mankind. And behold it ends; and I am a de- 


tected swindler, and have nothing even to eat. What re- 
mains bat that I blow my brains out, and do at length one 
true action?" Which the poor Century did; many thanks 
to it, in the circumstances. 

Tor there was need oce more of a Divine Revelation to 
the torpid frivolous children of men, if they were not to sink 
altogether into the ape condition. And in that whirlwind 
of the Universe, lights obliterated, and the torn wrecks of 
Earth and Hell hurled aloft into the Empyrean; black whirl- 
wind, which made even apes serious, and drove most of 
them mad, there was, to men, a voice audible; voice from 
the heart of things once more, as if to say: "Lying is not 
permitted in this Universe. The wages of lying, you be- 
hold, are death. Lying means damnation in this Universe ; 
and Beelzebub, never so elaborately decked in crowns and 
mitres, is not God ! " This was a revelation truly to be named 
of the Eternal, in our poor Eighteenth Century; and has 
greatly altered the complexion of said Century to the Histo- 
rian ever since. 

Whereby, in short, that Century is quite confiscate, fallen 
bankrupt, given up to the auctioneers ; Jew-brokers sort- 
ing out of it at this moment, in a confused distressing man- 
ner, what is still valuable or salable. And, in fact, it lies 
massed np in our minds as a disastrous wrecked inanity, 
not useful to dwell upon; a kind of dusky chaotic back- 
ground, on which the figures that had some veracity in 
them a small company, and ever growing smaller as our 
demands rise in strictness are delineated for us. "And 
yet it is the Century of our own Grandf athers ? " cries the 
reader. Yes, reader! truly. It is the ground out of which 
we ourselves have sprung; whereon now we have our im- 
mediate footing, and first of all strike down our roots for 
nourishment; and, alas, in large sections of the practical 
world, it (what we specially mean by if) still continues 
flourishing all round us ! To forget it quite is not yet pos- 
sible, nor would be profitable. What to do with it, and its 
forgotten fooleries and "Histories," worthy only of forget- 
ting? Well: sp much of it as by nature adheres; what of 


it cannot be disengaged from our Hero gad Ms operations: 
approximately so much, and no more I ILct that be our bar- 
d to it. 

3. English Prepostessions. 

With such, wagon-loads of Books and Printed Records as exist 
on the subject of Friedrich, it has always seemed possible, even 
for a stranger, to acquire some real understanding of him ; 
though practically, here and now, I have to own, it proves 
difficult beyond conception. Alas, the Books are not cosmic, 
they are chaotic ; and turn out unexpectedly void of instruc- 
tion to us. Small use in a talent of writing, if there be not 
first of all the talent of discerning, of loyally recognizing ; of 
discriminating what is to be written! Books born mostly 
of Chaos which want all things, even an Index are a 
painful object. In sorrow and disgust, you wander over those 
multitudinous Books: you dwell in endless regions of the 
superficial, of the nugatory : to your bewildered sense it is as 
if no insight into the real heart of Friedrich and his affairs 
were anywhere to be had. Truth is, the Prussian Dryasdust, 
otherwise an honest fellow, and not afraid of labor, excels all 
other Dryasdusts yet known; I have often sorrowfully felt 
as if there were not in Nature, for darkness, dreariness, im- 
methodic platitude, anything comparable to him. He writes 
big Books wanting in almost every quality; and does not 
even give an Index to them. He has made of Friedrich's His- 
tory a wide-spread, inorganic, trackless matter ; dismal to your 
mind, and barren as a continent of Brandenburg sand! 
Enough, he could do no other : I have striven, to forgive him. 
Xet the reader now forgive me; and think sometimes what 
probably my raw-material was .' 

Curious enough, Friedrich lived in the Writing Era, morn- 
ing of that strange Era which has grown to such a noon for 
us ; and his favorite society, all his reign, was with the lit- 
erary or writing sort Nor have they failed to write about 
him, they among the others, about him and about him ; and it 
is notable, how little real light, on any point of his existence 


or ettv1sroflmefit> tbey haute maatagetf to cdfflnrameate. Dim in- 
deed, for most port a mere epigrammatic spatter of daskness 
visible, is tlie "picture" they have fashioned! to themselves 
of Friedrieb and his Country and hi* Century. Men not' of 
genius/' apparently ? Alas, no ; men' fatally destitute of true 
eyesight, and of loyal heart first of all. So far as I have no- 
ticed, there was not, with th* single exception of Mirabeau for 
one hour, any man to be called 1 of genius, or with' an adequate 
power of human discernment, that ever personally looked on 
Friedrich. Had many such men looked successively on' his 
History and him, we had not found it now in such a condition. 
Still altogether chaotic as a History ; fatally destitute even of 
the Indexes and! mechanical appliances : Friedrich's self, and 
his Country, and his Century, still undeciphered 5 very dark 
phenomena, all three, to the intelligent part of mankind. 

In Prussia there has long been a certain- stubborn though 
planless diligence in digging for the outward details of Fried- 
rich's Life-History ; though as to organizing them, assorting 
them, or even putting labels on them; much more as to the 
least interpretation or human delineation of the man and his 
affairs, you need not inquire in Prussia. In France, iri 
England, it is still worse. There an immense ignorance pre- 
vails even as to the outward facts and phenomena of Fried- 
rich's life ; and instead of the Prussian no-interpretation, yon 
find) in these vacant circumstances, a great promptitude to in- 
terpret. Whereby judgments and prepossessions exist among 
us on that subject, especially on Friedrich's character, which 
are very ignorant indeed. 

To Englishmen, the sources of knowledge or conviction 
about Friedrioh, I have observed, are mainly these two: 
First, for his Public Character: it was an all-important faet, 
not to it, but to this country in regard- to it, That George H., 
seeing good to plunge head-foremost into German Politics, and 
to take Maria Theresa's side in the Austrian-Succession Wa* 
of 1T40-1748, needed to begin by assuring his Parliament and 
Newspapers, profoundly dark on the matter, that Friedrich 
was a robber and villain for taking the other side. Which 


assurance, resting on what basis we shall see by and by, 
George's Parliament and Newspapers cheerfully accepted, 
nothing doubting. And they hare re-echoed and reverberated 
it, they and the rest of us, ever since, to all lengths, down to 
the present day ; as a fact quite agreed upon, and the prelimi- 
nary item in Friedrieh's character. Bobber and villain to 
begin with; that was one settled point. 

Afterwards when George and Friedrich came to be allies, 
and the grand fightings of the Seven-Years War took place, 
George's Parliament and Newspapers settled a second point, 
in regard to Friedrich: "One of the greatest soldiers ever 
born." This second item the British Writer fully admits ever 
gince : but he still adds to it the quality of robber, in a loose 
way; and images to himself a royal Dick Turpin, of the 
kind known in Review-Articles, and disquisitions on Progress 
of the Species, and labels it Frederick ; very anxious to collect 
new babblement of lying Anecdotes, false Criticisms, hungry 
French Memoirs, which will confirm him in that impossible 
idea. Had such proved, on survey, to be the character of 
Friedrich, there is one British Writer whose curiosity con- 
cerning him would pretty soon have died away ; nor could any 
amount of unwise desire to satisfy that feeling in fellow- 
creatures less seriously disposed have sustained him alive, in 
those baleful Historic Acherons and Stygian Fens, where he 
has had to dig and to fish so long, far away from the upper 
light! Let me request all readers to blow that sorry chaff 
entirely out of their minds ; and to believe nothing on the 
subject except what they get some evidence for. 

Second English source relates to the Private Character. 
Friedrich's Biography or Private Character, the English, like 
the French, have gathered chiefly from a scandalous libel by 
Voltaire, which used to be called Vie Privet du Eoi de Pruaae 
(Private Life of the King of Prussia): 1 libel undoubtedly 

* First printed, from a stolen copy, at Geneva, 1784 ; first proved to be Vol- 
taire'g (which some of his admirers had striven to donbt), Paris, 1788 ; stands 
avowed ever since, in all the Editions of his Works (ii. 9-113 of the Edition 
by Bandonin Frews, 97 vote., Paris, 1825-1834), under the title Jfcfeora poor 
tervirlila Voltaire, with patches of repetition in the thing 
called ComaaOaire Hittorique, which follows ibid, at great length. 


written by Voltaire, in a kind of fury ; but not intended to be 
published by Mm ; nay burnt and annihilated, as he afterwards 
imagined. No line of which, that cannot be otherwise proved, 
has a right to be believed ; and large portions of which can 
be proved to be wild exaggerations and perversions, or even 
downright lies, written in a mood analogous to the Frenzy 
of John Dennis. This serves for the Biography or Private 
Character of Friedrich ; imputing all crimes to him, natural 
and unnatural ; offering indeed, if combined with facts 
otherwise known, or even if well considered by itself, a thor- 
oughly flimsy, incredible and impossible image. Like that of 
some flaming Devil's Head, done in phosphorus on the walls 
of the black-hole, by an Artist whom you had locked up there 
(not quite without reason) overnight. 

Poor Voltaire wrote that Vie Privee in a state little inferior 
to the Frenzy of John Dennis, how brought about we shall 
see by and by. And this is the Document which English 
readers are surest to have read, and tried to credit as far as 
possible. Our counsel is, Out of window with it, he that 
would know Friedrich of Prussia ! Keep it awhile, he that 
would know Francois Arouet de Voltaire, and a certain numer- 

capable of sinking to be spokesman for, in this world ! Alas, 
go where you will, especially in these irreverent ages, thf 
noteworthy Dead is sure to be found lying under infinite dung, 
no end of calumnies and stupidities accumulated upon him. 
For the class we speak of, class of " flunkies doing saturnalia 
below stairs," is numerous, is innumerable ; and can well re- 
munerate a "vocal flunky" that will serve their purposes on 
such an occasion ! 

Friedrich is by no means one of the perfect demigods ; and 
there are various things to be said against him with good 
ground. To the last, a questionable hero ; with much in him 
which one could have wished not there, and much wanting 
which one could have wished. But there is one feature which 
strikes you at an early period of the inquiry, That in his 
way he is a Eeality ; that he always means what he speaks; 


grounds Ms actions, too, on what lie recognizes for the truth ; 
nd, in short, has nothing whatever of the Hypocrite or 
Phantasm. Which some readers will admit to be an extremely 

We perceive that this man was far indeed from trying to 
deal swindler-like with the facts around him; that he honestly 
recognized said facts wherever they disclosed themselves, and 
was very anxious also to ascertain their xistence where still 
hidden or dubious. For he knew well, to a quite uncommon 
degree, and with a merit all the higher as it was an unconscious 
one, how entirely inexorable is the nature of facts, whether 
recognized or not, ascertained or not ; how vain all cunning of 
diplomacy, management and sophistry, to save any mortal who 
does not stand on the truth of things, from sinking, in the 

cies, possessions, achievements ; and becoming an unnamable 
object, hidden deep in the Cesspools of the Universe. This I 
hope to make manifest ; this which I long ago discerned for 
myself, with pleasure, in the physiognomy of Friedrich and 
his life. Which indeed was the first real sanction, and has all 
along been my inducement and encouragement, to study his 
life and him. How this man, officially a King withal, com- 
ported himself in the Eighteenth Century, and managed not to 
be a Liar and Charlatan as his Century was, deserves to be 
seen a little by men and kings, and may silently have didactic 
meanings in it. 

He that was honest with his existence has always meaning 
for us, be he king or peasant. He that merely shammed and 
grimaced with it, however much, and with whatever noise and 
trumpet-blowing, he may have cooked and eaten in this world, 
cannot long have any. Some men do cook enormously (let 
us call it cooking, what a man does in obedience to his hunger 
merely, to his desires and passions merely), roasting whole 
continents and populations, in the flames of war or other dis- 
cord ; witness the Napoleon above spoken of. Tor the appe- 
tite of man in that respect is unlimited ; in truth, infinite ; and 
the smallest of us could eat the entire Solar System, had we 
the .chance given, and then cry, like Alexander of Macedon, 


because we had no more Solar Systems to cook and eat. It is 
not the extent of the man's cookery that can much attach me 
to him ; but only the man himself, and what of strength he 
had to wrestle with the mud-elements, and what of victory he 
got for his own benefit and mine. 

4. Encouragements, Discouragements. 

French Revolution having spent itself, or sunk in France 
and elsewhere to what we see, a certain curiosity reawakens 
as to what of great or manful we can discover on the other side 
of that still troubled atmosphere of the Present and immediate 
Past. Curiosity quickened, or which should be quickened, by 
the great and all-absorbing question, How is that same ex- 
ploded Past ever to settle down again ? Not lost forever, it 
would appear : the New Era has not annihilated the old eras : 
New Era could by no means manage that ; never meant that, 
had it known its own mind (which it did not) : its meaning 
was and is, to get its own well out of them ; to readapt, in a 
purified shape, the old eras, and appropriate whatever was true 
and not combustible in them : that was the poor New Era's 
meaning, in the frightful explosion it made of itself and its 
possessions, to begin with ! 

And the question of questions now is : What part of that 
exploded Past, the ruins and dust of which still darken all the 
air, will continually gravitate back to us ; be reshaped, trans- 
formed, readapted, that so, in new figures, under new con- 
ditions, it may enrich and nourish us again ? What part of 
it, not being incombustible, has actually gone to flame and gas 
in the huge world-conflagration, and is now gaseous, mounting 
aloft ; and will know no beneficence of gravitation, but mount, 
and roam upon the waste winds forever, Nature so ordering 
it, in spite of any industry of Art ? This is the universal 
question of afflicted mankind at present ; and sure enough it 
will be long to settle. 

On one point we can answer : Only what of the Past was 
true will come back to us. That is the one asbestos which sur- 
vives all fire, and comes out purified ; that is still ours, blessed 


be Heaven, and only that. By the law of Nature nothing more 
than that ; and also, by the same law, nothing less than that. 
Let Art struggle how it may, for or against, as foolish Art 
is seen extensively doing in our time, there is where the 
limits of it will be. In which point of view, may not Fried- 
rich, if he was a true man. and King, justly excite some curi- 
osity again; nay some quite peculiar curiosity, as the lost 
Crowned Reality there was antecedent to that general outbreak " 
and abolition ? To many it appears certain there are to be 
no Kings of any sort, no Government more ; less and less need 
of them henceforth, New Era having come. Which is a very 
wonderful notion; important if true; perhaps still more im- 
portant, just at present, if untrue ! My hopes of presenting, 
in this Last of the Kings, an exemplar to my contemporaries, 
I confess, are not high. 

On the whole, it is evident the diificulties to a History of 
Friedrich are great and many : and the sad certainty is at last 
forced upon me that no good Book can, at this time, especially 
in this country, be written on the 'subject. Wherefore let the 
reader put up with an indifferent or bad one ; he little knows 
how much worse it could easily have been ! Alas, the Ideal 
of History, as my friend Sauerteig knows, is very high ; and 
it is not one serious man, but many successions of such, and 
whole serious generations of such, that can ever again build 
up History towards its old dignity. We must renounce ideals. 
We must sadly take up with the mournfulest barren realities ; 
dismal continents of Brandenburg sand, as in this instance ; 
mere tumbled mountains of marine-stores, without so much as 
an Index to them! 

Has the reader heard of Sauerteig's last batch of Spring- 
wurzeln, a rather curious valedictory Piece ? "All History is 
an imprisoned Epic, nay an imprisoned Psalm and Prophecy," 
says Sauerteig there. I wish, from my soul, he had disim.- 
prisoned it in this instance ! But he only says, in magnilo- 
quent language, how grand it would be if disimprisoned ; 
and hurls out, accidentally striking on this subject, the follow- 
ing rough sentences, suggestive though unpractical, with which 
I shall conclude: 


" Schiller, it appears, at one time thought of writing an Epw 
Poem upon Friednch the Great, 'upon some action of Fried- 
rich's,' Schiller says. Happily Schiller did not do it. By 
oversetting fact, disregarding reality, and tumbling time and 
space topsy-turvy, Schiller with his fine gifts might no doubt 
have written a temporary ' epic poem,' of the kind read and 
admired by many simple persons. But that would have helped 
little, and could not have lasted long. It is not the untrue 
imaginary Picture of a man and his life that I want from my 
Schiller, but the actual natural Likeness, true as the face itself, 
nay truer, in a sense. Which the Artist, if there is one, might 
help to give, and the Botcher (Pfuscher) never can ! Alas, 
and the Artist does not even try it ; leaves it altogether to the 
Botcher, being busy otherwise ! 

"Men purely will at length discover again, emerging from 
these dismal bewilderments in which the modern Ages reel 
and stagger this long while, that to them also, as to the most 
ancient men, all Pictures that cannot be credited are Pic- 
tures of an idle nature ; to be mostly swept out of doors. Such 
veritably, were it never so forgotten, is the law! Mistakes 
enough, lies enough will insinuate themselves into our most 
earnest portrayings of the True : but that we should, deliber- 
ately and of forethought, rake together what we know to be 
not true, and introduce that in the hope of doing good with 
it ? I tell you, such practice was unknown in the ancient 
earnest times ; and ought again to become unknown except 
to the more foolish classes!" That is Sauerteig's strange 
notion, not now of yesterday, as readers know : and he goes 
then into "Homer's Iliad," the "Hebrew Bible," "terrible 
Hebrew veracity of every line of it ; " discovers an alarming 
" kinship of Fiction to lying ; " and asks, If anybody can com- 
pute " the damage we poor moderns have got from our prac- 
tices of fiction in Literature itself, not to speak of awfully 
higher provinces ? Men will either see into all this by and 
by," continues he ; " or plunge head foremost, in neglect of all 
this, whither they little dream as yet ! 

"But I think all real Poets, to this hour, are Psalmists 
and Iliadists after their sort; and have in them a divine 


impatience of lies, a divine incapacity of living among lies. 
Likewise, which is a corollary, that the highest Shakspeare 
producible is properly the fittest Historian producible; 
and that it is frightful to see the Gelehrte Dummkopf 
[what we here may translate, Dryasdust} doing the function 
of History, and the Shakspeare and the Goethe neglecting 
it. 'Interpreting events;' interpreting the universally visi- 
ble, entirely wdubitable Revelation of the Author of this 
Universe : how can Dryasdust interpret such things, the dark 
chaotic dullard, who knows the meaning of nothing cosmic or 
noble, nor ever will know ? Poor wretch, one sees what kind 
of meaning he educes from Man's History, this long while 
past, and has got all the world to believe of it along with 
him. Unhappy Dryasdust, thrice-unhappy world that takes 
Dryasdust's reading of the ways of God ! But what else was 
possible ? They that could have taught better were engaged 
in fiddling ; for which there are good wages going. And our 
damage therefrom, our damage, yes, if thou be still human 
and not cormorant, perhaps it will transcend all Calif ornias, 
English National Debts, and show itself incomputable in con- 
tinents of Bullion I 

"Believing that mankind are not doomed wholly to dog- 
like annihilation, I believe that much of this will mend. 
I believe that the world will not always waste its inspired 
men in mere fiddling to it. That the man of rhythmic nature 
will feel more and more his vocation towards the Interpreta- 
tion of Fact ; since only in the vital centre of that, could we 
once get thither, lies all real melody ; and that he will become, 
he, once again the Historian of Events, bewildered Dryas- 
dust having at last the happiness to be his servant, and to 
have some guidance from him. Which will be blessed indeed. 
For the present, Dryasdust strikes me like a hapless Nigger 
gone masterless: Nigger totally unfit for self-guidance; yet 
without master good or bad ; and whose feats in that capacity 
no god or man can rejoice in. 

"History, with faithful Genius at the top and faithful 
Industry at the bottom, will then be capable of being written. 
History will then actually be written, the inspired gift of 


God employing itself to illuminate the dark ways of God. 
A thing thrice-pressingly needful to be done ! Whereby the 
modern Nations may again become a little less godless, and 
again have their ' epics ' (of a different from the Schiller sort), 
and again have several things they are still more fatally in 
want of at present ! " 

So that, it would seem, there will gradually among man- 
kind, if Friedrich last some centuries, be a real Epic made 
of his History ? That is to say (presumably), it will become 
a perfected Melodious Truth, and duly significant and duly 
beautiful bit of Belief, to mankind ; the essence of it fairly 
evolved from all the chaff, the portrait of it actually given, 
and its real harmonies with the laws of this Universe brought 
out, in bright and dark, according to the God's Fact as it was ; 
which poor Dryasdust and the Newspapers never could get 
sight of, but were always far from ! 

Well, if so, and even if not quite so, it is a comfort to 
reflect that every true worker (who has blown away chaff 
&c.), were his contribution no bigger than my own, may have 
brought the good result nearer by a hand-breadth or two. And 
so we will end these preludings, and proceed upon our Prob- 
lem, courteous reader. 


by course of natural succession to be Friedrich II. of Prussia, 
and is known in these ages as Frederick the Great, was born 
in the palace of Berlin, about noon, on the 24th of January, 
1712. A small infant, but of great promise or possibility ; and 
thrice and four times welcome to all sovereign and other 
persons in the Prussian Court, and Prussian realms, in those 
cold winter days. His Father, they say, was like to havfe 
stifled him with his caresses, so overjoyed was the man; or 


at least to have scorched him in the blaze of the fire; when 
happily some much suitabler female nurse snatched this little 
creature from the rough paternal paws, and saved it for the 
benefit of Prussia and mankind. If Heaven will but please 
to grant it length of life ! For there have already been two 
little Princekins, who are both dead ; this Friedrich is the 
fourth child; and only one little girl, wise Wilhelmina, of 
almost too sharp wits, and not too vivacious aspect, is other- 
wise yet here of royal progeny. It is feared the Hohenzollern 
lineage, which has flourished here with such beneficent effect 
for three centuries now, and been in truth the very making 
of the Prussian Nation, may be about to fail, or pass into 
some side branch. Which change, or any change in that re- 
spect, is questionable, and a thing desired by nobody. 

Five years ago, on the death of the first little Prince, there 
had surmises risen, obscure rumors and hints, that the Princess 
Royal, mother of the lost baby, never would have healthy chil- 
dren, or even never have a child more : upon which, as there 
was but one other resource, a widowed Grandfather, namely, 
and except the Prince Royal no son to him, said Grand- 
father, still only about fifty, did take the necessary steps : but 
they have been entirely unsuccessful; no new son or child, 
only new affliction, new disaster has resulted from that third 
marriage of his. And though the Princess Royal has had an- 
other little Prince, that too has died within the year; killed, 
some say on the other hand, by the noise of the cannon firing 
for joy over it ! 1 Yes ; and the first baby Prince, these same 
parties farther say, was crushed to death by the weighty dress 
you put upon it at christening time, especially by the little 
crown it wore, which had left a visible black mark upon the 
poor soft infant's brow ! In short, it is a questionable case ; 
undoubtedly a questionable outlook for Prussian mankind; 
and the appearance of this little Prince, a third trump-card 
in the Hohenzollern game, is an unusually interesting event. 

l Horsier, Friedrick WiUielm /., SSm'y von Preussen (Potsdam, 1834), i. 126 
(who quotes Morgenstern, a contemporary reporter). But see also Prenss, 
Friedrich der Grosse mit semen Vermmdten and Fnmden (Berlin, 1838), pp. 


The joy over him, not in Berlin Palace only, but in Berlin 
City, and over the Prussian Nation, was very great and uni- 
versal ; still testified in manifold dull, unreadable old pam- 
phlets, records official and volunteer, which were then all 
ablaze like the bonfires, and are now fallen dajk enough, and 
hardly credible even to the fancy of this new Time. 

The poor old Grandfather, Friedrich I. (the first King of 
Prussia), for, as we intimate, he was still alive, and not 
very old, though now infirm enough, and laden beyond his 
strength with sad reminiscences, disappointments and cha- 
grins, had taken much to Wilhelmina, as she tells us ; 1 and 
would amuse himself whole days with the pranks and prattle 
of the little child. Good old man : he, we need not doubt, 
brightened up into unusual vitality at sight of this invaluable 
little Brother of hers ; through whom he can look once more 
into the waste dim future with a flicker of new hope. Poor 
old man : he got his own back half-broken by a careless nurse 
letting him fall; aud has slightly stooped ever since, some 
fifty and odd years now : much against his will ; for he would 
fain have been beautiful ; and has struggled all his days, very 
hard if not very wisely, to make his existence beautiful, to 
make it magnificent at least, and regardless of expense; 
and it threatens to come to little. Courage, poor Grandfather : 
here is a new second edition of a Friedrich, the first having 
gone off with so little effect : this one's back is still unbroken, 
his life's seedfield not yet filled with tares and thorns : who 
knows but Heaven will be kinder to this one ? Heaven was 
much kinder to this one. Him Heaven had kneaded of more 
potent stuff : a mighty fellow this one, and a strange ; related 
not only to the Upholsteries and Heralds' Colleges, but to the 
Sphere-harmonies and the divine and demonic powers; of a 
swift far-darting nature this one, like an Apollo clad in sun- 
beams and in lightnings (after his sort) ; and with a back 
which all the world could not succeed in breaking ! Yes, if, 
by most rare chance, this were indeed a new man of genius, 
born into the purblind rotting Century, in the acknowledged 

l Memoirs* de FrUdfrigue Sophie WWidmine de Prusse, Margrave de Bareith, 
Sean- de Fre&riole-Grand (London, 1818), i. 5. 


tank of a king there, man of genius, that is to say, man of 
originality and veracity ; capable of seeing with his eyes, and 
incapable of not believing what he sees ; then truly ! But 
as yet none knows ; the poor old Grandfather never knew. 

Meanwhile they christened the little fellow, with immense 
magnificence and pomp of apparatus ; Kaiser Karl, and the 
very Swiss Republic being there (by proxy), among the gos- 
sips ; and spared no cannon-volleyings, kettle-drummings, 
metal crown, heavy cloth-of-silver, for the poor soft creature's 
sake ; all of which, however, he survived. The name given 
him was Karl Friedrich (Charles Frederick) ; Karl perhaps, 
and perhaps also not, in delicate compliment to the chief gos- 
sip, the above-mentioned Kaiser, Karl or Charles VI. ? At 
any rate, the Karl, gradually or from the first, dropped alto- 
gether out of practice, and went as nothing : he himself, or 
those about him, never used it ; nor, except in some dim Eng- 
lish pamphlet here and there, have I met with any trace of it. 
Friedrich (Rich-in-Peace, a name of old prevalence in the Ho- 
henzollern kindred), which he himself wrote Frederic in his 
French way, and at last even Federic (with a very singular sense 
of euphony), is throughout, and was, his sole designation. 

Sunday 31st January, 1712, age then precisely one week : 
then, and in this manner, was he ushered on the scene, and 
labelled among his fellow-creatures. We must now look round 
a little ; and see, if possible by any method or exertion, what 
kind of scene it was. 



PEIBDEIOH WILHELM, Crown-Prince of Prussia, son of 
Friedrich I. and Father of this little infant who will one 
day be Friedrich II., did himself make some noise in the 
world as second King of Prussia; notable not as Friedrich's 
father alone ; and will much concern us during the rest of his 


life. He is, at this date, in his twenty-fourth year : a thick- 
set, sturdy, florid, brisk young fellow ; -with a jovial laugh in 
him, yet of solid grave ways, occasionally somewhat volcanic ; 
much given to soldiering, and out-of-door exercises, having lit- 
tle else to do at present. He has been manager, or, as it were, 
Vice-King, on an occasional absence of his Father ; he knows 
practically what the state of business is ; and greatly disap- 
proves of it, as is thought. But being bound to silence on 
that head, he keeps silence, and meddles with nothing politi- 
cal. He addicts himself chiefly to mustering, drilling and 
practical military duties, while here at Berlin ; runs out, often 
enough, wife and perhaps a comrade or two along with him, 
to hunt, and take his ease, at Wusterhausen (some fifteen or 
twenty miles 1 southeast of Berlin), where he has a residence 
amid the woody moorlands. 

But soldiering is his grand concern. Six years ago, sum- 
mer 1706* at a very early age, he went to the wars, grand 
Spanish-Succession War, which was then becoming very fierce 
in the Netherlands; Prussian troops always active on the 
Marlborough-Eugene side. He had just been betrothed, was 
not yet wedded ; thought good to turn the interim to advan- 
tage in that way. Then again, spring 1709, after his marriage 
and after his Father's marriage, " the Court being full of in- 
trigues," and nothing but silence recommendable there, a cer- 
tain renowned friend of his, Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, 
of whom we shall yet hear a great deal, who, still only about 
thirty, had already covered himself with laurels in those wars 
(Blenheim, Bridge of Casano, Lines of Turin, and other glo- 
ries), but had now got into intricacies with the weaker sort, 
and was out of command, agreed with Friedrich Wilhelm 
that it would be well to go and serve there as volunteers, 
since not otherwise. 8 A Crown-Prince of Prussia, ought he 
not to learn soldiering, of all things ; by every opportunity ? 

1 English miles, as always unless the contrary be stated. The German 
Meile is about five miles English; German Stunde about three. 

* S-orster, i. 116. 

Varnhagep von Ense, FSnt Leopold am Anhalt-Dessau (in Buyrapkucke 
DenTcmale, 2d edition, Berlin, 1845), p. 185. Thalen uad Leben del weltberOhm- 
ten FUrttau Leopaldi vat Aahtdt-DesKHt (Leipzig, 1742), p. 73. Forster, i. 129. 


Which Friedrich Wilhelm did, with industry ; serving zealous 
apprenticeship under Marlborough and Eugene, in this man- 
ner ; plucking knowledge, as the bubble reputation, and all 
else in that field has to be plucked, from the cannon's mouth. 
Friedrich. Wilhelm kept by Marlborough, now as formerly; 
friend Leopold being commonly in Eugene's quarter, who well 
knew the worth of him, ever since Blenheim and earlier. 
Friedrich Wilhelm saw hot service, that campaign of 1709 ; 
siege of Tournay, and far more ; stood, among other things, 
the fiery Battle of Malplaquet, one of the terriblest and dead- 
liest feats of war ever done. No want of intrepidity and 
rugged soldier-virtue in the Prussian troops or their Crown- 
Prince; least of all on that terrible day, llth September, 
1709; of which he keeps the anniversary ever since, and 
will do all his life, the doomsday of Malplaquet always a 
memorable day to him. 1 He is more and more intimate with 
Leopold, and loves good soldiering beyond all things. Here 
at Berlin he has already got a regiment of his own, tallish fine 
men ; and strives to make it in all points a very pattern of a 

For the rest, much here is out of joint, and far from satis- 
factory to him. Seven years ago 2 he lost his own brave 
Mother and her love; of which we must speak farther by 
and by. In her stead he has got a fantastic, melancholic, ill- 
natured Stepmother, with whom there was never any good to 
be done; who in fact is now fairly mad, and kept to her own 
apartments. He has to see here, and say little, a chagrined 
heart-worn Father flickering painfully amid a scene much 
filled with expensive futile persons, and their extremely piti- 
ful cabals and mutual rages; scene chiefly of pompous inanity, 
and the art of solemnly and with great labor doing nothing. 
Such waste of labor and of means : what can one do but be 
silent ? The other year, Preussen (Prussia Proper, province 
lying far eastward, out of sight) was sinking under pestilence 
and black ruin and despair: the Crown-Prince, contrary to 
wont, broke silence, and begged some dole or subvention for 
these poor people ; but there was nothing to be had. Nothing 
i Forater, i. 138. * 1st February, 1705. 


in the treasury, your Eoyal Highness : Preussen will shift 
for itself; sublime dramaturgy, which we call his Majesty's 
Government, costs so much ! And Preussen, mown away by 
death, lies much of it vacant ever since ; which has completed 
the Crown-Prince's disgust ; and, I believe, did produce some 
change of ministry, or other ineffectual expedient, on the old 
Father's part. Upon which the Crown-Prince locks up his 
thoughts again. He has confused whirlpools, of Court in- 
trigues, ceremonials, and troublesome fantasticalities, to steer 
amongst ; which he much dislikes, no man more ; having an 
eye and heart set on the practical only, and being in mind as 
in body something of the genus robustum, of the genus ferox 
withal. He has been wedded six years ; lost two children, as 
we saw ; and now again he has two living. 

His wife, Sophie Dorothee of Hanover, is his cousin as well. 
She is brother's-daughter of his Mother, Sophie Charlotte : let 
the reader learn to discriminate these two names. Sophie 
Charlotte, late Queen of Prussia, was also of Hanover: she 
probably had sometimes, in her quiet motherly thought, an- 
ticipated this connection for him, while she yet lived. It is 
certain Friedrich Wilhelm was carried to Hanover in early 
childhood : his Mother, that Sophie Charlotte, a famed 
Queen and lady in her day, Daughter of Electress Sophie, and 
Sister of the George who became George I. of England by and 
by, took him thither ; some time about the beginning of 
1693, his age then five ; and left him there on trial; alleging, 
and expecting, he might have a better breeding there. And 
this, in a Court where Electress Sophie was chief lady, and 
Elector Ernst, fit to be called Gentleman Ernst, 1 the politest 
of men, was chief lord, and where Leibnitz, to say nothing 

1 "Her Highness [the Electress Sophie] has the character of the merry 
debonnaire Princess of Germany ; a lady of extraordinary virtues and accom- 
plishments ; mistress of the Italian, French, High and Low Dutch, and Eng- 
lish languages, which she speaks to perfection. Her husband [Elector Ernst] 
has the title of the Gentleman of Germany; a graceful and," &c. &c. W. Carr, 
Remarks of tlie Governments of the severall Parts of Germanic, Denmark, Sweed- 
land (Amsterdam, 1688), p. 147. See also Ker of Kerdand (still more em- 
phatic on this point, *ep,Vtt). 


of lighter notabilities, was flourishing, seemed a reasonable 
expectation. Nevertheless, it came to nothing, this articulate 
purpose of the visit ; though perhaps the deeper silent purposes 
of it might not be quite unfulfilled. 

Gentleman Ernst had lately been made "Elector" (Kur- 
fiirst, instead of H&rzog), his Hanover no longer a mere 
Sovereign Duchy, but an Electorate henceforth, new " Ninth 
Electorate," by Ernst's life-long exertion and good luck; 
which has spread a fine radiance, for the time, over court and 
people in those parts ; and made Ernst a happier man than 
ever, in his old age. Gentleman Ernst and Electress Sophie, 
we need not doubt, were glad to see their burly Prussian 
grandson, a robust, rather mischievous boy of five years 
old ; and anything that brought her Daughter oftener about 
her (an only Daughter too, and one so gifted) was sure to be 
welcome to the cheery old Electress, and her Leibnitz and her 
circle. For Sophie Charlotte was a bright presence, and a 
favorite with sage and gay. 

Uncle George again, " Kurprinz Georg Ludwig " (Electoral 
Prince and Heir-Apparent), who became George I. of England; 
he, always a taciturn, saturnine, somewhat grim-visaged man, 
not without thoughts of his own but mostly inarticulate 
thoughts, was, just at this time, in a deep domestic intricacy. 
Uncle George the Kurprinz was painfully detecting, in these 
very months, that his august Spouse and cousin, a brilliant not 
uninjured lady, had become an indignant injuring one ; that 
she had gone, and was going, far astray in her walk of life I 
Thus all is not radiance at Hanover either, Ninth Elector 
though we are ; but, in the soft sunlight, there quivers a 
streak of the blackness of very Erebus withal. Kurprinz 
George, I think, though he too is said to have been good to 
the boy, could not take much interest in this burly Nephew of 
his just now 1 

Sure enough, it was in this year 1693, that the famed 
Konigsmark tragedy came ripening fast towards a crisis in 
Hanover; and next year the catastrophe arrived. A most 
tragic business ; of which the little Boy, now here, will know 
more one day. Perhaps it was on this very visit, on one visit 


it credibly was, that Sophie Charlotte witnessed a sad scene 
in' the Schloss of Hanover: high words rising, where low 
cooings had been more appropriate ; harsh words, mutually 
recriminative, rising ever higher; ending, it is thought, in 
things, or menaces and motions towards things (actual box on 
the ear, some call it), never to be forgotten or forgiven! 
And on Sunday 1st of July, 1694, Colonel Count Philip 
Konigsmark, Colonel in the Hanover Dragoons, was seen for 
the last time in this world. From that date, he has vanished 
suddenly underground, in an inscrutable manner : never more 
shall the light of the sun, or any human eye behold that hand- 
some blackguard man. Not for a hundred and fifty years shall 
human creatures know, or guess with the smallest certainty, 
what has become of him. 

And shortly after Konigsmark's disappearance, there is this 
sad phenomenon visible : A once very radiant Princess (witty, 
haughty-minded, beautiful, not wise or fortunate) now gone all 
ablaze into angry tragic conflagration ; getting locked into the 
old Castle of Ahlden, in the moory solitudes of Liineburg Heath: 
to stay there till she die, thirty years as it proved, and 
go into ashes and angry darkness as she may. Old peasants, 
late in the next century, will remember that they \ised to see 
her sometimes driving on the Heath, beautiful lady, long 
black hair, and the glitter of diamonds in it ; sometimes the 
reins in her own hand, but always with a party of cavalry 
round her, and their swords drawn. 1 " Duchess of Ahlden," 
that was her title in the eclipsed state. Born Princess of 
Zelle; by marriage, Princess of Hanover (Kwrprineessin) \ 
would have been Queen of England, too, had matters gone 
otherwise than they did. Her name, like that of a little 
Daughter she had, is Sophie Dorothee: she is Cousin and 
Divorced Wife of Kurprinz George ; divorced, and as it were 
abolished alive, in this manner. She is little Friedrich Wil- 
helm's Aunt-in-law ; and her little Daughter comes to be his 
Wife in process of time. Of him, or of those belonging to 
him, she took small notice, I suppose, in her then mood, the 

* Die Berzogm von Ahlden (Leipzig, 1852), p. 33. Divorce was, 28th Decem- 
ber, 1694; death, 13th November, 1726, age then 60. 


crisis coming on so fast. In her happier innocent days she 
had two children, a King that is to be, and a Queen ; George 
II. of England, Sophie Dorothee of Prussia j but must not 
now call them hers, or ever see them again. 

This was the Konigsmark tragedy at Hanover ; fast ripen- 
ing towards its catastrophe while little Friedrich Wilhelm was 
there. It has been, ever since, a rumor and dubious frightful 
mystery to mankind : but within these few years, by curious 
accidents (thefts, discoveries of written documents, in various 
countries, and diligent study of them), it has at length become 
a certainty and clear fact, to those who are curious about it. 
Fact surely of a rather horrible sort ; yet better, I must say, 
than was suspected: not quite so bad in the state of fact as in 
that of rumor. Crime enough is in it, sin and folly on both 
sides ; there is killing too, but not assassination (as it turns 
out) ; on the whole there is nothing of atrocity, or nothing 
that was not accidental, unavoidable ; and there is a certain 
greatness of decorum on the part of those Hanover Princes 
and .official gentlemen, a depth of silence, of polite stoicism, 
which deserves more praise than it will get in our times. 
Enough now of the Konigsmark tragedy ; l contemporaneous 

i A considerable dreary mass of books, pamphlets, lucubrations, false all 
and of no worth or of less, hare accumulated on this dark subject, during 
the last hundred and fifty years ; nor has the process yet stopped, - as it now 
well might. For there have now two things occurred in regard to it First : 
In the year 1847, a Swedish Professor, named Palmblad, groping about for 
other objects in the College Library of Lund (which is in the country of the 
Konigsmark connections), came upon a Box of Old Letters, Letters undated, 
signed only with initials, and very enigmatic till well searched into, which 
hare turned out to be the very Autographs of the Princess and her Konigsmark ; 
throwing of course a henceforth indisputable light on their relation. Second 
Hung : A cautious exact old gentleman, of diplomatic habits (understood to 
be " Count Von Schulenburg-Klosterrode of Dresden "), has, since that event, 
nnweariedly gone into the whole matter ; and has brayed it everywhere, and 
pounded it small; sifting, with sublime patience, not only those Swedish 
Autographs, but the whole mass of lying books, pamphlets, hints and no- 
tices, old and recent ; and bringing out (truly in an intricate and thrice-weari- 
some, but for the first time in an authentic way) what real evidence there is. 
In which evidence the facts, or essential fact, lie at last indisputable enough. 
His Book, thick Pamphlet rather, is that same Herzogia von Ahldai (Leipzig, 
1852) cited above. The dreary wheelbarrowful of others I had rather not 


with Friedrich Wilhelm's stay at Hanover, but not otherwise 
much related to him or Ms doings there. 

He got no improvement in breeding, as we intimated ; none 
at all; fought, on the contrary, with his young Cousin (after- 
wards our George II.), a boy twice his age, though of weaker 
bone ; and gave him a bloody nose. To the scandal and con- 
sternation of the French Protestant gentlewomen and court- 

This had been a rough unruly boy from the first discovery of 
him. At a very early stage, he, one morning while the nurses 
were dressing him, took to investigating one of his shoe- 
buckles ; would, in spite of remonstrances, slobber it about in 
his mouth; and at length swallowed it down, beyond mis- 
take ; and the whole world cannot get it up J Whereupon, 
wild wail of nurses ; and his " Mother came screaming," poor 
mother: it is the same small shoe-buckle which is still 
shown, with a ticket and date to it, "31 December, 1692," in 
the Berlin Kunstkammer ; for it turned out harmless, after all 
the screaming ; and a few grains of rhubarb restored it safely 
to the light of day; henceforth a thrice-memorable shoe- 
buckle. 1 

Another time, it is recorded, though with less precision of 
detail, his Governess the Dame Montbail having ordered him 
to do something which was intolerable to the princely mind, 
the princely mind resisted in a very strange way : the princely 
body, namely, flung itself suddenly out of a third-story win- 
dow, nothing but the hands left within ; and hanging on there 
by the sill, and fixedly resolute to obey gravitation rather than 
Montbail, soon brought the poor lady to terms. Upon which, 
indeed, he had been taken from her, and from the women 
altogether, as evidently now needing rougher government. 
Always an unruly fellow, and dangerous to trust among crock- 
ery. At Hanover he could do no good in the way of breeding : 
sage Leibnitz himself, with his big black periwig and large 

mention again ; bat leave Count von Schnlenbnrg to mention and describe 
them, which he does abundantly, go many as had accumulated up to that 
date of 1852, to the affliction more or less of sane mankind. 
1 JForster, i. 74. Erman, Mf moires de SophieCharlotte (Berlin, 1801), p. ISO. 


patient nose, could have put no metaphysics into such a boy. 
Sublime Theodieee (Leibnitzian " justification of the ways of 
God ") was not an article this individual had the least need of, 
nor at any time the least value for. " Justify ? What doomed 
dog questions it, then ? Are you for Bedlam, then ? " and 
in maturer years his rattan might have been dangerous ! For 
this was a singular individual of his day ; human soul still in 
robust health, and not given to spin its bowels into cobwebs. 
He is known only to have quarrelled much with Cousin 
George, during the year or so he spent in those parts. 

But there was another Cousin at Hanover, just one other, 
little Sophie Dorothee (called after her mother), a few months 
older than himself; by all accounts, a really pretty little child, 
whom he liked a great deal better. She, I imagine, was his 
main resource, while on this Hanover visit; with her were 
laid the foundations of an intimacy which ripened well after- 
wards. Some say it was already settled by the parents that 
there was to be a marriage in due time. Settled it could 
hardly be ; for Wilhelmina tells us, 1 her Father had a "choice 
of three " allowed him, on coming to wed; and it is otherwise 
discernible there had been eclipses and uncertainties, in the 
interim, on his part. Settled, no ; but hoped and vaguely pre- 
figured, we may well suppose. And at all events, it has actu- 
ally come to pass ; " Father being ardently in love with the 
Hanover Princess," says our Margravine, "and much prefer- 
ring her to the other two," or to any and all others. Wedded, 
with great pomp, 28th November, 1706; s and Sophie Doro- 
thee, the same that was his pretty little Cousin at Hanover 
twenty years ago, she is mother of the little Boy now born 
and christened, whom men are to call Frederick the Great in 

Sophie Dorothee is described to us by courtier contempora- 
ries as "one of the most beautiful princesses of her day : " 
Wilhelmina, on the other hand, testifies that she was never 
strictly to be called beautiful, but had a pleasant attractive 

ei de la Margrave de Sanith, i. I. 
* Fotster, i. 117. 


physiognomy; -which may be considered better than strict 
beauty. Uncommon grace of figure and look, testifies Wil- 
helmina ; much dignity and soft dexterity, on social occasions ; 
perfect in all the arts of deportment ; and left an impression 
on you at once kindly and royal. Portraits of her, as Queen 
at a later age, are frequent in the Prussian Galleries ; she is 
painted sitting, where I best remember her. A serious, comely, 

in those gray still eyes of hers, in the turn of her face and car- 
riage of her head, as she sits there, considerately gazing out 
upon a world which would never conform to her will. De- 
cidedly a handsome, wholesome and affectionate aspect of face. 
Hanoverian in type, that is to say, blond, florid, slightly pro- 
fuse; yet the better kind of Hanoverian, little or nothing of 
the worse or at least the worst kind. The eyes, as I say, are 
gray, and quiet, almost sad ; expressive of reticence and reflec- 
tion, of slow constancy rather than of speed in any kind. One 
expects, could the picture speak, the querulous sound of ma- 
ternal and other solicitude ; of a temper tending towards the 
obstinate, the quietly unchangeable ; loyal patience not 
wanting, yet in still larger measure royal impatience well con- 
cealed, and long and carefully cherished. This is what I read 
in Sophie Dorothea's Portraits, probably remembering what 
I had otherwise read, and come to know of her. She too will 
not a little concern us in the first part of this History. I find, 
for one thing, she had given much of her physiognomy to 
the Friedrich now born. In his Portraits as Prince-Eoyal, he 
strongly resembles her ; it is his mother's face informed with 
youth and new fire, and translated into the masculine gen- 
der : in his later Portraits, one less and less recognizes the 

Friedrich Wilhelm, now in the sixth year of wedlock, is 
still very fond of his Sophie Dorothee, "Mecken" (Feekin 
diminutive of Sophie), as he calls her ; she also having, and 
continuing to have, the due wife's regard for her solid, honest, 
if somewhat explosive bear. He troubles her a little now and 
then, it is said, with whiffs of jealousy; but they are whiffs 
only, the product of accidental moodinesses in him, or of trail- 


sient aspects, misinterpreted, in the court-life of a young and 
pretty woman. As the general rule, he is beautifully good- 
humored, kind even, for a, bear ; and, on the whole, they have 
begun their partnership under good omens. And indeed we 
may say, in spite of sad tempests that arose, they continued it 
under such. She brought him gradually no fewer than four- 
teen children, of whom ten survived him and came to ma- 
turity : and it is to be admitted their conjugal relation, though 
a royal, was always a human one; the main elements of it 
strictly observed on both sides ; all quarrels in it capable of 
being healed again, and the feeling on both sides true, however 
troublous. A rare fact among royal wedlocks, and perhaps a 
unique one in that epoch. 

The young couple, as is natural in their present position, 
have many eyes upon them, and not quite a paved path in 
this confused court of Friedrich I. But they are true to one 
another ; they seem indeed to have held well aloof from all 
public business or private cabal; and go along silently ex- 
pecting, and perhaps silently resolving this and that in the 
future tense ; but with moderate immunity from paternal or 
other criticisms, for the present. The Crown-Prince drills or 
hunts, with his Grumkows, Anhalt-Dessaus : these are harm- 
less employments; and a man may have within his own 
head what thoughts he pleases, without offence so long as he 
keeps them there. Friedrich the old Grandfather lived only 
thirteen months after the birth of his grandson: Friedrich 
Wilhehn was then King ; thoughts then, to any length, could 
become actions on the part of Friedrich Wilhelm. 



FBIEDBICH WILHELM'S Mother, as we hinted, did not live 
to see this marriage which, she had forecast in her maternal 
heart. She died, rather suddenly, in 1705, 1 at Hanover, 
whither she had gone on a visit ; shortly after parting with 
this her one boy and child, Friedrich Wilhelm, who is then 
about seventeen ; whom she had with effort forced herself to 
send abroad, that he might see the world a little, for the first 
time. Her sorrow on this occasion has in it something beauti- 
ful, in so bright and gay a woman : shows us the mother strong 
in her, to a touching degree. The rough cub, in whom she 
noticed rugged perverse elements, "tendencies to avarice," 
and a want of princely graces, and the more brilliant qualities 
in mind and manner, had given her many thoughts and some 
uneasy ones. But he was evidently all she had to love in the 
world ; a rugged creature inexpressibly precious to her. For 
days after his departure, she had kept solitary ; busied with 
little; indulging in her own sad reflections without stint. 
Among the papers she had been scribbling, there was found 
one slip with a heart sketched on it, and round the heart 
" PAKTI " (Gone) : My heart is gone ! poor lady, and after 
what a jewel ! But Nature is very kind to all children and 
to all mothers that are true to her. 

Sophie Charlotte's deep sorrow and dejection on this part- 
ing was the secret herald of fate to herself. It had meant ill 
health withal, and the gloom of broken nerves. All autumn 
and into winter she had felt herself indefinitely unwell ; she 
determined, however, on seeing Hanover and her good old 

1 1st February (Erman, p. 241 ; Foreter, i. 114) : bom, 20th October, 1668; 
wedded, 28th September, 1684; died, 1st February, 1705. 


Mother at the usual time. The gloomy sorrow over Friedrich 
Wilhelm had been the premonition of a sudden illness which 
seized her on the road to Hanover, some five months after- 
wards, and which ended fatally in that city. Her death was 
not in the light style Friedrich her grandson ascribes to it; 1 
she died without epigram, and though in perfect simple cour- 
age, with the reverse of levity. 

Here, at first hand, is the specific account of that event ; 
which, as it is brief and indisputable, we may as well fish 
from the imbroglios, and ^render legible, to counteract such 
notions, and illuminate for moments an old scene of things. 
The writing, apparently a quite private piece, is by " M. de la 
Bergerie, Pastor of the French Church at Hanover," respecta- 
ble Edicfc-of-Nantes gentleman, who had been called in on the 
occasion; gives an authentic momentary picture, though a 
feeble and vacant one, of a locality at that time very interest- 
ing to Englishmen. M. de la Bergerie privately records : 

" The night between the last of January and the first of Feb- 
ruary, 1705, between one and two o'clock in the morning, I was 
called to the Queen of Prussia, who was then dangerously ill. 

"Entering the room, I threw myself at the foot of her bed, 
testifying to her in words my profound grief to see her in 
this state. After which I took occasion to say, 'She might 
know now that Kings and Queens are mortal equally with all 
other men ; and that they are obliged to appear before the 
throne of the majesty of God, to give an account of their 
deeds done, no less than the meanest of their subjects.' To 
which her Majesty replied, 'I know it well (Je le sais Men).' 
I went on to say to her, ' Madam, your Majesty must also 
recognize in this hour the vanity and nothingness of the 
things here below, for which, it may be, you have had too 
much interest ; and the importance of the things of Heaven, 
which perhaps you have neglected and contemned.' There- 
upon the Queen answered, 'True (Cela est vra) /' 'Neverthe- 
less, Madam/ said I, ' does not your Majesty place really 
your trust in God ? Do you not very earnestly (bien strieuso- 


ment) crave pardon of Him for all the sins you have com- 
mitted ? Do not you fly (n'art-elle pas recours) to the blood 
and merits of Jesus Christ, without which it is impossible 
for us to stand before God ? ' The Queen answered, ' Oui 
(Yes).' While this was going on, her Brother, Duke Ernst 
August, came into the Queen's room," perhaps with his 
eye upon me and my motions ? " As they wished to speak 
together, I withdrew by order." 

This Duke Ernst August, age now 31, is the youngest 
Brother of the family; there never was any Sister but this 
dying one, who is four years older. Ernst August has some 
tincture of soldiership at this time (Marlborough Wars, and 
the like), as all his kindred had; but ultimately he got the 
Bishopric of Osnabruck, that singular spiritual heirloom, or 
fo^/'-heirloom of the family; and there lived or vegetated 
without noise. Poor soul, he is the same Bishop of Osna- 
bruck, to whose house, twenty-two years hence, George I., 
struck by apoplexy, was breathlessly galloping in the summer 
midnight, one wish now left in him, to be with his brother ; 
and arrived dead, or in the article of death. That was another 
scene Ernst August had to witness in his life. I suspect him 
at present of a thought that M. de la Bergerie, with his pious 
commonplaces, is likely to do no good. Other trait of Ernst 
August's life; or of the Schloss of Hanover that night, or 
where the sorrowing old Mother sat, invincible though weep- 
ing, in some neighboring room, I cannot give. M. de la 
Bergerie continues his narrative : 

"Some time after, I again presented myself before the 
Queen's bed, to see if I could have occasion to speak to her 
on the matter of her salvation. But Monseigneur the Duke 
Ernst August then said to me, That it was not necessary ; that 
the Queen was at peace with her God (etait bien avee son 
Dieu)." Which will mean also that M. de la Bergerie may 
go home ? However, he still writes : 

" Next day the Prince told me, That observing I was come 
near the Queen's bed, he had asked her if she wished I should 
still speak to her; but she had replied, that it was not neces- 
sary in any way (nullement), that she already knew all that 


could be said to her on such an occasion ; that she had said it 
to herself, that she was still saying it, and that she hoped to 
be well with her God. 

"In the end a faint coining upon the Queen, which was 
what terminated her life, I threw myself on my knees at the 
other side of her bed, the curtains of which were open ; and 
I called to God with a loud voice, 'That He would rank his 
angels round this great Princess, to guard her from the insults 
of Satan 5 that He would have pity on her soul 5 that He would 
wash her with the blood of Jesus Christ her heavenly Spouse ; 
that, having forgiven her all her sins, He would receive her 
to his glory.' And in that moment she expired." 1 Age 
thirty-six and some months. Only Daughter of Electress 
Sophie; and Father's Mother of Frederick the Great. 

She was, in her time, a highly distinguished woman ; and 
has left, one may say, something of her likeness still trace- 
able in the Prussian Nation, and its form of culture, to this 
day. Charlottenburg (Charlotte's-town, so called by the 
sorrowing Widower), where she lived, shone with a much- 
admired French light under her presidency, French essen- 
tially, Versaillese, Sceptico-Calvinistic, reflex and direct, 
illuminating the dark North ; and indeed has never been so 
bright since. The light was not what we can call inspired ; 
lunar rather, not of the genial or solar kind : but, in good truth, 
it was the best then going; and Sophie Charlotte, who was 
her Mother's daughter in this as in other respects, had made 
it her own. They were deep in literature, these two Boyal 
Ladies; especially deep in French theological polemics, with 
a strong leaning to the rationalist side. 

They had stopped in Eotterdam once, on a certain journey 
homewards from Flanders and the Baths of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
to see that admirable sage, the doubter Bayle. Their sublime 
messenger roused the poor man, in his garret there, in the 
Bompies, after dark: but he had a headache that night; 
was in bed, and could not come. He followed them next day ; 
leaving his paper imbroglios, his historical, philosophical, anti- 
theological marine-stores ; and suspended his never-ending 


scribble, on their behalf; but would not accept a pension, 
and give it up. 1 

They were shrewd, noticing, intelligent and lively women ; 
persuaded that there was some nobleness for man beyond what 
the tailor imparts to him ; and even very eager to discover it, 
had they known how. In these very days, while our little 
Friedrich at Berlin lies in his cradle, sleeping most of his 
time, sage Leibnitz, a rather weak but hugely ingenious old 
gentleman, with bright eyes and long nose, with Vast black 
peruke and bandy legs, is seen daily in the Linden Avenue 
at Hanover (famed Linden Alley, leading from Town Palace 
to Country one, a couple of miles long, rather disappointing 
when one sees it), daily driving or walking towards Herren- 
hausen, where the Court, where the old Electress is, who will 
have a touch of dialogue with him to diversify her day. If ot 
very edifying dialogue, we may fear ; yet once more, the best 
that can be had in present circumstances. Here is some lunar 
reflex of Versailles, which is a polite court ; direct rays there 
are from the oldest written Gospels and the newest ; from the 
great unwritten Gospel of the Universe itself ; and from one's 
own real effort, more or less devout, to read all these aright. 
Let us not condemn that poor French element of Eclecticism, 
Scepticism, Tolerance, Theodicea, and Bayle of the Bompies 
versus the College of Saumur. Let us admit that it was prof- 
itable, at least that it was inevitable ; let us pity it, and be 
thankful for it, and rejoice that we are well out of it Scepti- 
cism, which is there beginning at the very top of the world- 
tree, and has to descend through all the boughs with terrible 
results to mankind, is as yet pleasant, tinting the leaves with 
fine autumnal red. 

Sophie Charlotte partook of her Mother's tendencies; and 
carried them with her to Berlin, there to be expanded in many 
ways into ampler fulfilment. She too had the sage Leibnitz 
often with her, at Berlin; no end to her questionings of him ; 
eagerly desirous to draw water from that deep well, a wet 
rope, with cobwebs sticking to it, too often all she got; end- 
less rope, and the bucket never coming to view. Which, how- 
i Email, pp. Ill, US. Date fe 1700 (lte in the aut 


ever, she took patiently, as a thing according to Nature. She 
had her learned Beausobres and other Beverend Edict-of- 
Nantes gentlemen, famed Berlin divines; whom, if any Pa- 
pist notability, Jesuit ambassador or the like, happened to be 
there, she would set disputing with him, in the Soire"e at Char- 
lottenburg. She could right well preside over such a battle of 
the Cloud-Titans, and conduct the lightnings softly, without 
explosions. There is a pretty and very characteristic Letter 
of hers, still pleasant to read, though turning on theologies 
now fallen dim enough ; addressed to Father Vota, the famous 
Jesuit, King's-confessor, and diplomatist, from Warsaw, who 
had been doing his best in one such rencontre before her Maj- 
esty (date March, 1703), seemingly on a series of evenings, 
in the intervals of his diplomatic business; the Beausobre 
champions being introduced to him successively, one each 
evening, by Queen Sophie Charlotte. To all appearance the 
fencing had been keen; the lightnings in need of some dex- 
terous conductor. Vota, on his way homeward, had written to 
apologize for the sputterings of fire struck out of him in cer- 
tain pinches of the combat ; says, It was the rough handling 
the Primitive Fathers got from these Beausobre gentlemen, 
who indeed to me, Vota in person, under your Majesty's fine 
presidency, were politeness itself, though they treated the Fa- 
thers so ilL Her Majesty, with beautiful art, in this Letter, 
smooths the raven plumage of Vota; and, at the same time, 
throws into him, as with invisible needle-points, an excellent 
dose of acupuncturation, on the subject of the Primitive Fa- 
thers and the Ecumenic Councils, on her own score. Let us 
give some Excerpt, in condensed state : 

"How can St. Jerome, for example, be a key to Scripture ? " 
she insinuates ; citing from Jerome this remarkable avowal of 
his method of composing books; "especially of his method 
in that Book, Commentary on the GaJatlans, where he accuses 
both Peter and Paul of simulation and even of hypocrisy. 
The great St. Augustine has been charging him with this sad 
fact," says her Majesty, who gives chapter and verse; 1 "and 
Jerome answers: 'I followed the Commentaries of Origen, 
i "Eptafc 28', edit. Paris." And Jerome's answer, " Ibid. Epigt. 76V 


of" five or six different persons, who turned out mostly 
to be heretics before Jerome had quite done with them in 
coming years! " 'And to confess the honest truth to you,' 
continues Jerome, 'I read all that; and after having crammed 
my head with a great many things, I sent for my amanuensis, 
and dictated to him now my own thoughts, now those of 
others, without much recollecting the order, nor sometimes 
the words, nor even the sense.' In another place (in the 
Book itself farther on 1 ), he says : 'I do not myself write; I 
have an amanuensis, and I dictate to him what comes into my 
mouth. If I wish to reflect a little, to say the thing better 
or a better thing, he knits his brows, and the whole look of 
him tells me sufficiently that he cannot endure to wait.'" 
Here is a sacred old gentleman, whom it is not safe to depend 
on for interpreting the Scriptures, thinks her Majesty ; but 
does not say so, leaving Father Vota to his reflections. 

Then again, coming to Councils, she quotes St. Gregory 
Nazianzen upon him; who is truly dreadful in regard to 
Ecumenic Councils of the Church, and indeed may awaken 
thoughts of Deliberative Assemblies generally, in the modern 
constitutional mind. "He says, a No Council ever was success- 
ful ; so many mean human passions getting into conflagration 
there; with noise, with violence and uproar, 'more like those 
of a tavern or still worse place,' these are his words. He, 
for his own share, had resolved to avoid all such ' rendezvous- 
ing of the Geese and Cranes, nocking together to throttle and 
tatter one another in that sad manner.' Nor had St. Theodo- 
ret much opinion of the Council of Nice, except as a kind of 
miracle. ' Nothing good to be expected from Councils/ says 
he, 'except when God is pleased to interpose, and destroy the 
machinery of the Devil.' " 

With more of the like sort; all delicate, as invisible 
needle-points, in her Majesty's hand. 8 What is Father Vota 

1 " Commentary m the Galatians, chap, iii." 

1 " Greg. Nation, de Vita ma." 

Letter undated (datable "Liitzelbnig, March, 1703,") fa to be found 
eutwe, with all its adjuncts, in Erma*, pp. 246-255. It was subsequently 
translated by Toland, and published here, M an excellent Polemical Piece,- 


to say ? The modern reader looks through these chinks into 
a strange old scene, the staff of it fallen obsolete, the spirit 
of it not, nor worthy to fall. 

These were Sophie Charlotte's reunions; very charming in 
their time. At which how joyful for Irish Toland to be pres- 
ent, as was several times his luck. Toland, a mere broken 
heretic in his own country, who went thither once as Secretary 
to some Embassy (Embassy of Macclesfield's, 1701, announcing 
that the English Crown had fallen Hanover-wards), and was 
no doubt glad, poor headlong soul, to find himself a gentle- 
man and Christian again, for the time, being, admires Hano- 
ver and Berlin very much ; and looks upon Sophie Charlotte 
in particular as the pink of women. Something between an 
earthly Queen and a divine Egeria; "Serena" he calls her; 
and, in his high-flown fashion, is very laudatory. " The most 
beautiful Princess of her time," says he, meaning one of the 
most beautiful : her features are extremely regular, and full of 
vivacity ; copious dark hair, blue eyes, complexion excellently 
fair; "not very tall, and somewhat too plump," he admits 
elsewhere. And then her mind, for gifts, for graces, culture, 
where will you find such a mind ? " Her reading is infinite, 
and she is conversant in all manner of subjects ; " "knows the 
abstrusest problems of Philosophy ; " says admiring Toland : 
much knowledge everywhere exact, and handled as by an 
artist and queen ; for " her wit is inimitable," " her justness of 
thought, her delicacy of expression," her felicity of utterance 
and management, are great. Foreign courtiers call her "the 
Republican Queen." She detects you a sophistry at one glance ; 
pierces down direct upon the weak point of an opinion : never 
in my whole life did I, Toland, come upon a swifter or sharper 
intellect. And then she is so good withal, so bright and cheer- 
ful; and "has the art of uniting what to the rest of the world 
are antagonisms, mirth and learning," say even, mirth and 

entirely forgotten in our time (A Letter against Papery by Sophia Charlotte, the 
late Queen of Prtutia : Being, &c. &c. London, 1712). But the flnert Duel of 
all was probably that between Beauaobre and Toland hunielf (reported by 
Beawobre, in something of a crowing manner, in Errwn, pp. 803-841, Octo- 
ber, 1701 "), of which Toland makes no mention anywhere. 


good sense. Is deep in music, too ; plays daily on her harpsi- 
chord, and fantasies, and even composes, in an eminent man- 
ner. 1 Toland's admiration, deducting the high-flown temper 
and manner of the man, is sincere and great. 

Beyond doubt a bright airy lady, shining in mild radiance in 
those Northern parts ; very graceful, very witty and ingenious ; 
skilled to speak, skilled to hold her tongue, which latter 
art also was frequently in requisition with her. She did not 
much venerate her Husband, nor the Court population, male 
or female, whom he chose to have about him : his and their 
ways were by no means hers, if she had cared to publish her 
thoughts. Friedrich L, it is admitted on all hands, was "an 
expensive Herr j " much given to magnificent ceremonies, 
etiquettes and solemnities ; making no great way any-whither, 
and that always with noise enough, and with a dust vortex 
of courtier intrigues and cabals encircling him, from which 
it is better to stand quite to windward. Moreover, he was 
slightly crooked; most sensitive, thin of skin and liable to 
sudden flaws of temper, though at heart very kind and good, 
Sophie Charlotte is she who wrote once, " Leibnitz talked to 
me .of the infinitely little (de Pinfinimmt petty : man Dieu, 
as if I did not know enough of that!" Besides, it is whis- 
pered she was once near marrying to Louis XIV.'s Dauphin; 
her Mother Sophie, and her Cousin the Dowager Duchess of 
Orleans, cunning women both, had brought her to Paris in her 
girlhood, with that secret object ; and had very nearly managed 
it. Queen of France that might have been ; and now it is but 
Brandenburg, and the dice have fallen somewhat -wrong for us ! 
She had Friedrich Wilhelm, the rough boy ; and perhaps noth- 
ing more of very precious property. Her first child, likewise 
a boy, had soon died, and there came no third : tedious cere- 
monials, and the infinitely little, were mainly her lot in this 

i An Account of the Courts ofPnaaa and Hanover, **t to a M iniOer of State in 
Sottani, by Mr. Toland (London, 1705), p. 322. Toland's other Book, which 
has reference to her, is of didactic nature { immortality of the soul," " origin 
of idolatry," &c.), but with ranch fine panegyric direct and oblique: Letters to 
Senna (" Serena' being Queen), a thin 8vo, London, 1704. 


All which, however, she had the art to take up not in the 
tragic tray, but in the mildly comic, often not to take up at 
all, but leave lying there ; and thus to manage in a handsome 
and softly victorious manner. With delicate female tact, -with 
fine female stoicism too ; keeping all things within limits. She 
was much respected by her Husband, much loved indeed ; and 
greatly mourned for by the poor man : the village Llitzelburg 
(Little-town), close by Berlin, where she had built a mansion 
for herself, he fondly named Chwlotteribwrg (Charlotte's-town), 
after her death, which name both House and Village still bear. 
Leibnitz found her of an almost troublesome sharpness of intel- 
lect; "wants to know the why even of the why," says Leibnitz. 
That is the way of female intellects when they are good ; noth- 
ing equals their acuteness, and their rapidity is almost exces- 
sive. Samuel Johnson, too, had a young-lady friend once 
"with the acutest intellect I have ever known." 

On the whole, we may pronounce her clearly a superior 
woman, this Sophie Charlotte ; notable not for her Grandson 
alone, though now pretty much forgotten by the world, as 
indeed all things and persons have, one day or other, to be ! 
A Life of her, in feeble watery style, and distracted arrange- 
ment, by one Erman, 1 a Berlin Frenchman, is in existence, 
and will repay a cursory perusal ; curious traits of her, in still 
looser form, are also to be found in Pottnitz:* but for our pur- 
poses here is enough, and more than enough. 

i Monsieur Erman, Historiographe de Biandebonig, Mtmoira pour lervir * 
Pmtmre de Sophie Charlotte, Bam de Pnuue, lut dan, let Stance,, fa ( 1 vol. 
8vo, Berlin, 1801.) 

* Carl Lndwig Fieiherr von P8Mte, Mamrm zur Ltbew- md Regiermgt. 
GetcUdOe der eier letztea Begotten de, Prwuuchen Stoat, (wu published in 
French also), 2 yds. 12mo, Berlin, 1791. 



THE Prussian royalty is now in its twelfth year when this 
little Friedrich, who is to carry it to such a height, comes into 
the world. Old Friedrich the Grandfather achieved this dig- 
nity, after long and intricate negotiations, in the first year of 
the Century ; 16th November, 1700, his ambassador returned 
triumphant from Vienna ; the Kaiser had at last consented : 
We are to wear a crown royal on the top of our periwig ; the 
old Electorate of Brandenburg is to become the Kingdom of 
Prussia; and the Family of Hohenzollern, slowly mounting 
these many centuries, has reached the uppermost round of 
the ladder. 

Friedricb, the old Gentleman who now looks upon his little 
Grandson (destined to be Third King of Prussia) with such 
interest, is not a very memorable man; but he has had his 
adventures too, his losses and his gains: and surely among 
the latter, the gain of a crown royal into his House gives him, 
if only as a chronological milestone, some place in History. 
He was son of him they call the Great Elector, Friedrich 
Wilhelm by name; of whom the Prussians speak much, in 
an eagerly celebrating manner, and whose strenuous toilsome 
work in this world, celebrated or not, is still deeply legible 
in the actual life and affairs of Germany. A man of whom 
we must yet find some opportunity to say a word. From him 
and a beautiful and excellent Princess Luise, Princess of 
Orange, Dutch William, our Dutch William's aunt, this 
crooked royal Friedrich came. 

He was not born crooked ; straight enough once, and a fine 
little boy of six months old or so; there being an elder Prince 
now in bis third year, also full of hope. But in a rough jour- 


ney to Konigsberg and back (winter of 1657, as is guessed), 
one of the many rough jolting journeys this faithful Electress 
made with her Husband, a careless or unlucky nurse, who had 
charge of pretty little Fritzchen, was not sufficiently attentive 
to her duties on the worst of roads. The ever-jolting carriage 
gave some bigger jolt, the child fell backwards in her arms ; 1 
did not quite break his back, but injured it for life: and 
with his back, one may perceive, injured his soul and history 
to an almost corresponding degree. For the weak crooked 
boy, with keen and fine perceptions, and an inadequate case 
to put them in, grew up with too thin a skin -. that may be 
considered as the summary of his misfortunes; and, on the 
whole, there is no other heavy sin to be charged against him. 

He had other loads laid upon him, poor youth: his kind 
pious Mother died, his elder Brother died, he at the age of 
seventeen saw himself Heir-Apparent; and had got a Step- 
mother with new heirs, if he should disappear. Sorrows 
enough in that one fact, with the venomous whisperings, 
commentaries and suspicions, which a Court population, fe- 
male and male, in little Berlin Town, can contrive to tack 
to it Does not the new Sovereign Lady, in her heart, wish 
you were dead, my Prince ? Hope it perhaps ? Health, at 
any rate, weak; and, by the aid of a little pharmacy ye 
Heavens ! 

Such suspicions are now understood to have had no basis 
except in the waste brains of courtier men and women ; but 
their existence there can become tragical enough. Add to 
which, the Great Elector, like all the Hohenzollerns, was a 

when affronted by idle masses of cobwebs in the midst of 
his serious businesses ! It is certain, the young Prince Fried- 
rich had at one time got into quite high, shrill and mutually 
minatory terms with his Stepmother ; so that once, after some 
such shrill dialogue between them, ending with "You shall 
repent this, Sir!" he found it good to fly off in the night, 
with only his Tutor or Secretary and a valet, to Hessen-Cassel 

FriedriA Wilidm det Groaen (Leiprig, 1888), p. 107. 


to an Aunt ; who stoutly protected him in this emergency ; and 
whose Daughter, after the difficult readjustment of matters, 
became his Wife, but did not live long. And it is farther 
certain the same Prince, during this his first wedded time, 
dining one day with his Stepmother, was taken suddenly ill. 
Felt ill, after his cup of coffee ; retired into another room in 
violent spasms, evidently in an alarming state, and secretly 
in a most alarmed one : his Tutor or Secretary, one Dankel- 
mann, attended him thither; and as the Doctor took some 
time to arrive, and the symptoms were instant and urgent, 
Secretary Dankelmann produced "from a pocket-book some 
drug of his own, or of the Hessen-Cassel Aunt," emetic I 
suppose, and gave it to the poor Prince; who said often, 
and felt ever after, with or without notion of poison, That 
Dankelmann had saved his life. In consequence of which 
adventure he again quitted Court without leave ; and begged 
to be permitted to remain safe in the country, if Papa would 
be so good. 1 

Fancy the Great Elector's humor on such an occurrence; 
and what a furtherance to him in his heavy continual labors, 
and strenuous swimming for life, these beautiful humors and 
transactions must have been ! A crook-backed boy, dear to the 
Great Elector, pukes, one afternoon; and there arises such an 
opening of the Nether Floodgates of this Universe; in and 
round your poor workshop, nothing but sudden darkness, 
smell of sulphur ; hissing of forked serpents here, and the 
universal alleleu of female hysterics there ; to help a man 
forward with his work! reader, we will pity the crowned 
head, as well as the hatted and even hatless one. Human 
creatures will not yo quite accurately together, any more than 
clocks will; and when their dissonance once rises fairly high, 
and they cannot readily kill one another, any Great Elector 
who is third party will have a terrible time of it. 

Electress Dorothee, the Stepmother, was herself somewhat 

of a hard lady; not easy to live with, though so far above 

poisoning as to have "despised even the suspicion of it." 

She was much given to practical economies, dairy-farming, 

i Poilnite, Memoiren, i. 191-198. 


market-gardening, and industrial and commercial operations 
such as offered; and was thought to be a very strict reckoner 
of money. She founded the Dorotheenstadt, now oftener called 
the Neustadt, chief quarter of Berlin ; and planted, just about 
the time of this unlucky dinner, "A.D. 1680 or so," 1 the first 
of the celebrated Lindens, which (or the successors of which, 
in a stunted condition) are still growing there. Unter-den- 
Lvnden: it is now the gayest quarter of Berlin, full of really 
fine edifices : it was then a sandy outskirt of Electress Doro- 
thea's dairy-farm ; good for nothing but building upon, thought 
Electress Dorothee. She did much dairy-and-regetable trade 
on the great scale ; was thought even to have, underhand, a 
commercial interest in the principal Beer-house of the city? 3 
People did not lore her: to the Great Elector, who guided 
with a steady bridle-hand, she complied not amiss ; though in 
him too there rose sad recollections and comparisons now and 
then: but with a Stepson of unsteady nerves it became evident 
to him there could never be soft neighborhood. Prince Fried- 
rich and his Father came gradually to some understanding, 
tacit or express, on that sad matter; Prince Friedrich was 
allowed to live, on his separate allowance, mainly remote from 
Court. Which he did, for perhaps six or eight years, till the 
Great Elector's death j henceforth in a peaceful manner, or at 
least without open explosions. 

His young Hessen-Cassel Wife died suddenly in 1683 ; and 
again there was mad rumor of poisoning ; which Electress 
Dorothee disregarded as below her, and of no consequence to 
her, and attended to industrial operations that would pay. 
That poor young Wife, when dying, exacted a promise from 
Prince Friedrich that he would not wed again, but be content 
with the Daughter she had left him : which promise, if ever 
seriously given, could not be kept, as we have seen. Prince 
Friedrich brought his Sophie Charlotte home about fifteen 
mouths after. With the Stepmother and with the Court there 

i Nicolai, BactreOnrng der IdhugUdusn RetidenatSdte Berlin und Potsdam 
(Berlin, "86), i. 172. 

Horn, Lebm FriedriA WUMm da Groom KvrfSntm vm Brandenburg 
(Berlin, 1814). 


was armed neutrality under tolerable forms, and no open 

In a secret way, however, there continued to be dimculties. 
And such difficulties had already been, that the poor young 
man, not yet come to his Heritages, and having, with probably 
some turn for expense, a covetous unamiable Stepmother, had 
fallen into the usual difficulties; and taken the methods too 
usual. Namely, had given ear to the Austrian Court, which 
offered him assistance, somewhat as an aged Jew will to a 
young Christian gentleman in quarrel with papa, upon con- 
dition of his signing a certain bond : bond which much sur- 
prised Prince Friedrich when he came to understand it ! Of 
which we shall hear more, and even much more, in the course 
of time ! 

Neither after his accession (year 1688 ; his Cousin Dutch 
William, of the glorious and immortal memory, just lifting 
anchor towards these shores) was the new Elector's life an 
easy one. We may say, it was replete with troubles rather ; 
and unhappily not so much with great troubles, which could 
call forth antagonistic greatness of mind or of result, as with 
never-ending shoals of small troubles, the antagonism to which 
is apt to become itself of smallish character. Do not search 
into his history ; you will remember almost nothing of it 
(I hope) after never so many readings ! Garrulous Pollnitz 
and others have written enough about him ; but it all runs off 
from you again, as a thing that has no affinity with the human 
skin. He had a court " rempli ^intrigues, full of never-ending 
cabals," 1 about what ? 

One question only are we a little interested in : How he 
came by the Kingship ? How did the like of him contrive 
to achieve Kingship ? We may answer : It was not he that 
achieved it; it was those that went before him, who had grad- 
ually got it, as is very usual in such cases. All that he did 
was to knock at the gate (the Kaiser's gate and the world's), 
and ask, Is it achieved, then ? " Is Brandenburg grown ripe 
for having a crown ? Will it be needful for you to grant 
l Fonter, i. 74 (quoting Memoir*, da Cbrate de Dofma) ; &C. &C. 


Brandenburg a crown ? Which question, after knocking as 
loud as possible, they at last took the trouble to answer, Yes, 
it will be needful." 

Elector Friedrich's turn for ostentation or as we may 
interpret it, the high spirit of a Hohenzollern working through 
weak nerves and a crooked back had early set him a-think- 
ing of the Kingship; and no doubt, the exaltation of rival 
Saxony, which had attained that envied dignity (in a very un- 
enviable manner, in the person of Elector August made King 
of Poland) in 1697, operated as a new spur on his activities. 
Then also Duke Ernst of Hanover, his father-in-law, was 
struggling to become Elector Ernst ; Hanover to be the Ninth 
Electorate, which it actually attained in 1698 ; not to speak 
of England, and quite endless prospects there for Ernst and 
Hanover. These my lucky neighbors are all rising; all this 
the Kaiser has granted to my lucky neighbors : why is there 
no promotion he should grant me, among them ! 

Elector Friedrich had 30,000 excellent troops ; Kaiser Leo- 
pold, the "little man in red stockings," had no end of Wars. 
Wars in Turkey, wars in Italy; all Dutch William's wars and 
more, on our side of Europe; and here is a Spanish-Suc- 
cession War, coming dubiously on, which may prove greater 
than all the rest together. Elector Friedrich sometimes in his 
own high person (a courageous and high though thin-skinned 
man), otherwise by skilful deputy, had done the Kaiser ser- 
vice, often signal service, in all these Wars ; and was never 
wanting in the time of need, in the post of difficulty with 
those famed Prussian Troops of his. A loyal gallant Elector 
this, it must be owned ; capable withal of doing signal damage 
if we irritated him too far ! Why not give him this pro- 
motion, since it costs us absolutely nothing real, not even the 
price of a yard of ribbon with metal cross at the end of it ? 
Kaiser Leopold himself, it is said, had no particular objection ; 
but certain of his ministers had; and the little man in red 
stockings much occupied in hunting, for one thing let 
them have their way, at the risk of angering Elector Fried- 
xich. Even Dutch William, anxious for it, in sight of the 
future, had not yet prevailed. 


The negotiation had lasted some seven years, without result. 
There is no doubt but the Succession War, and Marlborough, 
would have brought it to a happy issue : in the mean while, it 
is said to have succeeded at last, somewhat on the sudden, by 
a kind of accident. This is the curious mythical account ; in- 
correct in some unessential particulars, but in the main and 
singular part of it well-founded. Elector Friedrich, according 
to Pollnitz and others, after failing in many methods, had sent 
100,000 thalerg (say 15,000) to give, by way of bribe we 
must call it, to the chief opposing Hofrath at Vienna. The 
money was offered, accordingly; and was refused by the op- 
posing Hofrath : upon which the Brandenburg Ambassador 
wrote that it was all labor lost; and even hurried off home- 
wards in despair, leaving a Secretary in his place. The Bran- 
denburg Court, nothing despairing, orders in the mean while, 
Try another with it, some other Hofrath, whose name they 
wrote in cipher, which the blundering Secretary took to mean 
no Hofrath, but the Kaiser's Confessor and Chief Jesuit, 
Pater Wolf. To him accordingly he hastened with the cash, 
to him with the respectful Electoral request; who received 
both, it is said, especially the 15,000, with a Gloria in excdsis; 
and went forthwith and persuaded the Kaiser. 1 Now here is 
the inexactitude, say Modern Doctors of History ; an error no 
less than threefold. 1. Elector Friedrich was indeed advised, 
in cipher, by his agent at Vienna, to write in person to 
"Who is that cipher, then?" asks Elector Friedrich, rather 
puzzled. At Vienna that cipher was meant for the Kaiser; 
but at Berlin they take it for Pater Wolf ; and write ac- 
cordingly, and are answered with readiness and animation. 
2. Pater Wolf was not official Confessor, but was a Jesuit 
in extreme favor with the Kaiser, and by birth a noble- 
man, sensible to human decorations. 3. He accepted no 
bribe, nor was any sent ; his bribe was the pleasure of oblig- 
ing a high gentleman who condescended to ask, and possi- 
bly the hope of smoothing roads for St. Ignatius and the 
Black Militia, in time coming. And thus at last, and not 
otherwise than thus, say exact Doctors, did Pater Wolf do 
l palate, Memoirm, i. 310. 


the thing. 1 Or might not the actual death of poor King Car- 
los H. at Madrid, 1st November, 1700, for whose heritages all 
the world stood watching with swords half drawn, considera- 
bly assist Pater Wolf? Done sure enough the thing was; 
and before November ended, Friedrich's messenger returned 
with " Yes" for answer, and a Treaty signed on the 16th of 
that month.* 

To the huge joy of Elector Friedrich and his Court, almost 
the very nation thinking itself glad. Which joyful Potentate 
decided to set out straightway and have the coronation done ; 
though it was midwinter ; and Konigsberg (for Prussia is to be 
our title, " King in Prussia," and Konigsberg is Capital City 
there) lies 450 miles off, through tangled shaggy forests, boggy 
wildernesses, and in many parts only corduroy roads. We 
order " 80,000 post-horses," besides all our own large stud, to be 
got ready at the various stations : our boy Friedrich Wilhelm, 
rugged boy of twelve, rough and brisk, yet much "given to 
blush" withal (which is a feature of him), shall go with us; 
much more, Sophie Charlotte our august Electress-Queen that 
is to be : and we set out, on the 17th of December, 1700, last 
year of the Century ; " in 1800 carriages : " such a cavalcade as 
never crossed those wintry wildernesses before. Friedrich 
Wilhelm went in the third division of carriages (for 1800 of 
them could not go quite together) ; our noble Sophie Charlotte 
in the second ; a Margraf of Brandenburg-Schwedt, chief Mar- 
graf, our eldest Half -Brother, Dorothee's eldest Son, sitting on 
the coach-box, in correct insignia, as similitude of Driver. So 
strict are we in etiquette ; etiquette indeed being now upon its 
apotheosis, and after such efforts. Six or seven years of efforts 
on Elector Friedrich's part ; and six or seven hundred years, 
unconsciously, on that of his ancestors. 

The magnificence of Friedrich's processionings into Konigs- 
berg, and through it or in it, to be crowned, and of his coronation 
ceremonials there : what pen can describe it, what pen need ! 
Folio volumes with copper-plates have been written on it ; and 

i G. A. H. Stenzel, Gctchichte des Preassitchm Staat* (Hamburg, 1841), 
lit 104. Nicolai (Berliner Monatschrift, year 1799) ; &c. 

a Pollute (i. 318) gives the Treaty (date corrected by big Editor, ii. 689). 


are not yet all pasted in bandboxes, or slit into spills. 1 "The 
diamond buttons of his Majesty's coat [snuff-colored or purple, 
I cannot recollect] cost 1,500 apiece ; " by this one feature 
judge what an expensive Herr. Streets were hung with cloth, 
carpeted with cloth, no end of draperies and cloth ; your op- 
pressed imagination feels as if there was cloth enough, of 
scarlet and other bright colors, to thatch the Arctic Zone. 
With illuminations, cannon-salvos, fountains running wine, 
Friedrich had made two Bishops for the nonce. Two of his 
natural Church-Superintendents made into Quasi-Bishops, on 
the Anglican model, which was always a favorite with him, 
and a pious wish of Ms; but they remained mere cut 
branches, these two, and did not, after their haranguing and 
anointing functions, take root in the country. He himself 
put the crown on his head : " King here in my own right, after 
all ! " and looked his royalest, we may fancy; the kind eyes 
of him almost partly fierce for moments, and "the cheerfulness 
of pride " well blending with something of awful. 

human memory is not in these Folios at all, but is considered 
to be a fact not the less : Electress Charlotte's, now Queen 
Charlotte's, very strange conduct on the occasion. For she 
cared not much about crowns, or upholstery magnificences of 
any kind; but had meditated from of old on the infinitely 
little ; and under these genuflections, risings, sittings, shift- 
ings, grimacings on all parts, and the endless droning eloquence 
of Bishops invoking Heaven, her ennui, not ill-humored or 
offensively ostensible, was heartfelt and transcendent. At one 
turn of the proceedings, Bishop This and Chancellor That 
droning their empty grandiloquences at discretion, Sophie 
Charlotte was distinctly seen to smuggle out her snuff-box, 
being addicted to that rakish practice, and fairly solace herself 
with a delicate little pinch of snuff. Rasped tobacco, tabac 
rape, called by mortals rape or rappee : there is no doubt about 
it; and the new King himself noticed her, and hurled back a 

1 British Museum, short of very many necessary Books on this subject, 
offers the due Coronation Folio, with its prints, upholstery catalogues, and 
official harangues upon nothing, to ingenuous human curiosity. 


the thing. 1 Or might not the actual death of poor King Car- 
los H. at Madrid, 1st November, 1700, for whose heritages all 
the world stood watching with swords half drawn, considera- 
bly assist Pater Wolf ? Done sure enough the thing was ; 
and before November ended, Friedrich's messenger returned 
with " Yes " for answer, and a Treaty signed on the 16th of 
that moDth.' 

To the huge joy of Elector Friedrich and his Court, almost 
the very nation thinking itself glad. Which joyful Potentate 
decided to set out straightway and have the coronation done ; 
though it was midwinter ; and Konigsberg (for Prussia is to be 
our title, "King in Prussia," and Konigsberg is Capital City 
there) lies 450 miles off, through tangled shaggy forests, boggy 
wildernesses, and in many parts only corduroy roads. We 
order " 30,000 post-horses," besides all our own large stud, to be 
got ready at the various stations : our boy Friedrich Wilhelm, 
rugged boy of twelve, rough and brisk, yet much " given to 
blush " withal (which is a feature of him), shall go with us ; 
much more, Sophie Charlotte our august Electress-Queen that 
is to be : and we set out, on the 17th of December, 1700, last 
year of the Century ; " in 1800 carriages : " such a cavalcade as 
never crossed those wintry wildernesses before. Friedrich 
Wilhelm went in the third division of carriages (for 1800 of 
them could not go quite together) ; our noble Sophie Charlotte 
in the second; a Margraf of Brandenburg-Schwedt, chief Mar- 
graf, our eldest Half-Brother, Dorothee's eldest Son, sitting on 
the coach-box, in correct insignia, as similitude of Driver. So 
strict are we in etiquette ; etiquette indeed being now upon its 
apotheosis, and after such efforts. Six or seven years of efforts 
on Elector Friedrich's part ; and six or seven hundred years, 
unconsciously, on that of his ancestors. 

The magnificence of Friedrich's processionings into Konigs- 
berg, and through it or in it, to be crowned, and of his coronation 
ceremonials there : what pen can describe it, what pen need ! 
Folio volumes with copper-plates have been written on it ; and 

i 6. A. H. Stenzel, Gexchicbte des Preussischen Slants (Hamburg, 1841), 
Hi. 104. Nicolai ( BerKan- Manatochrift, year 1799) ; &c. 

* PoDnitz (i. 318) gives the Treaty (date corrected by his Editor, ii. 589). 


are not yet all pasted in bandboxes, or slit into spills. 1 "The 
diamond buttons of his Majesty's coat [snuff-colored or purple, 
I cannot recollect] cost 1,600 apiece ; " by this one feature 
judge what an expensive Heir. Streets were hung with cloth, 
carpeted with cloth, no end of draperies and cloth ; your op- 
pressed imagination feels as if there was cloth enough, of 
scarlet and other bright colors, to thatch the Arctic Zone. 
With illuminations, cannon-salvos, fountains running wine. 
Friedrich had made two Bishops for the nonce. Two of his 
natural Church-Superintendents made into Quasi-Bishops, on 
the Anglican model, which was always a favorite with him, 
and a pious wish of his; but they remained mere cut 
branches, these two, and did not, after their haranguing and 
anointing functions, take root in the country. He himself 
put the crown on his head: "King here in my own right, after 
all ! " and looked his royalest, we may fancy; the kind eyes 
of him almost partly fierce for moments, and "the cheerfulness 
of pride " well blending with something of awful 

In all which sublimities, the one thing that remains for 
human memory is not in these Folios at all, but is considered 
to be a fact not the less : Electress Charlotte's, now Queen 
Charlotte's, very strange conduct on the occasion. For she 
cared not much about crowns, or upholstery magnificences of 
any kind; but had meditated from of old OD the infinitely 
little; and under these genuflections, risings, sittings, shift- 
ings, grimacings on all parts, and the endless droning eloquence 
of Bishops invoking Heaven, her ennui, not ill-humored or 
offensively ostensible, was heartfelt and transcendent. At one 
turn of the proceedings, Bishop This and Chancellor That 
droning their empty grandiloquences at discretion, Sophie 
Charlotte was distinctly seen to smuggle out her snuff-box, 
being addicted to that rakish practice, and fairly solace herself 
with a delicate little pinch of snuff. Kasped tobacco, taboo 
rapt, called by mortals r&pe or rappee : there is no doubt about 
it ; and the new King himself noticed her, and hurled back a 

i British Museum, short of very many necessary Books on this subject, 
offers the due Coronation Folio, with its prints, upholstery catalogues, and 
official harangues upon nothing, to ingenuous human curiosity. 


look of doe falminancy, which could not help the matter, and 
was only lost in air. A memorable little action, and almost 
symbolic in the first Prussian Coronation. "Yes, we are 
Kings, and are got so near the stars, not nearer; and you 
invoke the gods, in that tremendously long-winded manner ; 
and I Heavens, I have my snuff-box by me, at least 1 " Thou 
wearied patient Heroine ; cognizant of the infinitely little ! 
This symbolic pinch of snuff is fragrant all along in Prussian 
History. A f ragrancy of humble verity in the middle of all 
royal or other ostentations; inexorable, quiet protest against 
cant, done with such simplicity : Sophie Charlotte's symbolic 
pinch of snuff. She was always considered something of a 
Republican Queen. 

Thus Brandenburg Electorate has become Kingdom of 
Prussia ; and the Hohenzollerns have put a crown upon their 
head. Of Brandenburg, what it was, and what Prussia was; 
and of the Hohenzollerns and what they were, and how they 
rose thither, a few details, to such as are dark about these 
matters, cannot well be dispensed with here. 




THE Brandenburg Countries, till they become related to the 
Hohenzollern Family which now rules there, have no History 

been a good deal written under that title , but there is by no 
means much known, and of that again there is alarmingly little 
that is worth knowing or remembering. 

Pytheas, the Marseilles Travelling Commissioner, looking 
out for new channels of trade, somewhat above 2,000 years 
ago, saw the country actually lying there ; sailed past it, 
occasionally landing; and made report to such Marseillese 
"Chamber of Commerce" as there then was: report now 
lost, all to a few indistinct and insignificant fractions. 1 This 
was "about the year 327 before Christ," while Alexander 
of Macedon was busy conquering, India. Beyond question, 
Pytheas, the first writing or civilized creature that ever saw 
Germany, gazed with his Greek eyes, and occasionally landed, 
striving to speak and inquire, upon those old Baltic Coasts, 
north border of the now Prussian Kingdom ; and reported of 
it to mankind we know not what. Which brings home to us 
the fact that it existed, but almost nothing more : A Country 
l MtaaArtt de fAaufaue da Irucriptims, fc xix. 46, joumi. 439, &c. 


of lakes and woods, of marshy jungles, sandy -wildernesses ; 
inhabited by bears, otters, bisons, wolves, wild swine, and cer- 
tain shaggy Germans of the Suevic type, as good as inarticu- 
late to Fytheas. After which all direct notice of it ceases for 
above three hundred years. We can hope only that the jun- 
gles were getting cleared a little, and the wild creatures hunted 
down ; that the Germans were increasing in number, and be- 
coming a thought less shaggy. These latter, tall Suevi Sem- 
nones, men of blond stern aspect (oeuli truces ccerulei) and 
great strength of bone, were known to possess a formidable 
talent for fighting : 1 Drusus Germanicus, it has been guessed, 
did not like to appear personally among them : some "gigantic 
woman prophesying to him across the Elbe " that it might be 
dangerous, Drusus contented himself with erecting some tri- 
umphal pillar on his own safe side of the Elbe, to say that 
they were conquered. 

In the Fourth Century of our era, when the German popula- 
tions, on impulse of certain " Huns expelled from the Chinese 
frontier," or for other reasons valid to themselves, began flow- 
ing universally southward, to take possession of the rich 
Roman world, and so continued flowing for two centuries 
more; the old German frontiers generally, and especially 
those Northern Baltic countries, were left comparatively va- 
cant ; so that new immigrating populations from the East, all 
of Sclavic origin, easily obtained footing and supremacy there. 
In the Northern parts, these immigrating Sclaves were of the 
kind called Vandals, or Wends : they spread themselves as far 
west as Hamburg and the Ocean, south also far over the Elbe 
in some quarters ; while other kinds of Sclaves were equally 
busy elsewhere. With what difficulty in settling the new 
boundaries, and what inexhaustible funds of quarrel thereon, 
is still visible to every one, though no Historian was there to 
say the least word of it. " All of Sclavic origin; " but who 
knows of how many kinds : Wends here in the North, through 
the Lausitz (Lusatia) and as far as Thuringen ; not to speak 
of Polacks, Bohemian Czechs, Huns, Bulgars, and the other 
dim nomenclatures, on the Eastern frontier. Five hundred 
i Tacitus, De Monbvt Germanarum, c. 45. 


years of violent unrecorded fighting, abstruse quarrel with 
their new neighbors in settling the marches. Many names of 
towns in Germany ending in it (Meuselwitz, Mollwitz), or 
bearing the express epithet Windisch (Wendish), still give 
indication of those old sad circumstances ; as does the word 
Slave, in all our Western languages, meaning captured Scla- 
vonian. What long-drawn echo of bitter rage and hate lies 
in that small etymology! 

These things were ; but they have no History : why should 
they have any ? Enough that in those Baltic regions, there 
are for the time (Year 600, and till long after Charlemagne 
is out) Sclaves in place of Suevi or of Holstein Saxons and 
Angli; that it is now shaggy Wends who have the task of 
taming the jungles, and keeping down the otters and wolves. 
Wends latterly in a waning condition, much beaten upon by 
Charlemagne and others ; but never yet beaten out. And so 
it has to last, century after century; Wends, wolves, wild 
swine, all alike dumb to us. Dumb, or sounding only one 
huge unutterable message (seemingly of tragic import), like 
the voice of their old Forests, of their old Baltic Seas : per- 
haps more edifying to us so. Here at last is a definite date 
and event : 

"A.D. 928, Henry the Fowler, marching across the frozen 
bogs, took BBAKITIBOB, a chief fortress of the Wends;" 1 
first mention in human speech of the place now called Bran- 
denburg : Bor or " Burg of the Brenns " (if there ever was 
any Tribe of Brenns, Brennus, there as elsewhere, being 
name for King or Leader) ; "Burg of the Woods," say others, 
who as little know. Probably, at that time, a town of clay 
huts, with ditch and palisaded sod-wall round it; certainly "a 
chief fortress of the Wends," who must have been a good 
deal surprised at sight of Henry on the rimy winter morning 
near a thousand years ago. 

This is the grand old Henry, called "the Fowler " (ffeinrieh, 
der Voffler), because he was in his Vogelheerde (Falconry or 

1 Kohler, Reidts-Hiitorie (Frtnkfurth nnd Leipzig, 1737), p. 63. Miehaelfa, 
CHuwmrf FUrttichen HHuser in DeutaMand (Lemgo, 1759, 1760, 1785), i. 255. 


Hawk^stablishment, seeing his Hawks fly) in the upland 
Hartz Country, when messengers came to tell him that the 
German Nation, through its Princes and Authorities assem- 
bled at Fritzlar, had made him King ; and that he would have 
dreadful work henceforth. Which he undertook; and also 
did, this of Brannibor only one small item of it, warring 
right manfully all his days against Chaos in that country, no 
rest for him thenceforth till he died. The beginning of Ger- 
man Kings; the first, or essentially the first sovereign of 
united Germany, Charlemagne's posterity to the last bas- 
tard having died out, and only Anarchy, Italian and other, 
being now the alternative. 

"A very high King," says one whose Note-books I have 
got, "an authentically noble human figure, visible still in clear 
outline in the gray dawn of Modern History. The Father of 
whatever good has since been in Germany. He subdued his 
Dukes, Schwaben, Baiern (Swabia, Bavaria) and others, who 
were getting too hereditary, and inclined to disobedience. He 
managed to get back Lorraine; made truce with the Hunga- 
rians, who were excessively invasive at that time. Truce with 
the Hungarians; and then, having gathered strength, made 
dreadful beating of them; two beatings, one to each half, 
for the invasive Savagery had split itself, for better chance 
of plunder ; first beating was at Sondershausen, second was at 
Merseburg, Year 933; which settled them considerably. 
Another beating from Henry's son, and they never came back. 
Beat Wends, before this, 'Brannibor through frozen bogs ' 
five years ago. Beat Sclavic Meisseners (Misnians) ; Bohe- 
hemian Czechs, and took Frag; Wends again, with huge 
slaughter; then Danes, and made 'King Worm tributary' 
(King Gorm the Hard, our Knutfs or Canute's great-grand- 
father, Year 931); last of all, those invasive Hungarians 
as above. Had sent the Hungarians, when they demanded 
tribute or llack-maU of him as heretofore, Truce being now 
out, a mangy hound : There is your black-mail, Sirs ; make 
much of that I 

"He had 'the image of St. Michael painted on his stand- 
ard;' contrary to wont. He makes, or romakes, Markgrafe 


(Wardens of the Marches), to be under his Dukes, and not 
too hereditary. Who his Markgraves were? Dim History 
counts them to the number of six; 1 which take in their 
order : 

"1. Sleswig, looking over into the Scandinavian countries, 
and the Norse Sea-kings. This Markgraviate did not last 
long under that title. I guess, it became Stade-and-Ditmarsch 

"2. Soltieedel, which grows to be Markgraviate of Bran- 
denburg by and by. Soltwedel, now called Salzwedel, an old 
Town still extant, sixty miles to west and north of Branden- 
burg, short way south of the Elbe, was as yet headquarters of 
this second Markgraf ; and any Warden we have at Branden- 
burg is only a deputy of him or some other. 

3. Meissen (which we call Misnia), a country at that 
time still full of Wends. 

"4. Latisitz, also a very Wendish country (called in Eng- 
lish maps Lusatia, which is its name in Monk-Latin, not 
now a spoken language). Did not long continue a Mark- 
graviate ; fell to Meissen (Saxony), fell to Brandenburg, Bohe- 
mia, Austria, and had many tos and fros. Is now (since the 
Thirty-Years-War time) mostly Saxon again. 

"5. Austria (CEsterreich, Eastern-Kingdom, Eaaternrey as 
we might say ) ; to look after the Hungarians, and their 
valuable claims to black-mail. 

"6. Antwerp ('At-the-Wharf,' ' On-t'-Wharf,' so to speak), 
against the French ; which function soon fell obsolete. 

" These were Henry's six Markgraviates (as my best author- 
ity enumerates them); and in this way he had militia cap- 
tains ranked all round his borders, against the intrusive 
Sclavic element. 

i Kohler, BMt-HUorie, p. 66. This is by no means Kohlert chief 
Book; but this too is good, and does, in a solid effective way, what it at- 
tempts. He seems to me by fer the best Historical Genius the Germans 
have yet produced, though I do not find much mention of him in their 
Literary Histories and Catalogues. A man of ample learning, and abo of 
strong cheerful human sense and human honesty; whom it is thrice-pleasant 
to meet with in those ghastly solitudes, populous chiefly with doleful 


"He fortified Towns; all Towns are to be walled and 
warded, to be Burgs in fact; and the inhabitants Burghers, 
or men capable of defending Burgs. Everywhere the ninth 
man is to serve as soldier in his Town; other eight in the 
country are to feed and support him: Heergerathe (War- 
tackle, what is called Eeriot in our old Books) descends to 
the eldest son of a fighting man who had served, as with 
us. 'All robbers are made soldiers' (unless they prefer 
hanging); and weapon-shows and drill are kept up. This is 
a man who will make some impression upon Anarchy, and 
its Wends and Huns. His standard was St. Michael, as we 
have seen, whose sword is derived from a very high quarter ! 
A pious man ; founded Quedlinburg Abbey, and much else 
in that kind, having a pious Wife withal, Mechtildis, who 
took the main hand in that of Quedlinburg ; whose Life is in 
Leibnitz, 1 not the legiblest of Books. On the whole, aright 
gallant King and 'Fowler.' Died, A.D. 936 (at Memmleben, 
a Monastery on the TJnstrut, not far from Schulpforte), age 
sixty ; had reigned only seventeen years, and done so much. 
Lies buried in Quedlinburg Abbey: any Tomb? I know 
no Life of him but GwndMny's, which is an extremely inex- 
tricable Piece, and requires mainly to be forgotten. Hail, 
brave Henry : across the Nine dim Centuries, we salute thee, 
still visible as a valiant Son of Cosmos and Son of Heaven, 
beneficently sent us ; as a man who did in grim earnest ' serve 
God ' in his day, and whose works accordingly bear fruit to 
our day, and to all days ! " 

So far my rough Note-books; which require again to be 
shut for the present, not to abuse the reader's patience, or 

This of Markgrafs (Grafs of the Marches, marked Places, 
or Boundaries) was a natural invention in that state of cir- 
cumstances. It did not quite originate with Henry; but 
was much perfected by him, he first recognizing how essen- 
tial it was. On all frontiers he had his Graf (Count, Reeve, 
OPreeve, whom some think to be only Grau, Gray, or Senior, 
the hardiest, wisest steel-^ray man he could discover) sta- 

> Leibnitz, Scriptoru Serum Bnmnoiceiuium, &c. {Hanover, 1707), i. 196. 


tioned on the Marek, strenuously doing watch and ward there : 
the post of difficulty, of peril, and naturally of honor too, 
nothing of a sinecure by any means. Which post, like every 
other, always had a tendency to become hereditary, if the 
kindred did not fail in fit men. And hence have come the 
innumerable Markgraves, Marquises, and such like, of modern 
times : titles now become chimerical, and more or less men- 
dacious, as most of our titles are, like so many Burgs 
changed into " Boroughs," and even into " Eotten Boroughs," 
with Defensive Burghers of the known sort : very mournful 
to discover. Once Nbrroy was not all pasteboard! At the 
heart of that huge whirlwind of his, with its dusty heraldries, 
and phantasmal nomenclatures now become mendacious, there 
lay, at first, always an earnest human fact. Henry the 
Fowler was so happy as to have the fact without any mix- 
ture of mendacity : we are in the sad reverse case ; reverse 
case not yet altogether complete, but daily becoming so, one 
of the saddest and strangest ever heard of, if we thought of 
it ! But to go on with business. 

Markgraviates there continued to be ever after, Six in 
Henry's time : but as to the number, place, arrangement of 
them, all this varied according to circumstances outward and 
inward, chiefly according to the regress or the reintrusion of 
the circumambient hostile populations ; and underwent many 
changes. The sea-wall you build, and what main floodgates 
you establish in it, will depend on the state of the outer sea. 
Markgraf of Sle&wig grows into Markgraf of Ditmarseh and 
Stade ; retiring over the Elbe, if Norse Piracy get very trium- 
phant. Antwerp falls obsolete; so does Meissen by and by. 
Lausita and Salzwedel, in the third century hence, shrink both 
into Brandenburg ; which was long only a subaltern station, 
managed by deputy from one or other of these. A Markgraf 
that prospered in repelling of his Wends and Huns had evi- 
dently room to spread himself, and could become very great, 
and produce change in boundaries: observe what (Esterreieh 
(Austria) grew to, and what Brandenburg; Meissen too, which 
became modern Saxony, a state once greater than it now is. 

In, old Books are Lists of the primitive Markgraves of 

62 ^ 

Brandenburg, from Henry's time downward ; two sets, Mark- 
graves of the Witekind race," and of another: 1 but they are 
altogether uncertain, a shadowy intermittent set of Mark- 
graves, both the Witekind set and the Non-Witekind ; and 
truly, for a couple of centuries, seem none of them to have 
been other than subaltern Deputies, belonging mostly to 
Latisitz or Salmeedel; of whom therefore we can say nothing 
here, but must leave the first two hundred years in their 
natural gray state, perhaps sufficiently conceivable by the 

But thus, at any rate, was Brandenburg (Bar or Burg of the 
Brmrus, whatever these are) first discovered to Christendom, 
and added to the firm land of articulate History : a feat worth 
putting on record. Done by Henry the Fowler, in the Year 
of Grace 928, while (among other things noticeable in this 
world) our Knut's great-grandfather, Gormo Eurus, "Henry's 
Tributary," was still King of Denmark; when Harald Slue- 
tooth (Blaatand) was still a young fellow, with his teeth of the 
natural color ; and Swen with the Forked Beard (Tvaeskaeg, 
Double-beard, " Twtushag") was not born; and the Monks of 
Ely had not yet (by about a hundred years) begun that sing- 
ing, 1 nor the tide that refusal to retire, on behalf of this Knut, 
in our English part of his dominions. 

That Henry appointed due Wardenship in Brannibor was in 

i Hflbner, Genealogische Tabellen (Leipzig, 1725-1738), i. 172, 173. A Book 
of me excellence in its kind. 

* Without note or comment, in the old Book of Ely (date before the Con- 
quest) is preserved this stave ; giving picture, if we consider it, of the Fen 
Country all a lake (as it was for half the year, till drained, six centuries after), 
with Ely Monastery rising like an island in the distance ; and the music of its 
nones or vespers sounding soft and far over the solitude, eight hundred yean 
ago and more. 
Merie snngen the Muneches binnen Merry (genially) 10119 the Monks in 

Ely Eh, 

Tha Cnnt ching rew therby : At Knut King rawed (rew) there-by : 

Eowethcnites near the lant, JfaeJtUum (knights), near the land, 

And here we thes Muneches saeng. And hear m Aete MonkSi toy. 

See Bentham's Hiitory tfEly (Cambridge, 1771), p. 94. 


the common course. Sure enough, some Markgraf must take 
charge of Brannibor, he of the Lausitz eastward, for example, 
or he of Salzwedel westward: that Brannibor, in time, will 
itself be found the fit place, and have its own Markgraf of 
Brandenburg ; this, and what in the next nine centuries Bran- 
denburg will grow to, Henry is far from surmising. Branden- 
burg is fairly captured across the frozen bogs, and has got a 
warden and ninth-man garrison settled in it: Brandenburg, 
like other things, will grow to what it can. 

Henry's son and successor, if not himself, is reckoned to 
have founded the Cathedral and Bishopric of Brandenburg, 
his Clergy and he always longing much for the conversion of 
these Wends and Huns ; which indeed was, as the like still is, 
the one thing needful to rugged heathens of that kind. 



FIVE hundred miles, and more, to the east of Brandenburg, 
lies a Country then as now called Preussen (Prussia Proper), 
inhabited by Heathens, where also endeavors at conversion 
are going on, though without success hitherto. Upon which 
we are now called to cast a glance. 

It is a moory flat country, fall of hikes and woods, like 
Brandenburg ; spreading out into grassy expanses, and bosky 
wildernesses humming with bees; plenty of bog in it, but 
plenty also of alluvial mud; sand too, but by no means so 
high a ratio of it as in Brandenburg; tracts of Prenssen are 
luxuriantly grassy, frugiferous, apt for the plough; and the 
soil generally is reckoned fertile, though lying so far north- 
ward. Part of the great plain or flat which stretches, sloping 
insensibly, continuously, in vast expanse, from the Silesian 
Mountains to the amber-regions of the Baltic ; Preussen is the 
seaward, more alluvial part of this, extending west and east, 
on both sides of the Weichsel (Vistula), from the regions of 

the Oder river to the main stream of the MemeL Bartering- 
on-Bussia its name signifies: Bar-Russia, B'russia, Prussia; or 
some say it -was only on a certain inconsiderable river in 
those parts, river fieussen, that it "bordered," and not on the 
great Country, or any part of it, which now in our days is 
conspicuously its next neighbor. Who knows? 

In Henry the Fowler's time, and long afterwards, Preussen 
was a vehemently Heathen country ; the natives a Miscellany 
of rough Serbic Wends, Letts, Swedish Goths, or Dryasdust 
knows not what; very probably a sprinkling of Swedish 
Goths, from old time, chiefly along the coasts. Dryasdust 
knows only that these Preussen were a strong-boned, iracund 
herdsman-and-fisher people; highly averse to be interfered 
with, in their religion especially. Famous otherwise, through 
all the centuries, for the amber they had been used to fish, and 
sell in foreign parts. 

Amber, science declares, is a kind of petrified resin, distilled 
by pines that were dead before the days of Adam ; which is 
now thrown up, in stormy weather, on that remote coast, and 
is there fished out by the amphibious people, who can like- 
wise get it by running mine-shafts into the sandhills on their 
coast ; by whom it is sold into the uttermost parts of the 
Earth, Arabia and beyond, from a very early period of time. 
No doubt Pytheas had his eye upon this valuable product, 
when he ventured into survey of those regions, which are 
still the great mother of amber in our world. By their amber- 
fishery, with the aid of dairy-produce and plenty of beef and 
leather, these Heathen Preussen, of uncertain miscellaneous 
breed, contrived to support existence in a substantial manner; 
they figure to us as an inarticulate, heavy-footed, rather ira- 
cund people. Their knowledge of Christianity was trifling, 
their aversion to knowing anything of it was great. 

As Poland, and the neighbors to the south, were already 
Christian, and even the Bohemian Czechs were mostly con- 
verted, pious wishes as to Preussen, we may fancy, were a 
constant feeling: but no effort hitherto, if efforts were made, 
had come to anything. Let some daring missionary go to 
preach in that country, his reception is of the worst, or per- 



haps he is met on the frontier with menaces, and forbidden to 
preach at all; except sorrow and lost labor, nothing has yet 
proved attainable. It was very dangerous to go ; and with 
what likelihood of speeding ? Efforts, we may suppose, are 
rare ; but the pious wish being continual and universal, efforts 
can never altogether cease. From Henry the Fowler's capture 
of Brannibor, count seventy years, we find Henry's great- 
grandson reigning as Elective Kaiser, Otto III., last of the 
direct "Saxon Kaisers," Otto Wonder of the World; and 
alongside of Otto's great transactions, which were once called 
ffiraMlia Mundi and are now fallen so extinct, there is the 
following small transaction, a new attempt to preach in 
Preussen, going on, which, contrariwise, is still worth taking 
notice of. 

About the year 997 or 996, Adalbert, Bishop of Prag, a very 
zealous, most devout man, but evidently of hot temper, and 
liable to get into quarrels, had determined, after many painful 
experiences of the perverse ungovernable nature of corrupt 
mankind, to give up his nominally Christian flock altogether ; 
to shake the dust off his feet against Prag, and devote himself 
to converting those Prussian Heathen, who, across the fron- 
tiers, were living in such savagery, and express bondage to the 
Devil, worshipping mere stocks and stones. In this enterprise 
he was encouraged by the Christian potentates who lay con- 
tiguous ; especially by the Duke of Poland, to whom such 
next-neighbors, for all reasons, were an eye-sorrow. 

Adalbert went, accordingly, with staff and scrip, two monks 
attending him, into that dangerous country : not in fear, he ; 
a devout high-tempered man, verging now on fifty, his hair 
getting gray, and face marred with innumerable troubles and 
provocations of past time. He preached zealously, almost 
fiercely, though chiefly with his eyes and gestures, I should 

among the Swedish-Goth kind of Heathen, he had some 
success, or affluence of attendance ; not elsewhere that we hear 
of. In the Pillau region, for example, where he next landed, 
an amphibious Heathen lout hit him heavily across the 

shoulders with the flat of Ms oar ; sent the poor Preacher to 
the ground, face foremost, and suddenly ended his salutary 
discourse for that time. However, he pressed forward, 
regardless of results, preaching the Evangel to all creatures 
who were willing or unwilling ; and pressed at last into the 
Sacred Circuit, the Somova, or Place of Oak-trees, and of 
Wooden or Stone Idols (Bangputtis, Patkullos, and I know 
not what diabolic dumb Blocks), which it was death to enter. 
The Heathen Priests, as we may conceive it, rushed out; 
beckoned him, with loud unintelligible bullyings and fierce 
gestures, to begone ; hustled, shook him, shoved him, as he 
did not go ; then took to confused striking, struck finally a 
death-stroke on the head of poor Adalbert : so that he stretched 
out both his arms ('Jesus, receive me thou!') and fell with 
his face to the ground, and lay dead there, in the form of 
a crucifix," say his Biographers ; only the attendant monks 
escaping to tell. 

Attendant monks, or Adalbert, had known nothing of their 
being on forbidden ground. Their accounts of the phenome- 
non accordingly leave it only half explained: How he was 
surprised by armed Heathen Devil's-servants in his sleep; 
was violently set upon, and his "beautiful bowels (jndchra 
viscera) were run through with seven spears : " but this of the 
Romova, or Sacred Bangputtis Church of Oak-trees, perhaps 
chief Bomova of the Country, rashly intruded into, with 
consequent strokes, and fall in the form of a crucifix, appears 
now to be the intelligible account. 1 We will take it for the 
real manner of Adalbert's exit; no doubt of the essential 
transaction, or that it was a very flaming one on both sides. 
The date given is 23d April, 997 ; date famous in the Romish 
Calendar since. 

He was a Czech by birth, son of a Heathen Bohemian man 
of rank: his name (Adalbert, Albert, Bright-in-Nobleness) he 
got " at Magdeburg, whither he had gone to study " and seek 
baptism; where, as generally elsewhere, his fervent devout 

Baflkt, Tie* <fe Saint. (Paris, 1739), Hi. 722. Bollandne, Ada Sane- 
torum, ApriHs torn. Hi (die 28-; in Edition Venetii,, 1738), pp. 174-205. Vofct, 
&&<&* Praofmt (KSoigBberg, 1827-1889), 1 866-270. 


ways were admirable to his fellow-creatures. A "man of 
genius," we may well say : one of Heaven's bright souls, born 
into the muddy darkness of this world ; laid hold of by 
a transcendent Message, in the due transcendent degree. He 
entered Prag, as Bishop, not in a carriage and six, but 
" walking barefoot ; " his contempt for earthly shadows being 
always extreme. Accordingly, his quarrels with the saxulum 
were constant and endless; his wanderings up and down, 
and vehement arguings, in this world, to little visible 
effect, lasted all his days. We can perceive he was short- 
tempered, thin of skin: a violently sensitive man. For 
example, once in the Bohemian solitudes, on a summer after- 
noon, in one of his thousand-fold pilgrimings and wayfarings, 
he had lain down to rest, his one or two monks and he, in 
some still glade, " with a stone for his pillow" (as was always 
his custom even in Prag), and had fallen sound asleep. A 
Bohemian shepherd chanced to pass that way, warbling some' 
thing on his pipe, as he wended towards looking after his 
nock. Seeing the sleepers on their stone pillows, the thought- 
less Czech mischievously blew louder, started Adalbert 
broad awake upon him ; who, in the fury of the first moment, 
shrieked: "Deafness on thee! Man cruel to the human sense 
of hearing ! " or words to that effect Which curse, like the 
most of Adalbert's, was punctually fulfilled: the amazed Czech 
stood deaf as a post, and went about so all his days after ; nay, 
for long centuries (perhaps down to the present time, in remote 
parts), no Czech blows into his pipe in the woodlands, without 
certain precautions, and preliminary fuglings of a devotional 
nature. 1 From which miracle, as indeed from many other 
indications, I infer an irritable nervouwystem in poor Adal- 
bert; and find this death in the Bomova was probably a 
furious mixture of Earth and Heaven. 

At all events, he lies there, beautiful though bloody, "in 
the form of a crucifix;" zealous Adalbert, the hot spirit of 
him now at last cold ; and has clapt his mark upon the 
Heathen country, protesting to the last. This was in the 
year 997, think the best Antiquaries. It happened at a place 
i BoUandus.ubisupA. 



called Fischhausen, near Pillau, say they ; on that narrow strip 
of country which lies between the Baltic and the Frische Haf 
(immense Lake, Wash as we should say, or leakage of shallow 
water, one of two such, which the Baltic has spilt out of it in 
that quarter), near the Fort and Haven of Pillau; where 
there has been much stir since; where Napoleon, for one 
thing, had some tough fighting, prior to the Treaty of Tilsit, 
fifty years ago. The place or if not this place, then 
Gnesen in Poland, the final burial-place of Adalbert, which is 
better known has ever since had a kind of sacredness; 
better or worse expressed by mankind : in the form of canoni- 
zation, endless pilgrimages, rumored miracles, and such like. 
For shortly afterwards, the neighboring Potentate, Boleslaus 
Duke of Poland, heart-struck at the event, drew sword on 
these Heathens, and having (if I remember) gained some 
victory, bargained to have the Body of Adalbert delivered to 
him at its weight in gold. Body, all cut in pieces, and nailed 
to poles, had long ignominiously withered in the wind ; 
perhaps it was now only buried overnight for the nonce ? 
Being dug up, or being cut down, and put into the balance, it 
weighed less than was expected. It was as light as gos- 
samer, said pious rumor. Had such an excellent odor too; 
and came for a mere nothing of gold 1 This was Adalbert's 
first miracle after death; in life he had done many hundreds 
of them, and has done millions since, chiefly upon paralytic 
nervous-systems, and the element of pious rumor; which 
any Devil's-Advocate then extant may explain if he can ! 
Kaiser Otto, Wonder of the World, who had known St. Adal- 
bert in life, and much honored him, "made a pilgrimage to his 
tomb at Gnesen in the year 1000;" and knelt there, we 
may believe, with thoughts wondrous enough, great and sad 

There is no hope of converting Preussen, then? It will 
never leave off its dire worship of Satan, then? Say not, 
Never; that is a weak word. St. Adalbert has stamped 
his life upon it, in the form of a crucifix, in lasting protest 
against that 




MEANWHILE our first enigmatic set of Markgraves, 01 
Deputy-Markgraves, at Brandenburg, are likewise faring ilL 
Whoever these valiant steel-gray gentlemen might be (which 
Dryasdust does not the least know, and only makes you 
more uncertain the more he pretends to tell), one thing is 
very evident, they had no peaceable possession of the place, 
nor for above a hundred years, a constant one on any terms. 
The Wends were highly disinclined to conversion and obe- 
dience: once and again, and still again, they burst up; got 
temporary hold of Brandenburg, hoping to keep it ; and did 
frightful heterodoxies there. So that to our distressed imagi- 
nation those poor "Markgraves of Witekind descent," our 
first set in Brandenburg, become altogether shadowy, inter- 
mittent, enigmatic, painfully actual as they once were. Take 
one instance, omitting others; which happily proves to be 
the finish of that first shadowy line, and introduces us to a 
new set very slightly more substantial. 

End of the First Shadowy Line. 

In the year 1023, near a century after Henry the Fowler's 
feat, the Wends bursting up in never-imagined fury, get 
hold of Brandenburg again, for the third and, one would 
fain hope, the last time. The reason was, words spoken 
by the then Markgraf of Brandenburg, Dietrich or Theodoric, 
last of the Witekind Markgraves; who hearing that a Cou- 
sin of his (Markgraf or Deputy-Markgraf like himself) was 
about wedding his daughter to "Mistevoi King of the 
Wends," said too earnestly: "Don't! Will you give yom. 


daughter to a dog?" Word "dog" was used, says my au- 
thority. 1 Which threw King Mistevoi into a paroxysm, and 
raised the Wends. Their butchery of the German popula- 
tion in poor Brandenburg, especially of the Priests ; their 
burning of the Cathedral, and of Church and State generally, 
may be conceived. The Jffarlungsberg, in our time Maries 
berg, pleasant Hill near Brandenburg, with its gardens, vines, 
and whitened cottages: on the top of this Harlungsberg 
the Wends "set up their god Triglaph;" a three-headed 
Monster of which I have seen prints, beyond measure ugly. 
Something like three whale's-cnbs combined by boiling, or 
a triple porpoise dead-drunk (for the dull eyes are inexpres- 
sible, as well as the amorphous shape) : ugliest and stupidest 
of all false gods. This these victorious Wends set up on 
the Harlungaberg, Year 1023} and worshipped after their 
sort, benighted mortals,- with joy, for a time. The Cathe- 
dral was in ashes, Priests all slain or fled, shadowy Mark- 
graves the likd ; Church and State lay in ashes ; and Triglaph, 
like a Triple Porpoise under the influence of laudanum, stood 
(I know not whether on his head or on his tail) aloft on the 
Harlungsberg, as the Supreme of this Universe, for the time 

Second Shadowy Line. 

Whereupon the DtomarsoltrStade Markgrafs (as some des- 
ignate them) had to interfere, these shadowy Deputies of 
the Witekind breed having vanished in that manner. The 
Ditmarschers recovered the place ; and with some fighting, 
did in the main at least keep Triglaph and the Wends out 
of it in time coming. The Wends were fiercely troublesome, 
and fought much; but I think they never actually got hold 

1 See MichaeHs Ckurund Fib-MUchen BSxaer, i. 257-259 : Fault, AUgemeine 
PmutucheStaati-Geidtictoe (Halle, 1760-1769), i. 1-182 (the "standard work" 
on Prussian History ; in eight watery quartos, intolerable to human nature) : 
Kloss, VaterlSndische Gemalde (Berlin, 1833), i. 59-108 (a Bookseller's compila- 
tion, with some curious Excerpts) : under which lie modern Sagittarius, 
ancient Adam of Bremen, Ditmaru* MenAvrgaaa, Witickindiu Carbewniit, 
AnaUat Lutectntit, Ac. &c. to all lengths and breadths. 


of Brandenburg again. They were beginning to get notions 
of conversion : well preached to and well beaten upon, you 
cannot hold out forever. Even Mistevoi at one time pro- 
fessed tendencies to Christianity 5 perhaps partly for his 
Bride's sake, the dog, we may call him, in a milder sense ! 
But he relapsed dreadfully, after that insult; and his son 
worse. On the other hand, Mistevoi's grandson was so zeal- 
ous he went about with the Missionary Preachers, and inter- 
preted their German into Wendish: "Oh, my poor Wends, 
will you hear, then, will you understand ? This solid Earth 
is but a shadow : Heaven forever or eke Hell forever, that 
is the reality ! " Such " difference between right and wrong " 
no Wend had heard of before : quite tremendously " impor- 
tant if true!" And doubtless it impressed many. There 
are heavy Ditmarsch strokes for the animpressible. By de- 
grees all got converted, though many were killed first; and, 
one way or other, the Wends are preparing to efface them- 
selves as a distinct people. 

This Stade-and-IKtmarsch family (of Anglish or Saxon 
breed, if that is an advantage) seem generally to have fur- 
nished the Salxwedel Office as well, of which Brandenburg 
was an offshoot, done by deputy, usually also of their kin. 
They lasted in Brandenburg rather more than a hundred 
years ; with little or no Book-History that is good to read ; 
their History inarticulate rather, and stamped beneficently 
on the face of things. Otto is a common name among them. 
One of their sisters, too, Adelheid (Adelaide, Nobleness) had 
a strange adventure with " Ludwig the Springer : " romantic 
mythic man, famous in the German world, over whom my 
readers and I must not pause at this time. 

In Salzwedel, in Ditmarsch, or wherever stationed, they 
had a toilsome fighting life: sore difficulties with their Dti- 
marschers too, with the plundering Danish populations ; Mark- 
graf after Markgraf getting killed in the business. " Erschlagen, 
slain fighting with the Heathen," say the old Books, and 
pass on to another. Of all which there is now silence for- 
ever. So many years men fought and planned and struggled 
there, all forgotten now except by the gods ; and silently 


gave away their life, before those countries could become 
fencible and habitable ! Nay, my friend, it is our lot too : 
and if we would win honor in this Universe, the rumor of 
Histories and Morning Newspapers, which have to become 
wholly zero, one day, and fall dumb as stones, and which 
were not perhaps very wise even while speaking, will help 
us little! 

Substantial Markgraves : Glimpse of the Contemporary 

The Ditmarsch-Stade kindred, much slain in battle with 
the Heathen, and otherwise beaten upon, died out, about the 
year 1130 (earlier perhaps, perhaps later, for all is shadowy 
still) ; and were succeeded in the Salzwedel part of their 
function by a kindred called " of Ascanien and Ballenstadt; " 
the Ascanier or Anhalt Markgraves ; whose History, and that 
of Brandenburg, becomes henceforth articulate to us ; a His- 
tory not doubtful or shadowy any longer ; but ascertainable, 
if reckoned worth ascertaining. Who succeeded in Dit- 
marsch, let us by no means inquire. The Empire itself was 
in some disorder at this time, more abstruse of aspect than 
usual; and these Northern Markgrafs, already become im- 
portant people, and deep in general politics, had their own 
share in the confusion that was going. 

It was about this same time that a second line of Kaisers 
had died out : the Prankish or Salic line, who had succeeded 
to the Season, of Henry the Fowler's blood. For the Em- 
pire too, though elective, had always a tendency to become 
hereditary, and go in lines : if the last Kaiser left a son not 
unfit, who so likely as the son ? But he needed to be fit, 
otherwise it would not answer, otherwise it might be worse 
for him ! There were great labors in the Empire too, as 
well as on the Sclavic frontier of it: brave men fighting 
against anarchy (actually set in pitched fight against it, and 
not always strong enough), toiling sore, according to their 
faculty, to pull the innumerable crooked things straight. 
Some agreed well with the Pope, as Henry II, who founded 


Bamberg Bishopric, and much else of the like ; J "a sore saint 
for the crown," as was said of David L, his Scotch congener, 
by a descendant Others disagreed very much indeed; 
Henry IV.'s scene at Canossa, with Pope Hildebrand and the 
pious Countess (year 10T7, Kaiser of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire waiting, three days, in the snow, to kiss the foot of 
excommunicative Hildebrand), has impressed itself on all 
memories ! Poor Henry rallied out of that abasement, and 
dealt a stroke or two on Hildebrand ; but fell still lower be- 
fore long, his very Son going against him ; and came almost 
to actual want of bread, had not the Bishop of Liege been 
good to him. Nay, after death, he lay four years waiting 
vainly even for burial, but indeed cared little about that. 

Certainly this Son of his, Kaiser Henry V., does not shine 
in filial piety : but probably the poor lad himself was hard 
bested. He also came to die, A.D. 1125, still little over forty, 
and was the last of the Prankish Kaisers. He "left the 
Reichs-Insiynien [Crown, Sceptre and Coronation gear] to 
his Widow and young Friedrich of Hohenstauffen," a sister's 
son of his, hoping the said Friedrich might, partly by that 
help, follow as Kaiser. Which Friedrich could not do ; being 
wheedled, both the Widow and he, out of their insignia, 
under false pretences, and otherwise left in the lurch. Not 
Friedrich, but one Lothar, a stirring man who had grown 
potent in the Saxon countries, was elected Kaiser. In the 
end, after waiting till Lothar was done, Friedrich's race did 
succeed, and with brilliancy, Kaiser Barbarossa being that 
same Friedrich's son. In regard to which dim complicacies, 
take this Excerpt from the imbroglio of Manuscripts, before 
they go into the fire : 

"By no means to be forgotten that the Widow we here 
speak of f Kaiser Henry V.'s Widow, who brought no heir to 
Henry V., was our English Henry Beauclerc's daughter, 
granddaughter therefore of William Conqueror, the same 
who, having (in 1127, the second year of her widowhood) mar- 

' KShler, pp. 103-104. See, for instance, Description <fo la Table fAutd en 
or fin, donate a la Cathtdrale de Bale, par FJSmpereur Htarill. ea 1019 (Poren- 
trny, 1888). 


lied Godefroi Count of Anjon, prodoeed our Henry II. and our 
Plantagenets ; and thereby, through her victorious Controver- 
sies with King Stephen (that noble peer whose breeches stood 
him so cheap), became very celebrated as 'the Empress 
Maud,' in our old History-Books. Mathildis, Dowager of 
Kaiser Henry V., to whom he gave his Eeichs-Insignia at 
dying: she is the 'Empress Maud' of English Books; and 
relates herself in this manner to the Hohenstauffen Dynasty, 
and intricate German vicissitudes. Be thankful for any fiook 
whatever on which to hang half an acre of thrums in fixed 
position, out of your way ; the smallest flint-spark, in a world 
alt black and unrememberable, will be welcome." 

And so we return to Brandenburg and the "Asoanien and 
Eattenstadt" series of Markgraves. 



THIS Aseamen, happily, has nothing to do with Brute of 
Troy or the pious -SSneas's son ; it is simply the name of a 
most ancient Castle (etymology unknown to me, ruins still 
dimly traceable) on the north slope of the Hartz Mountains ; 
short way from Aschersleben, the Castle and Town of 
Asehersleben are, so to speak, a second edition of Ascanien. 
BallenstSdt is still older ; Ballenstadt was of age in Charle- 
magne's time ; and is still a respectable little Town in that 
upland range of country. The kindred, called Grafs and 
ultimately ffemogs (Dukes) of "Ascanien and Ballenstadt," 
are very famous is old German History, especially down 
from this date. Some reckon that they had intermittently 
been Markgrafs, in their region, long before this; which is 
conceivable enough: at all events it is very plain they did 
now attain the Office in Satewedel (straightway shifting it 
to Brandenburg) ; and held it continuously, it and much else 


that lay adjacen^ for centuries, in a highly conspicuous 

In Brandenburg they lasted for about two hundred years ; 
in their Saxon dignities, the younger branch of them did 
not die out (and give place to the Wetting that now are) 
for five hundred. Kay they hare still their representatives 
on the Earth: Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, celebrated "Old 
Dessauer," come of the junior branches, is lineal head of the 
kin in IViedrich Wilhelm's time (while our little Fritzehen 
lies asleep in his cradle at Berlin) ; and a certain Prince of 
Anhalt-Zerbst, Colonel in the Prussian Army, authentic 
Prince, but with purse much shorter than pedigree, will have 
a Daughter by and by, who will go to Eussia, and become 
almost too conspicuous, as Catharine II., there ! 

"Brandenburg now as afterwards," says one of my old 
Papers, "was officially reckoned Station; part of the big 
Duchy of Saxony; where certain famed Bittungs, lineage of 
an old 'Count Billung ' (connected or not with J3illings-ga.te 
in our country, I do not know) had long borne sway. Of 
which big old Billungs I will say nothing at all ; this only, 
that they died out; and a certain Albert, 'Count of Aseanien 
and Ballenstadt' (say, of Ankott, in modern terms), whose 
mother was one of their daughters, came in for the northern 
part of their inheritance. He made a clutch at the Southern 
too, but did not long retain that. Being a man very swift 
and very sharp, at once nimble and strong, in the huge scram- 
ble that there then was, Uncle Billung dead without heirs, 
a Salic line of emperors going or gone out, and a Hohenstauffen 
not yet come in, he made a rich game of it for himself ; the 
rather as Lothar, the intermediate Kaiser, was his cousin, and 
there were other good cards which he played well. 

" This is he they call ' Albert the Bear (Attreckt der B&r) ; ' 
first of the Ascanien Markgraves of Brandenburg; first 
wholly definite Markgraf of Brandenburg that there is ; once 
a very shining figure in the world, though now fallen dim 
enough again. It is evident he had a quick eye, as well as 
a strong hand; and could pick what way was straightest 
among crooked things. He got the Northern part of what 


is still called Saxony, and kept it in Ms family; got the 
Brandenburg Countries withal, got the Lausitz; was the 
shining figure and great man of the North in his day. The 
Markgrafdom of fialzwedel (which soon became of Branden- 
burg) he very naturally acquired (A.D. 1142 or earlier) ; very 

sessions he had already got hold of." 

We can only say, it was the luckiest of events for Bran- 
denburg, and the beginning of all the better destinies it has 
had. A conspicuous Country ever since in the world, and 
which grows ever more so in our late times. 

rellings and agreeings : fought much, fought in Italy, too, 
" against the Pagans " (Saracens, that is). Cousin to one Kai- 
ser, the Lothar above named ; then a chief stay of the Hohen- 
stauffen, of the two Hohenstauffens who followed : a restless, 
much-managing, wide-warring man. He stood true by the 
great Barbarossa, second of the Hohenstauffen, greatest of 
all the Kaisers; which was a luck for him, and perhaps a 
merit. He kept well with three Kaisers in his time. Had 
great quarrels with "Henry the Lion" about that "Billung" 
Saxon Heritage; Henry carrying off the better part of it 
from Albert. Except that same Henry, head of the Guelphs 
or Welfs, who had not Albert's talent, though wider lands 
than Albert, there was no German prince so important in 
that time. 

He transferred the Markgrafdom to Brandenburg, probably 
as more central in his wide lands; Salzwedel is henceforth 
the led Markgrafdom or Marck, and soon falls out of notice 
in the world. Salzwedel is called henceforth ever since the 
Old Marck (Atte Marck, Altmarck) ; '' uhe Brandenburg coun- 
tries getting the name of " New Marck." Modern Denmark, 
modern " Middle-Marck " (in which stands Brandenburg itself 
in our time), " C/bJfcer-Marck " (Outside Marck, word Ucker 
is still seen in Ukraine, for instance) : these are posterior Divi- 
sions, fallen upon as Brandenburg (under Albert chiefly) 
enlarged itself, and needed new Official parcellings into de- 


Under Albert the Markgrafdom had risen to be an Elec- 
torate withal. The Markgraf of Brandenburg was now fur- 
thermore the Kurfirst of Brandenburg; officially "Arch-trea- 
surer of the Holy Roman Empire;" and one of the Seven 
who have a right (which became about this time an exclusive 
one for those Seven) to choose, to kieren the Romish Kaiser ; 
and who are therefore called Kur Princes, Kurf&rste or Elec- 
tors, as the highest dignity except the Kaiser's own. In 
reference to which abstruse matter, likely to concern us 
somewhat, will the uninstructed English reader consent to 
the following Excerpt, slightly elucidatory of Kurfursts and 
their function? 

"Furst (Prince) I suppose is equivalent originally to our 
noun of number, First. The old verb kieren (participle erko- 
ren still in use, not to mention 'Val-Agw' and other instances) 
is essentially the same word as our choose, being written kiesen 
as well as kieren. Nay, say the etymologists, it is also written 
leussen (to kiss, to choose with such emphasis !), and is not 
likely to fall obsolete in that form. The other Six Electoral 
Dignitaries who grew to Eight by degrees, and may be worth 
noting once by the readers of this Book, are : 

"1. Three Ecclesiastical, Mainz, Coin, Trier (Mentz, Co- 
logne, Treves), Archbishops all, with sovereignty and territory 
more or less considerable; who used to be elected as Popes 
are, theoretically by their respective Chapters and the Heav- 
enly Inspirations, but practically by the intrigues and pres- 
sures of the neighboring Potentates, especially France and 

" 2. Three Secular, Sachsen, Pfate, Bohmen (Saxony, Palati- 
nate, Bohemia) ; of which the last, Bohmen, since it fell from 
being a Kingdom in itself, to being a Province of Austria, is 
not very vocal in the Diets. These Six, with Brandenburg, 
are the Seven Kurfttrsts in old time ; Septemvirs of the Coun- 
try, so to speak. 

"But now PfdUt, in the Thirty-Years War (under our 
Prince Rupert's Father, whom the Germans call the 'Winter- 
King'), got abrogated, put to the ban, so far as an indignant 
Kaiser could; and the vote and JTwrof Pfalz was given to 



his Cousin of Scnem (Bavaria), so far as an indignant Kai- 
ser could. However, at the Peace of Westphalia (1648) it 
was found incompetent to any Kaiser to abrogate Pfalz or 
the like of Pfalz, a Kurfiirst of the Empire. So, after jargon 
inconceivable, it was settled, That Pfalz must be reinstated, 
though with territories much clipped, and at the bottom of 
the list, not the top as formerly; and that Baiern, who could 
not stand to be balked after twenty years' possession, must 
be made Eighth Elector. The Ninth, we saw (Year 1692), 
was Gentleman Ernst of Hanover. There never was any 
Tenth; and the Holy Somitche Belch, which was a grand ob- 
ject once, but had gone about in a superannuated and plainly 
crazy state for some centuries back, was at last put out of 
pain, by Napoleon, '6th August, 1806,' and allowed to cease 
from this world." * 

None of Albert's wars are so comfortable to reflect on as 
those he had with the anarchic Wends ; whom he now fairly 
beat to powder, and either swept away, or else damped down 
into Christianity and keeping of the peace. Swept them away 
otherwise; "peopling their lands extensively with Colonists 
from Holland, whom an inroad of the sea had rendered home- 
less there." Which surely was a useful exchange. Nothing 
better is known to me of Albert the Bear than this his intro- 
ducing large numbers of Dutch Netherlanders into those coun- 
tries; men thrown out of work, who already knew how to 
deal with bog and sand, by mixing and delving, and who first 
taught Brandenburg what greenness and. cow-pasture was. 
The Wends, in presence of such things, could not but consent 
more and more to efface themselves, either to become Ger- 
man, and grow milk and cheese in the Dutch manner, or to 
disappear from the world. 

The Wendish Princes had a taste for German wives ; in 
which just taste the Albert genealogy was extremely willing 
to indulge them. Affinities produce inheritances ; by proper 
marriage-contracts you can settle on what side the most con- 
tingent inheritance shall at length fall. Dim but pretty cer- 
tain lies a time coming when the Wendish Princes also shall 


hare effaced themselves; and all stall be Qerman-Branden- 
burgish, not Wendish any more. The actual Inhabitants of 
Brandenburg, therefore, are either come of Dutch Bog-farm- 
ers, or are simple Lower Saxons ("Anglo-Saxon," if you like 
that better), Platt-T&utgeh of the common type ; an unexcep- 
tionable breed of people. Streaks of Wendish population, 
extruded gradually into the remoter quagmires, and more 
inaccessible, less valuable sedgy moors and sea-strands, are 
scattered about; Mecklenburg, which still subsists separately 
after a sort, is reckoned peculiarly Wendish. In Mecklenburg, 
Pommern, Pommerellen (Little Pomerania), are still to be 
seen physiognomies of a Wendish or Yandalic type (more of 
cheek than there ought to be, and less of brow ; otherwise 
good enough physiognomies of their kind) : but the general 
mass, tempered with such admixtures, is of the Platt-Deutsch, 
Saxon or even Auglish character we are familiar with here at 
home. A patient stout people ; meaning considerable things, 
and very incapable of speaking what it means. 

Albert was a fine tall figure himself 5 der Schone, "Albert 
the Handsome," was his name as often as "Albert the Bear." 
That latter epithet he got, not from his looks or qualities, but 
merely from his heraldic cognizance: a Bear on his shield. 
As was then the mode of names ; surnames being scant, and 
not yet fixedly in existence. Thus too his contemporaries, 
Henry tU Lion of Saxony and Welf dom, William the Lion of 
Scotland, were not, either of them, specially leonine men : nor 
had the Plawtagenets, or Geoffrey of Anjou, any connection 
with the Plant of Broom, except wearing a twig of it in their 
caps on occasion. Men are glad to get some designation for a 
grand Albert they are often speaking of, which shall distin- 
guish him from the many small ones. Albert "the Bear, der 
Bar," will do as well as another. 

It was this one first that made Brandenburg peaceable and 
notable. We might call him the second founder of Branden- 
burg ; he, in the middle of the Twelfth Century, completed 
for it what Henry the Fowler had begun early in the Tenth. 
After two hundred and fifty years of barking and worrying, 
the Wends are now finally reduced to silence; their anarchy 

well buried, and wholesome Dutch, cabbage planted over it: 
Albert did several great things in the world; but this, for 
posterity, remains bis memorable feat. Not done quite easily; 
but done: big destinies of Nations or of Persons are not 
founded gratis in this world. He had a sore toilsome time 
of it, coercing, warring, managing among his fellow-creatures, 
while his day's-work lasted, fifty years or so, for it began 
early. He died in his Castle of Ballenstadt, peaceably among 
the Hartz Mountains at last, in the year 1170, age about sixty- 
five. It was in the time while Thomas a Becket was roving 
about the world, coming home excommunicative, and finally 
getting killed in Canterbury Cathedral; while Abbot Samson, 
still a poor little brown Boy, came over from Norfolk, holding 
by his mother's hand, to St. Edmundsbury ; having seen " Sa- 
tanas with outspread wings " fearfully busy in this world. 



IT was in those same years that a stout young fellow, Con- 
rad by name, far off in the southern parts of Germany, set out 
from the old Castle of Hohenzollern, where he was but junior, 
and had small outlooks, upon a very great errand in the world. 
From Hohenzollern ; bound now towards Gelnhausen, Kaisers- 
lautern, or whatever temporary lodging the great Kaiser Bar- 
barossa might be known to have, who was a wandering man, 
his business lying everywhere over half the world, and need- 
ing the master's eye. Conrad's purpose is to find Barbarossa, 
and seek fortune under him. 

This is a very indisputable event of those same years. The 
exact date, the figure, circumstances of it were, most likely, 
never written anywhere but on Conrad's own brain, and are 
now rubbed out f orevermore ; but the event itself is certain ; 
and of the highest concernment to this Narrative. Somewhere 



about the year 1170, likeliest a few years before that, 1 this 
Conrad, riding down, from Hoheuzollern, probably with no 
great stock of luggage about him, little dreams of being 
connected with Brandenburg on the other side of the world ; 
but is unconsciously more so than any other of the then sons 
of Adam. He is the lineal ancestor, twentieth in direct as- 
cent, of the little Boy now sleeping in his cradle at Berlin ; let 
him wait till nineteen generations, valiantly like Conrad, have 
done their part, and gone out, Conrad will find he is come to 
this ! A man's destiny is strange always ; and never wants 
for miracles, or will want, though it sometimes may for eyes 
to discern them. 

Hohenzollern lies far south in Schwaben (Suabia), on the 
sunward slope of the Eauhe-Alp Country ; no great way north 
from Constance and its Lake ; but well aloft, near the springs 
of the Danube ; its back leaning on the Black Forest ; it is per- 

Hercynian Wood, which is still called the Schwaritwald (Black 
Forest), though now comparatively bare of trees.* Fanciful 
Dryasdust, doing a little etymology, will tell you the name 
Zottern is equivalent to Tottery or Place of Tolls. Whereby 
ITohenxollern comes to mean the High or Upper Tottery ; 
and gives one the notion of antique pedlers climbing pain- 
fully, out of Italy and the Swiss valleys, thus far ; unstrap- 
about toll. Poor souls ; it may be so, but we do not know, 
nor shall it concern us. This only is known : That a human 
kindred, probably of some talent for coercing anarchy and 

ntrgischer Ceder-Hein (Bairenth, 1682), pp. 273-276. 

See also Johann Ulrich Pregitzern, Teutscher Regierungt- und Ehren-Spiegei, 
vorbildend c. da, Bouses HohenzoUern (Berlin, 1703), pp. 90-93. A learned 
and painful Book: by a Tubingen Professor, who is deeply tend in the old 
Histories, and gives Portraits and other Engravings of some value. 

* "There are still considerable spottings of wood (pine mainly, and 'black' 
enough); Hobhmdd (timber-trade) still a considerable branch of business 
there; and on the streams of the country are cunning contrivances notice- 
able, for floating down the article into the Neckar river, and thence into the 
Rhine and to Holland." ( Teuritti Note.) 



guiding mankind, had, Centuries ago, built its Burg there, and 
done that function in a small but creditable way ever since ; 
kindred possibly enough derivable from "Thassilo," Charle- 
magne, King Dagobert, and other Kings, but certainly from 
Adam and the Almighty Maker, who had given it those quali- 
ties; and that Conrad, a junior member of the same, now 
goes forth from it in the way we see. " Why should a young 
fellow that has capabilities," thought Conrad, "stay at home 
in hungry idleness, with no estate but his javelin and buff 
jerkin, and no employment but his hawks, when there is a 
wide opulent world waiting only to be conquered ? " This was 
Conrad's thought; and it proved to be a very just one. 

It was now the flower-time of the Romish Kaisership of 
Germany ; about the middle or noon of Earbarossa himself, 
second of the Hohenstauffens, and greatest of all the Kaisers 
of that or any other house. Kaiser fallen unintelligible to 
most modern readers, and wholly unknown, which is a pity. 
No King so furnished out with apparatus and arena, with 
personal faculty to rule and scene to do it in, has appeared 
elsewhere. A magnificent magnanimous man; holding the 
reins of the world, not quite in the imaginary sense j scourg- 
ing anarchy down, and urging noble effort up, really on a 
grand seals. A terror to evil-doers and a praise to well-doers 
in this world, probably beyond what was ever seen since. 
Whom also we salute across the centuries, as a choice Benefi- 
cence of Heaven. "Encamped on the Plain of Koncaglia 
[when he entered Italy, as he too often had occasion to do], 
his shield was hung out on a high mast over his tent ; " and 
it meant in those old days, "Ho, every one that has suffered 
wrong ; here is a Kaiser come to judge you, as he shall answer 
it to his Master." And men gathered round him ; and actually 
found some justice, if they could discern it when found. 
Which they could not always do; neither was the justice 
capable of being perfect always. A fearfully difficult func- 
tion, that of Ttoedrich Eedbeard. But an inexorably indis- 
pensable one in this world; though sometimes dispensed 
with (to the huge joy of Anarchy, which sings Hallelujah 
through all its Newspapers) for a season! 



Kaiser Friedrich had immense difficulties with his Popes, 
with his Milanese, and the like; besieged Milan six times 
over, among other anarchies ; had indeed a heavy-laden hard 
time of it, his task being great and the greatest. He made 
Gebhardus, the anarchic Governor of Milan, "lie chained un- 
der his table, like a dog, for three days." For the man was 
in earnest, in that earnest time: and let us say, they are 
but paltry sham-men who are not so, in any time ; paltry, and 
far worse than paltry, however high their plumes may be. Of 
whom the sick world (Anarchy, both vocal and silent, having 
now swoln rather high) is everywhere getting weary. Geb- 
hardus, the anarchic Governor, lay three days under the Kai- 
ser's table ; as it would be well if every anarchic Governor, 
of the soft type and of the hard, were made to do on occasion; 
asking himself, in terrible earnest, " Am I a dog, then ; alas, 
am not I a dog ? " Those were serious old times. 

On the other hand, Kaiser Friedrich had his Tourneys, his 
gleams of bright joyances now and then ; one great gathering 
of all the chivalries at Mainz, which lasted for three weeks 
long, the grandest Tourney ever seen in this world. Geln- 
hausen, in the Wetterau (ruin still worth seeing, on its Island 
in the Kinzig river), is understood to have been one of his 
Houses ; Kaiserslautern (Kaiser's Limpid, from its clear spring- 
water) in the Pfalz (what we call Palatinate), another. He 
went on the Crusade in his seventieth year ; l thinking to him- 
self, " Let us end with one clear act of piety : " he cut his 
way through the dangerous Greek attorneyisms, through the 
hungry mountain passes, furious Turk fanaticisms, like a gray 
old hero : " Woe is me, my son has perished, then? " said he 
once, tears wetting the beard now white enough ; " My son 
is slain 1 But Christ still lives ; let us on, my men 1 " And 
gained great victories, and even found his son ; but never re- 
turned home ; died, some unknown sudden death, " in the 
river Cydnns," say the most* Nay German Tradition thinks 

1 1189, A.D. ; Saladin having, to the universal sorrow, taken Jerusalem. 

* Kohler (p. 188), and the Authorities cited by him. Bunan's Deutocht 
KOMVT. tmrf ReMu-Huterie (Leipzig, 1788-1743), L, is the express Book o* 
Barburossa: an elaborate, instructive Volume. 


he is not yet dead ; but only sleeping, till the bad world reach 
its worst, when he will reappear. He sits within the Hill near 

Salzburg yonder, says German Tradition, its fancy kindled 

by the strange noises in that Hill (limestone Hill) from hid- 
den waters, and by the grand rocky look of the place : A 
peasant once, stumbling into the interior, saw the Kaiser in 
his stone cavern ; Kaiser sat at a marble table, leaning on his 
elbow ; winking, only half asleep ; beard had grown through 
the table, and streamed out on the floor; he looked at the 
peasant one moment ; asked him something about the time it 
was ; then dropped his eyelids again : Not yet time, but will 
be soon ! 1 He is winking as if to awake. To awake, and set 
his shield aloft by the Eoncalic Fields again, with : Ho, every 
one that is suffering wrong ; or that has strayed guideless, 
devil-ward, and done wrong, which is far fataler 1 

Conrad has become Burggraf of Nurnberg (A.D. 1170). 

This was the Kaiser to whom Conrad addressed himself ; 
and he did it with success ; which may be taken as a kind of 
testimonial to the worth of the young man. Details we have 
absolutely none : but there is no doubt that Conrad recom- 
mended himself to Kaiser Bedbeard, nor any that the Kaiser 
was a judge of men. Very earnest to discern men's worth 
and capabilities; having unspeakable need of worth, instead 
of unworth, in those under him ! We may conclude he had 
found capabilities in Conrad ; found that the young fellow did 
effective services as the occasion rose, and knew how to work, 
in a swift, resolute, judicious and exact manner. Promotion 
was not likely on other terms ; still less, high promotion. 

One thing farther is known, significant for his successes : 
Conrad found favor with "the Heiress of the Vohburg Fam- 
ily," desirable young heiress, and got her to wife. The Voh- 
bnrg Family, now much forgotten everywhere, and never heard 
of in England before, had long been of supreme importance, 
of immense possessions, and opulent in territories, and we 

i Biesebeck'g Traeds (English Translation, London, 1787), 1. 140. BOieh- 
ing, VoOc+Sagen, Ac. (Leipzig, 1820), 1. 833, &c. &c. 


need not add, in honors and offices, in those toanconian Nurn- 
berg regions ; and was now gone to this one girl. I know not 
that she had much inheritance after all ; the vast Vohbvug 
properties lapsing all to the Kaiser, when the male heirs were 
out. But she had pretensions, tacit claims ; in particular, the 
Vohburgs had long been habitual or in effect hereditary Burg- 
graf s of Niirnberg ; and if Conrad had the talent for that 
office, he now, in preference to others, might have a chance for 
it. Sure enough, he got it ; took root in it, he and his ; and, 
in the course of centuries, branched up from it, high and 
wide, over the adjoining countries ; waxing towards still higher 
destinies. That is the epitome of Conrad's history; history 
now become very great, but then no bigger than its neighbors, 
and very meagrely recorded ; of which the reflective reader is 
to make what he can. 

There is nothing clearly known of Conrad more than these 
three facts : That he was a cadet of Hohenzollern (whose 
father's name, and some forefathers' names are definitely 
known in the family archives, but do not concern us) ; that 
he married the Heiress of the Vohburgs, whose history is 
on record in like manner ; and that he was appointed Burg- 
graf of Kurnberg, year not precisely known, but before 
1170, as would seem. "In a Reichstag (Diet of the Empire) 
held at Regensburg in or about 1170," he formally complains, 
he and certain others, all stanch Kaiser's friends (for in fact 
it was with the Kaiser's knowledge, or at his instigation), 
of Henry the Lion's high procedures and malpractices; of 
Henry's League with the Pope, League with the King of 
Denmark, and so forth ; the said Henry having indeed fallen 
into opposition, to a dangerous degree ; and signs himself 
Burggraf of Niirriberg, say the old Chronicles. 1 The old Docu- 
ment itself has long since perished, I conclude : but the Chron- 
icles may be accepted as reporters of so conspicuous a thing ; 
which was the beginning of long strife in Germany, and 
proved the ruin of Henry the Lion, supreme Welf grown 
over-big, and cost our English Henry H., whose daugh- 
ter he had married, a world of trouble and expense, we may 
1 Kentech, p. 276 (who cites Aventinus, TrittAam, Ac.). 


remark withaL Conrad therefore ifl already Burggraf of Niim- 
berg, and a man of mark, in 1170 : and his marriage, still more 
his first sally from the paternal Castle to seek his fortune, 
must all be dated earlier. 

More is not known of Conrad : except indeed that he did 
not perish in Barbarossa's grand final Crusade. For the an- 
tiquaries have again found him signed to some contract, or 
otherwise insignificant document, A.D. 1200. Which is proof 
positive that he did not die in the Crusade; and proof proba- 
ble that he was not of it, few, hardly any, of those stalwart 
150,000 champions of the Cross having ever got home again. 
Conrad, by this time, might have sons come to age ; fitter for 
arms and fatigues than he : and indeed at Numberg, in 
Deutsehland generally, as Official Prince of the Empire, and 
man of weight and judgment, Conrad's services might be still 
more useful, and the Kaiser's interests might require him rather 
to stay at home in that juncture. Burggraf of Kttrnberg he 
continued to be ; he and his descendants, first in a selective, 
then at length in a directly hereditary way, century after cen- 
tury ; and so long as that office lasted in Nurnberg (which it 
did there much longer than in other Imperial Free-Cities), a 
Comes de Zolre of Conrad's producing was always the man 

Their acts, in that station and capacity, as Burggraves and 
Princes of the Empire, were once conspicuous enough in Ger- 
man History ; and indeed are only so dim now, because the 
History itself is, and was always, dim to us on this side of the 
sea. They did strenuous work in their day ; and occasionally 
towered up (though little driven by the poor wish of M tower- 
ing," or shining " without need) into the high places of 
Public History. They rest now from their labors, Conrad 
and bis successors, in long series, in the old Monastery of 
Heilsbronn (between Kurnberg and Anspach), with Tombs to 
many of them, which were very legible for slight Biographic 
purposes in my poor friend JJentsch's time, a hundred and 
fifty years ago; and may perhaps still have some quasi-use, 
as "sepulchral brasses," to another class of persons. One or 
two of those old buried Figures, more peculiarly important 


for our little Friend now sleeping in his cradle yonder, we 
must endeavor, as the Narrative proceeds, to resuscitate a 
little and render visible for moments. 

Qf the ffokenzollern Bwrggraves generally. 

As to the Office, it was more important than perhaps the 
reader imagines. We already saw Conrad first Burggraf, 
among the magnates of the country, denouncing Henry the 
Lion. Every Burggraf of Niirnberg is, in virtue of his office, 
"Prince of the Empire: "if a man happened to have talent 
of his own, and solid resources of his own (which are always 
on the growing hand with this family), here is a basis from 
which he may go far enough. Burggraf of Niirnberg : that 
means again Graf (judge, defender, manager, g'reeoe) of the 
Kaiser's Burg or Castle, in a word Kaiser's Eepresentative 
and Alter Ego, in the old Imperial Free-Town of Nurnberg; 
with much adjacent very complex territory, also, to administer 
for the Kaiser. A flourishing extensive City, this old Nurn- 
berg, with valuable adjacent territory, civic and imperial, intri- 
cately intermixed; full of commercial industries, opulences, 
not without democratic tendencies. Nay it is almost, in some 
senses, the London and Middlesex of the Germany that then 
was, if we will consider it ! 

This is a place to give a man chances, and try what stuff is 
in him. The office involves a talent for governing, as well as 
for judging; talent for fighting also, in cases of extremity, 
and what is still better, a talent for avoiding to fight. None 
but a man of competent superior parts can do that function ; 
I suppose, no imbecile could have existed many months in it, 
in the old earnest times. Conrad and his succeeding Hohen- 
zollerns proved very capable to do it, as would seem ; and 
grew and spread in it, waxing bigger and bigger, from their 
first planting there by Kaiser Barbarossa, a successful judge 
of men. And ever since that time, from "about the year 
1170," down to the year 1815, when so much was changed, 
owing to another (temporary) " Kaiser " of new type, Napo- 
leon his name, the Hohenzollerns have had a footing in 

Ffemkenland; and done sovereignty in and round Niirnberg, 
with an enlarging Territory in that region. Territory at last 
of large compass ; which, under the names Margrafdom of 
Anspaeh, and of Eaireuth, or in general Margrafdom of Culm- 
bach, which includes both, has become familiar in History. 

For the House vent on steadily increasing, as it were, from 
the first day ; the Hohenzollerns being always of a growing, 
gaining nature; as men are that live conformably to the 
laws of this Universe, and of their place therein 5 which, as 
will appear from good study of their old records, though idle 
rumor, grounded on no study, sometimes says the contrary, 
these Hohenzollerns eminently were. A thrifty, steadfast, 
diligent, clear-sighted, stout-hearted line of men; of loyal 
nature withal, and even to be called just and pious, sometimes 
to a notable degree. Men not given to fighting, where it could 
be avoided ; yet with a good swift stroke in them, where it 
could not : princely people after their sort, with a high, not 
an ostentatious turn of mind. They, for most part, go upon 
solid prudence ; if possible, are anxious to reach the goal with- 
out treading on any one ; are peaceable, as I often say, and 
by no means quarrelsome, in aspect and demeanor ; yet there 
is generally in the Hohenzollerns a very fierce flash of anger, 
capable of blazing out in cases of urgency : this latter also is 
one of the most constant features I have noted in the long 
series of them. That they grew in Frankenland, year after 
year, and century after century, while it was their fortune to 
last, alive and active there, is no miracle, on such terms. 

Their old big Castle of Plassenburg (now a Penitentiary, 
with treadmill and the other furnishings) still stands on its 
Height, near Culmbach, looking down over the pleasant meet- 
ing of the Eed and White Mayn Rivers and of their fruitful 
valleys ; awakening many thoughts in the traveller. Anspaeh 
Schloss, and still more Baireuth Schloss (Mansion, one day, of 
our little Wilhelmina of Berlin, Fritzkin's sister, now prattling 
there in so old a way; where notabilities have been, one and 
another; which Jean Paul, too, saw daily in his walks, while 
alive and looking skyward) : these, and many other castles 


and things, belonging now wholly to Bavaria, will continue 
memorable for Hohenzollern history. 

The Family did its due share, sometimes an excessive one, 
in religious beneficences and foundations ; which was not quite 
left off in recent times, though much altering its figure. 
Erlangen University, for example, was of Wilhelmina's doing. 
Erlangen University; and also an Opera-House of excessive 
size in Baireuth. Such was poor Wilhelmina's sad figure of 
" religion." In the old days, their largest bequest that I recol- 
lect was to the Teutsche Bitter, Order of Teutonic Knights, 
very celebrated in those days. Junior branches from Hohen- 
zollern, as from other families, sought a career in that chival- 
rous devout Brotherhood now and then ; one pious Burggraf 
had three sons at once in it; he, a very bequeathing Herr 
otherwise, settled one of his mansions, Virnsperg, with rents 
and incomings, on the Order. Which accordingly had thence- 
forth a Comthurei (Commandery) in that country ; Comthurei 
of Virnsperg the name of it : the date of donation is A.D. 1294; 
and two of the old Herr's three Bitter sons, we can remark, 
were successively Comthurs (Commanders, steward-prefects) 
of Virnsperg, the first two it had. 1 

This was in 1294 ; the palmy period, or culmination time ol 
the Teutsches Bitterthum. Concerning which, on wider ac- 
counts, we must now say a word. 


BABBAKOSSA'S Army of Crusaders did not come home again, 
any more than Barbarossa. They were stronger than Turk or 
Saracen, but not than Hunger and Disease ; Leaders did not 
know then, as our little Friend at Berlin came to know, that 
"an Army, like a serpent, goes upon its beHy." After fine 
fighting and considerable victories, the end of this Crusade 


was, it took to " besieging Acre," and in reality lay perishing 
as of murrain on the beach at Acre, without shelter, without 
medicine, without food. Not even Bichard Cceur-de-Lion, and 
his best prowess and help, could avert such issue from it. 

Eichard's Crusade fell in with the fag-end of Barbarossa's ; 
and it was Richard chiefly that managed to take Acre; at 
least so Richard flattered himself, when he pulled poor Leopold 
of Austria's standard from the towers, and trailed it through 
the gutters: "Your standard? You have taken Acre?" 
Which turned out ill for Richard afterwards. And Duke 
Leopold has a bad name among us in consequence ; much worse 
than he deserves. Leopold had stuff in him too. He died, 
for example, in this manner : falling with his horse, I think 
in some siege or other, he had got his leg hurt ; which hin- 
dered him in fighting. Leg could not be cured : " Cut it off, 
then ! " said Leopold. This also the leech could not do ; durst 
not, and would not ; so that Leopold was come quite to a halt. 
Leopold ordered out two squires ; put his thigh upon a block, 
the sharp edge of an axe at the right point across his thigh : 
"Squire first, hold you that axe; steady! Squire second, 
smite you on it with forge-hammer, with all your strength, 
heavy enough ! " Squire second struck, heavy enough, and 
the leg flew off ; but Leopold took inflammation, died in a day 
or two, as the leech had predicted. That is a fact to be found 
in current authors (quite exact or not quite), that surgical 
operation : * such a man cannot have his flag trailed through 
the gutters by any Co3ur-de-Lion. But we return to the beach 
at Acre, and the poor Crusaders, dying as of murrain there. 
It is the year 1190, Acre not yet taken, nor these quarrels got 
to a height. 

"The very Templars, Hospitallers, neglect us," murmured 
the dying Germans; "they have perhaps enough to do, and 
more than enough, with their own countrymen, whose speech 
is intelligible to them ? For us, it would appear, there is no 
help!" Not altogether none. A company of pious souls 
compassionate Lubeck ship-captains diligently forwarding it, 
and one Walpot von Bassenheim, a citizen of Bremen, taking 
1 Mentzel, Gescltichte der DeutxAen (Stuttgaid and Tubingen, 1837), p. 309. 


the lead formed themselves into a union for succor of the 
sick and dying; "set up canvas tents," medicinal assuage- 
ments, from the Lubeck ship-stores ; and did what utmost was 
in them, silently in the name of Mercy and Heaven. " This 
Walpot was not by birth a nobleman," says one of the old 
Chroniclers, "but his deeds were noble." This pious little 
union proved unconsciously the beginning of a great thing. 
Finding its work prosper here, and gain favor, the little union 
took vows on itself, strict chivalry forms, and decided to 
become permanent. "Knights Hospitallers of our dear Lady 
of Mount Zion," that or something equivalent was their first 
title, under Walpot their first Grand-Master; which soon grew 
to be "German Order of St. Mary" (Teutsche Bitter of the 
Marie-Orden), or for shortness Teutsches Ritterthum ; under 
which name it played a great part in the world for above three 
centuries to come, and eclipsed in importance both the Tem- 
plars and Hospitallers of St. John. 

This was the era of Chivalry Orders, and Geliibde; time for 
Bodies of Men uniting themselves by a Sacred Vow, "Ge- 
liibde;" which word and thing have passed over to us in 
a singularly dwindled condition : " Club " we now call it ; and 
the vow, if sacred, does not aim very high! Templars and 
Hospitallers were already famous bodies ; the latter now almost 
a century old. Walpot's new Geliibde was of similar intent, 
only German in kind, the protection, defence and solacement 
of Pilgrims, with whatever that might involve. 

Head of Teutsch Order moves to Venice. 

The Teutsch Bitters earned character in Palestine, and began 
to get bequests and recognition; but did not long continue 
there, like their two rival Orders. It was not in Palestine, 
whether the Orders might be aware of it or not, that their 
work could now lie. Pious Pilgrims certainly there still are 
in great numbers ; to these you shall do the sacred rites : but 
these, under a Saladin bound by his word, need little protec- 
tion by the sword. And as for Crusading in the armed fash- 
ion, that has fallen visibly into the decline. After Barbarossa, 

CaBur-de-Lion and Philippe Auguste have tried it with such 
failure, what wise man will be in haste to try it again ? Zeal- 
ous Popes continue to stir up Crusades ; but the Secular Powers 
are not in earnest as formerly ; Secular Powers, when they 
do go, "take Constantinople," "conquer Sicily," never take 
or conquer anything in Palestine. The Teutsch Order helps 
valiantly in Palestine, or would help; but what is the use 
of helping? The Teutsch Order has already possessions in 
Europe, by pious bequest and otherwise ; all its main interests 
lie there ; in fine, after less than thirty years, Hermann von 
der Salza, a new sagacious Teutschmeister or Hochmeister (so 
they call the head of the Order), fourth in the series, a far- 
seeing, negotiating man, finds that Venice will be a fitter place 
of lodging for him than Acre : and accordingly during his long 
Mastership (A.D. 1210-1239), he is mostly to be found there, 
and not at Acre or Jerusalem. 

He is very great with the busy Kaiser, Friedrich II., Barba-. 
rossa's grandson ; who has the usual quarrels with the Pope, 
and is glad of such a negotiator, statesman as well as armed 
monk. The usual quarrels this great Kaiser had, all along, 
and some unusual. Normans ousted from Sicily, who used to 
be so Papal : a Kaiser not gone on the Crusade, as he had 
vowed; Kaiser at last suspected of freethinking even: in 

he is appointed arbiter between the Pope and Kaiser j does 
not give it in the Kaiser's favor, but against him, where he 
thinks the Kaiser is wrong. He is reckoned the first great 
Hochmeister, this Hermann von der Salza, a Thitringer by 
birth, who is fourth in the series of Masters: perhaps the 
greatest to be found there at all, though many were consider- 
able. It is evident that no man of his time was busier in 
important public affairs, or with better acceptance, than Her- 
mann. His Order, both Pope and Emperor so favoring the 
Master of it, was in a vigorous state of growth all this while ; 
Hermann well proving that he could help it better at Venice 
than at Acre. 

But if the Crusades are ended, as indeed it turned out, 
only one other worth speaking of, St. Louis's, having in earnest 


come to effect, or rather to miserable non-effect, and that not 
yet for fifty years; if the Crusades are ended, and the 
Teutsch Order increases always in possessions, and finds less 
and less work, what probably will become of the Teutsch 
Order? Grow fat, become luxurious, incredulous, dissolute, 
insolent; and need to be burnt out of the way? That was 
the course of the Templars, and their sad end. They began 
poorest of the poor, " two Knights to one Horse," as their Seal 
bore ; and they at last took fire on very opposite accounts. 
"To carouse like a Templar:" that had become a proverb 
among men; that was the way to produce combustion, "spon- 
taneous" or other! Whereas their fellow Hospitallers of St. 
John, chancing upon new work (Anti-Turk garrison-duty, so 
we may call it, successively in Cyprus, Rhodes, Malta, for a 
series of ages), and doing it well, managed to escape the like. 
As did the Teutsch Order in a still more conspicuous n 

Tewtsch Order itself goes to Preussen. 

Ever since St. Adalbert fell massacred in Prussia, stamping 
himself as a Crucifix on that Heathen soil, there have been 
attempts at conversion going on by the Christian neighbors, 
Dukes of Poland and others : intermittent fits of fighting and 
preaching for the last two hundred years, with extremely small 
result. Body of St. Adalbert was got at light weight, and the 
poor man canonized ; there is even a Titular Bishop of Prussia ; 
and pilgrimages wander to the Shrine of Adalbert in Poland, 
reminding you of Prussia in a tragic manner ; but what avails 
it ? Missionaries, when they set foot in the country, are killed 
or flung out again. The Bishop of Prussia is titular merely ; 
lives' in Liefiand (Livonia) properly Bishop of Riga, among the 
Bremen trading-settlers and converted Lieflanders there, which 
is the only safe place, if even that were safe without aid of 
armed men, such as he has there even now. He keeps his 
ScJtwertbruder (Brothers of the Sword), a small Order of 
Knights, recently got up by him, for express behoof of Liefland 
itself; and these, fighting their best, are sometimes trouble- 
some to the Bishop, and do not much prosper upon Heathen- 


dom, or gain popularity and resources in the Christian world. 
Ho hope in the Schwertbnider for Prussia ; and in massacred 
Missionaries what hope ? The Prussian population continues 
Heathen, untamable to Gospel and Law; and after two centu- 
ries of effort, little or no real progress has been made. 

But now, in these circumstances, in the year 1226, the Titu- 
lar Bishop of Prussia, having well considered the matter and 
arranged it with the Polish Authorities, opens a communica- 
tion with Hermann von der Salza, at Venice, on the subject ; 
"Crusading is over in the East, illustrious Hochmeister; no 
duty for a Teutsch Order there at present : what is the use of 
crusading far off in the East, when Heathenism and the King- 
dom of Satan hangs on our own borders, close at hand, in the 
North? Let the Teutsch Order come to Preussen; head a 
Crusade there. The land is fruitful ; flows really with milk 
and honey, not to speak of amber, and was once called the 
Terrestrial Paradise" by I forget whom. 1 In fact, it is 
clear, the land should belong to Christ ; and if the Christian 
Teutsch Eitterdom could conquer it from Satanas for them- 
selves, it would be well for all parties. Hermann, a man of sa- 
gacious clear head, listens attentively. The notion is perhaps 
not quite new to him : at all events, he takes up the notion ; ne- 
gotiates upon it, with Titular Bishop, with Pope, Kaiser, Duke 
of Poland, Teutsch Order ; and in brief, about two years after- 
wards (A.D. 1228), having done the negotiating to the last 
item, he produces his actual Teutsch Eitters, ready, on Prus- 
sian ground. 

Year 1228, thinks Dryasdust, after a struggle. Place where, 
proves also at length discoverable in Dryasdust, not too far 
across the north Polish frontier, always with "Masovia" (the 
now Warsaw region) to fall back upon. But in what number ; 
how; nay almost when, to a year, do not ask poor Dryas- 
dust, who overwhelms himself with idle details, and by reason 
of the trees is unable to see the wood. 8 The Teutsch Eitters 
straightway build a Burg for headquarters, spread themselves 
on this hand and that ; and begin their great task. In the 
i Voigt (if he had an Index !) knows, 
a Voigt, ii. 177, 184, 192. 


name of Heaven, we may still say in a true sense ; as they, 
every Bitter of them to the heart, felt it to be in all manner 
of senses. 

The Prussians were a fierce fighting people, fanatically Anti- 
Christian : the Teutsch Bitters had a perilous never-resting time 
of it, especially for the first fifty years. They built and burnt 
innumerable stockades for and against; built wooden Forts 
which are now stone Towns. They fought much and preva- 
lently; galloped desperately to and fro, ever on the alert. In 
peaceabler ulterior times, they fenced in the Nogat and the 
Weichsel with dams, whereby unlimited quagmire might become 
grassy meadow, as it continues to this day. Marienburg 
(Mary's Burg), still a town of importance in that same grassy 
region, with its grand stone Schloss still visible and even habi- 
table ; this was at length their Headquarter. But how many 
Burgs of wood and stone they built, in different parts ; what 
revolts, surprisals, furious fights in woody boggy places, they 
had, no man has counted. Their life, read in Dryasdust's 
newest chaotic Books (which are of endless length, among 
other ill qualities), is like a dim nightmare of unintelligible 
marching and fighting: one feels as if the mere amount of 
galloping they had would have carried the Order several times 
round the Globe. What multiple of the Equator was it, then, 
Dryasdust ? The Herr Professor, little studious of abridg- 
ment, does not say. 

But always some preaching, by zealous monks, accompanied 
the chivalrous fighting. And colonists came in from Germany ; 
trickling in, or at times streaming. Victorious Bitterdom 
offers terms to the beaten Heathen; terms not of tolerant 
nature, but which will be punctually kept by Bitterdom. 
When the flame of revolt or general conspiracy burnt up again 
too extensively, there was a new Crusade proclaimed in Ger- 
many and Christendom ; and the Hochmeister, at Marburg or 
elsewhere, and all his marshals and ministers were busy, 
generally with effect. High personages came on crusade to 
them. Ottocar King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria and much 
else, the great man of his day, came once (A.D. 1255) ; Johann 
King of Bohemia, in the next century, once and again. The 


mighty Ottocar, 1 with his extensive fax-shining chivalry, "con- 
quered Samland in a month;" tore up the Bomova where 
Adalbert had been massacred, and burnt it from the, face of 
the Earth. A certain Fortress was founded at that time, in 
Ottocar's presence ; and in honor of him they named it King's 
Fortress, " Konigsberg : " it is now grown a big-domed metro- 
politan City, where we of this Narrative lately saw a Coro- - 
nation going on, and Sophie Charlotte furtively taking a pinch 
of snuff. Among King Ottocar's esquires or subaltern junior 
officials on this occasion, is one Rudolf, heir of a poor Swiss 
Lordship and gray Hill-Castle, called Hapsburg, rather in 
reduced circumstances, whom Ottocar likes for his prudent 
hardy ways; a stout, modest, wise young man, who may 
chance to redeem Hapsburg a little, if he live? How the 
shuttles fly, and the life-threads, always, in this "loud-roaring 
Loom of Time ! " 

Along with Ottocar too, as an ally in the Crusade, was 
Otto III. Ascanier Markgraf and Elector of Brandenburg, 
great-grandson of Albert the Bear ; name Otto the Pious in 
consequence. He too founded a Town in Prussia, on this occa- 
sion, and called it Brandenburg ; which is still extant there, 
a small Brandenburg the Second ; for these procedures he is 
called Otto the Pious in History. His Wife, withal, was a 
sister of Ottocar's ; * which, except in the way of domestic 
felicity, did not in the end amount to much for him; this 
Ottocar having flown too high, and melted his wings at the 
sun, in a sad way, as we shall see elsewhere. 

Hone of the Orders rose so high as the Teutonic in favor 
with mankind. It had by degrees landed possessions far and 
wide over Germany and beyond : I know not how many dozens 
of Baileys (rich Bailliwicks, each again with its dozens of 
Comthureis, Commanderies, or subordinate groups of estates), 
and Baillies and Commanders to match ; and was thought to 
deserve favor from above. Valiant servants, these ; to whom 
Heaven had vouchsafed great labors and unspeakable bless- 
ings. In some fifty or fifty-three years they had got Prussian 
1 ymgt,iii. 80-87. * MichaeliB,i270; HiibMr.t 174. 


Heathenism brought to the ground; and they endeavored to 
tie it well down there by bargain and arrangement. But it 
would not yet lie quiet, nor for a century to come ; being still 
secretly Heathen; revolting, conspiring ever again, ever on 
weaker terms, till the Satanic element had burnt itself out, 
and conversion and composure could ensue. 

Conversion and complete conquest once come, there was a 
happy time for Prussia : ploughshare instead of sword ; busy 
sea-havens, German towns, getting built; churches everywhere 
rising; grass growing, and peaceable cows, where formerly had 
been quagmire and snakes. And for the Order a happy time ? 
A rich, not a happy. The Order was victorious; Livonian 
"Sword-Brothers," "Knights of Dobryn," minor Orders and 
Authorities all round, were long since subordinated to it or 
incorporated with it ; Livonia, Courland, Lithuania, are all got 
tamed under its influence, or tied down and evidently tamable. 
But it was in these times that the Order got into its wider 
troubles outward and inward ; quarrels, jealousies, with Chris- 
tian neighbors, Poland, Pommern, who did not love it and for 
cause ; wider troubles, aud by no means so evidently useful 
to mankind. The Order's wages, in this world, flowed higher 
than ever, only perhaps its work was beginning to run lowl 
But we will not anticipate. 

On the whole, this Teutsch Eitterdom, for the first century 
and more, was a grand phenomenon ; and flamed like a bright 
blessed beacon through the night of things, in those Northern 
Countries. For above a century, we perceive, it was the rally- 
ing place of all brave men who had a career to seek on terms 
other than vulgar. The noble soul, aiming beyond money, and 
sensible to more than hunger in this world, had a beacon burn- 
ing (as we say), if the night chanced to overtake it, and the 
earth to grow too intricate, as is not uncommon. Better than 
the career of stump-oratory, I should fancy, and its Hesperides 
Apples, golden and of gilt horse-dung. Better than puddling 
away one's poor spiritual gift of God (loan, not gift), such 
as it may be, in building the lofty rhyme, the lofty Eeview- 
Article, for a discerning public that has sixpence to spare 1 
Times alter greatly. Will the reader take a glimpse of Con- 


rad ron Thttringen's biography, as a sample of the old ways 
of proceeding? Conrad succeeded Hermann von der Salza 
as Grand-Master, and his history is memorable as a Teutonic 

The stuff Tetiiseh Sitters were made of. Conrad of Thiir 
ringen: Saint Elizabeth; Town of Marburg. 

Conrad, younger brother of the Landgraf of Thttringen, 
which Prince lived chiefly in the Wartburg, romantic old Hill- 
Castle, now a Weimar-Eisenach property and show-place, then 
an abode of very earnest people, was probably a child-in- 
arms, in that same Wartburg, while Eichard Co3ur-de-Lion was 
getting home from Palestine and into troubles by the road : 
this will date Conrad for us. His worthy elder brother was 
Husband of the lady since called Saint Elizabeth, a very pious 
but also very fanciful young woman ; and I always guess his 
going on the Crusade, where he died straightway, was partly 
the fruit of the life she led him ; lodging beggars, sometimes 
in his very bed, continually breaking his night's rest for prayer, 
and devotional exercise of undue length; "weeping one mo- 
ment, then smiling in joy the next ; " meandering about, capri- 
cious, melodious, weak, at the will of devout whim mainly! 
However, that does not concern us. 1 Sure enough her poor 
Landgraf went crusading, Year 1227 (Kaiser Priedrich II.'s 
Crusade, who could not put it off longer) ; poor Landgraf fell 
ill by the road, at Brindisi, and died, not to be driven farther 
by any cause. 

Conrad, left guardian to his deceased Brother's children, had 
at first much quarrel with Saint Elizabeth, though he after- 
wards took far other thoughts. Meanwhile he had his own 
apanage, "Landgraf" by rank he too; and had troubles enough 
with that of itself. For instance: once the Archbishop of 

J Many Lives of the Saint. See, in particular, Libellus de Dictis Quotum- 
Aacillariim, SM. (that is, Report of the evidence got from Elizabeth's Four 
Maids, by an Official Person, Devil's-Advocate or whatever he was, missioned 
by the Pope to question them, when her Canonization came to be talked of. 
A carious piece): in Menckenii Scriptores limim Germaiiicarum (Lipsias, 
1728-1730), ii. dd.; where also are other details. 



Mainz, being in debt, laid a heavy tax on all Abbeys under 
him; on Reichartsbronn, an Abbey of Conrad's, among others. 
" Don't pay it ! " said Conrad to the Abbot. Abbot refused 
accordingly ; but was put under ban by the Pope ; obliged to 
comply, and even to be "whipt thrice " before the money could 
be accepted. Two whippings at Erfurt, from the Archbishop, 
there had been ; and a third was just going on there, one morn- 
ing, when Conrad, travelling that way, accidentally stept in to 
matins. Conrad flames into a blazing whirlwind at the pheno- 
menon disclosed. " Whip my Abbot ? And he is to pay, then, 
Archbishop of Beelzebub ? " and took the poor Archbishop 
by the rochets, and spun him hither and thither ; nay was for 
cutting him in two, had not friends hysterically busied them- 
selves, and got the sword detained in its scabbard and the 
Archbishop away. Here is a fine coil like to be, for Conrad. 

Another soon follows ; from a quarrel he had with Fritzlar, 
an Imperial Free-Town in those parts, perhaps a little stiff 
upon its privileges, and high towards a Landgraf. Conrad 
marches, one morning (Tear 1232), upon insolent Fritzlar; 
burns the environs ; but on looking practically at the ramparts 
of the place, thinks they are too high, and turns to go home 
again. Whereupon the idle women of Fritzlar, who are upon 
the ramparts gazing in fear and hope, burst into shrill universal 
jubilation of voice, and even into gestures, and liberties with 
their dress, which are not describable in History ! Conrad, 
suddenly once more all flame, whirls round; storms the ram- 
parts, slays what he meets, plunders Fritzlar with a will, and 
leaves it blazing in a general fire, which had broken out in the 
business. Here is a pair of coils for Conrad ; the like of which 
can issue only in Papal ban or worse. 

Conrad is grim and obstinate under these aspects; but 
secretly feels himself very wicked ; knows not well what will 
come of it. Sauntering one day in his outer courts, he notices 
a certain female beggar ; necessitous female of loose life, who 
tremulously solicits charity of him. Necessitous female gets 
some fraction of coin, but along with it bullying rebuke in 
very liberal measure ; and goes away weeping bitterly, and 
murmuring about "want that drove me to those courses." 


Conrad retires into himself: "What is her real sin, perhaps, 
to mine ? " Conrad "lies awake all that night j " mopes about, 
in intricate darkness, days and nights ; rises one morning an 
altered man. He makes "pilgrimage to Gladbach," barefoot; 
kneels down at the church-door of Fritzlar with bare back, and 
a bundle of rods beside him. " Whip me, good injured Chris- 
tians, for the love of Jesus I " in brief, reconciles himself 
to Christian mankind, the Pope included; takes the Teutsch- 
Eitter vows upon him ; J and hastens off to Preussen, there to 
spend himself, life and life's resources thenceforth, faithfully, 
till he die. The one course left for Conrad. Which he f oUows 
with a great strong step, with a thought still audible to me. 
It was of such stuff that Teutsch Bitters were then made ; 
Bitters evidently capable of something. 

Saint Elizabeth, who went to live at Marburg, in Hessen- 
Cassel, after her Husband's death, and soon died there, in a 
most melodiously pious sort, 2 made the Teutsch Order guar- 
dian of her Son. It was from her and the Grand-Mastership 
of Conrad that Marburg became such a metropolis of the 
Order ; the Grand-Masters often residing there, many of 
them coveting burial there, and much business bearing date 
of the place. A place still notable to the ingenuous Tourist, 
who knows his whereabout. Philip the Magnanimous, Lu- 
ther's friend, memorable to some as Philip with the Two 
Wives, lived there, in that old Castle, which is now a kind 
of Correction-House and Garrison, idle blue uniforms stroll- 
ing about, and unlovely physiognomies with a jingle of iron 
at their ankles, where Lather has debated with the Zwin- 
glian Sacramenters and others, and much has happened in its 
time. Saint Elizabeth and her miracles (considerable, surely, 
of their kind) were the first origin of Marburg as a Town : a 
mere Castle, with adjoining Hamlet, before that. 

Strange gray old silent Town, rich in so many memories ; 

it stands there, straggling up its rocky hill-edge, towards its 

old Castles and edifices on the top, in a not unpicturesque 

manner; flanked by the river Lahn and its fertile plains : 

1 A.D. 1234 (Voigt, u. 375-423). * A.p. 1231 ; age 24. 


very silent, except for the delirious screech, at rare intervals, 
of a railway train passing that way from Frankfurt-on-Mayn 
to Cassel. "Church of St. Elizabeth," high, grand Church, 
built by Conrad our Hochmeister, in reverence of his once 
terrestrial Sister-in-law, stands conspicuous in the plain be- 
low, where the Town is just ending. St. Elizabeth's Shrine 
was once there, and pilgrims wending to it from all lands. 
Conrad himself is buried there, as are many Hochmeisters ; 
their names, and shields of arms, Hermann's foremost, though 
Hermann's dust is not there, are carved, carefully kept 
legible, on the shafts of the Gothic arches, from floor to 
groin, long rows of them ; and produce, with the other 
tombs, tomb-paintings by Durer and the like, thoughts im- 
pressive almost to pain. St. Elizabeth's loculm was put into 
its shrine here, by Kaiser Friedrich II. and all manner of 
princes and grandees of the Empire, " one million two hundred 
thousand people looking on," say the old records, perhaps not 
quite exact in their arithmetic. Philip the Magnanimous, 
wishing to stop " pilgrimages no-whither," buried the locates 
away, it was never known where ; under the floor of that 
Church somewhere, as is likeliest. Enough now of Marburg, 
and of its Teutsch Bitters too. 

They had one or two memorable Hochmeisters and 
Teutschmeisters ; whom we have not named here, nor shall. 1 
There is one Hochmeister, somewhere about the fiftieth on 
the list, and properly the last reed Hochmeister, Albert of 
Hohenzollern-Culmbach. by name, who will be very memora- 
ble to us by and by. 

Or will the reader care to know how Culmbach came 
into the possession of the Hohenzollerns, Burggraves of 
Nurnberg ? The story may be illustrative, and will not occupy 
us long. 

1 In our excellent KoUer's Mimtzbelustigtmgm (Nurnberg, 1729 et seqq. 
ii. 382 ; v. 102 ; viii. 380; &c.) are valuable glimpses into the Teutonic Order, 
as into hundreds of other things. The special Book upon it is Voigt's, 
often cited here : Nine heavy Volumes ; grounded on faithful reading, but 
with a fatal defect of almost every other quality. 



IN the Year 1248, in his Castle of Plassenburg, which 
is now a Correction-House, looking down upon the junction 
of the Bed and White Mayn, Otto Duke of Meran, a very 
great potentate, more like a King than a Duke, was suddenly 
clutched hold of by a certain wedded gentleman, name not 
given, "one of his domestics or dependents," whom he had 
enraged beyond forgiveness (signally violating the Seventh 
Commandment at his expense) ; and was by the said wedded 
gentleman there and then cut down, and done to death. 
" Lamentably killed, jammerlich erstochen," says old Eentsch. 1 
Others give a different color to the homicide, and even a dif- 
ferent place; a controversy not interesting to us. Slain at 
any rate he is ; still a young man ; the last male of his line. 
Whereby the renowned Dukes of Meran fall extinct, and im- 
mense properties come to be divided among connections and 

Meran, we remark, is still a Town, old Castle now abol- 
ished, in the Tyrol, towards the sources of the Etsch (called 
Adige by Italian neighbors). The Merans had been lords 
not only of most of the Tyrol; but Dukes of "the Voigt- 
land ; " Voigtland, that is Baillie-land, wide country between 
NUrnberg and the Fichtelwald; why specially so called, Dry- 
asdust dimly explains, deducing it from certain Counts von 
Eeuss, those strange Eeusses who always call themselves 
Henry, and now amount to Henry the Eightieth and Odd, with 
side-branches likewise called Henry; whose nomenclature is 
the despair of mankind, and worse than that of the Naples 
Lazzaroni who candidly have no names! Dukes of Voigt- 

i P. 293. Eobler, Reicfo-Hustorie, p. 845. Holle, Alte Geschiehte da- Stadt 
Baireuth (Baiieuth, 1833), pp. 34-37. 


land, I say; likewise of Dalmatia; then also Markgraves of 
Austria; also Counts of Andechs, in which latter fine country 
(north of Miinchen a day's ride), and not at Plassenburg, 
some say, the man was slain. These immense possessions, 
which now (A.D. 1248) all fall asunder by the stroke of that 
sword, come to be divided among the slain man's connections, 
or to be snatched up by active neighbors, and otherwise dis- 
posed of. 

Active Wurzburg, active Bamberg, without much connection, 
snatched up a good deal : Count of Orlamiinde, married to the 
eldest Sister of the slain Duke, got Plassenburg and most of 
the Voigtland: a Tyrolese magnate, whose Wife was an Aunt" 
of the Duke's, laid hold of the Tyrol, and transmitted it to 
daughters and their spouses, the finish of which line we shall 
see by and by: in short, there was much property in a dis- 
posable condition. The Hohenzollern Burggraf of Nttrnberg, 
who had married a younger Sister of the Duke's two years 
before this accident, managed to get at least Baireuth and 
some adjacencies ; big Orlamiinde, who had not much better 
right, taking the lion's share. This of Baireuth proved a 
notable possession to the Hohenzollern family : it was Conrad 
the first Burggraf 's great-grandson, Friedrich, counted " Fried- 
rich III." among the Burggraves, who made the acquisition in 
this manner, A.D. 1248. 

Onolzbach (On'zrbach or "-brook," now called Anspach) they 
got, some fourscore years 'after, by purchase and hard money 
down ("24,000 pounds of farthings," whatever that may be), 1 
which proved a notable twin possession of the family. And 
then, in some seven years more (A.D. 1338), the big Orlamunde 
people, having at length, as was too usual, fallen considerably 
insolvent, sold Plassenburg Castle itself, the Plassenburg with 
its Town of Culmbach and dependencies, to the Hohenzollern 
Burggraves,* who had always ready money about them. Who 
in this way got most of the Voigtland, with a fine Fortress, 
into hand ; and had, independently of Nurnberg and its Im- 
perial properties, an important Princely Territory of their own. 

1 A.D. 1331 : Stadt Anspach, by J. B. Fischer (Auspach, 1786), p. 196. 

"- li.p.157. 


would say, except to get rid of his money ; in which he suc- 
ceeded. He lived actually in Germany, twice over for a year 
or two: Alphonso and he were alike shy of the Pope, as 
Umpire ; and Eichard, so far as his money went, found some 
gleams of authority and comfortable flattery in the Ehenish 
provinces : at length, in 1263, money and patience being both 
probably out, he quitted Germany for the second and last 
time; came home to Berkhamstead in Hertfordshire here, 1 
more fool than he went. Till his death (A.D. 1271), he con- 
tinued to call himself, and was by many persons called, Kaiser 
of the Holy Eoman Empire ; needed a German clerk or two 
at Berkhamstead, we can suppose : but never went back ; pre- 
ferring pleasant Berkhamstead, with troubles of Simon de 
Montfort or whatever troubles there might be, to anything 

These were the Three futile Kaisers : and the late Kaiser 
Conrad's young Boy, who one day might have swept the ground 
clear of them, perished, bright young Conradin, bright and 
brave, but only sixteen, and Pope's captive by ill luck, per- 
ished on the scaffold ; " throwing out his glove " (in symbolical 
protest) amid the dark mute Neapolitan multitudes, that win- 
try morning. It was October 25th, 1268, Dante Alighieri 
then a little boy at Florence, not three years old ; gazing with 
strange eyes as the elders talked of such a performance by 
Christ's Vicar on Earth. A very tragic performance indeed, 
which brought on the Sicilian Vespers by and by; for the 
Heavens never fail to pay debts, your Holiness ! 

Germany was rocking down towards one saw not what, 
an Anarchic Eepublic of Princes, perhaps, and of Free Barons 
fast verging towards robbery? Sovereignty of multiplex 
Princes, with a Peerage of intermediate Eobber Barons? 
Things are verging that way. Such Princes, big and little, 
each wrenching off for himself what lay loosest and handiest 
to him, found it a stirring game, and not so much amiss. On 
the other hand, some voice of the People, in feeble whimper- 
ings of a strange intensity, to the opposite effect, are audible 
to this day. Here are Three old Minstrels (Minrm&nger) picked 
Gongh'u CamdeB, i. 839. 



from Manesse's Collection by an obliging hand, who are of 
this date, and shall speak each a word : 

No. 1 loquitur (in cramp doggerel, done into speech) : To 
thee, Lord, we poor folk make moan ; the Devil has sown 
his seeds in this land ! Law thy hand created for protection 
of thy children : but where now is Law ? Widows and orphans 
weep that the Princes do not unite to have a Kaiser." 

No. 2: "The Princes grind in the Kaiser's mill: to the 
Eeich they fling the sittings ; and keep to themselves the meal. 
Not much in haste, they, to give us a Kaiser." 

No. 3: "Like the Plague of Frogs, there they are come 
out; defiling the Reich's honor. Stork, when wilt thou ap- 
pear, then," and with thy stiff mandibles act upon them a 
little? 1 

It was in such circumstances, that Friedrich III., Burggraf 
of Nurnberg, who had long moaned and striven over these 
woes of his country, came to pay that visit, late in the night 
(1st or 2d of October, 1273), to his Cousin Rudolf Lord of Haps- 
burg, under the walls of Basel ; a notable scene in History. 
Rudolf was besieging Basel, being in some feud with the 
Bishop there, of which Friedrich and another had been proposed 
as umpires ; and Friedrich now waited on his Cousin, in this 
hasty manner, not about the Basel feud, but on a far higher 
quite unexpected errand, to say, That he Rudolf was elected 
Kaiser, and that better times for the Holy Roman Empire 
were now probable, with Heaven's help. 8 We call him Cousin ; 
though what the kindred actually was, a kindred by mothers, 
remains, except the general fact of it, disputable by Dryasdust. 
The actual visit, under the walls of Basel, is by some con- 
sidered romantic. But that Rudolf, tough steel-gray man, 
besieging Basel on his own quarrel, on the terms just stated, 
was altogether unexpectedly apprised of this great news, and 
that Cousin Friedrich of Nurnberg had mainly contributed to 
such issue, is beyond question.* The event was salutary, like 
life instead of death, to anarchic Germany; and did eminent 
honor to Friedrich's judgment in men. 
1 Mentzel, Geschicble der Devtschen, p. 345. 
* Rentsch. pp. 299, 285, 298. * Kohler, pp. 249, 251. 



Richard of Cornwall having at last died, and his futile Ger- 
man clerks having quitted Berkhamstead forever, Alphonso 
of Castillo, not now urged by rivalry, and seeing long since 
what a crank machine the thing was, had no objection to give 
it up; said so to the Pope, who was himself anxious for a 
settled Kaiser, the supplies of Papal German cash having run 
almost dry during these troubles. Whereupon ensued earnest 
consultations among leading German men ; Diet of the Empire, 
sternly practical (we may well perceive), and with a minimum 
of talk, the Pope too being held rather well at a distance : the 
result of which was what we see. 1 Mainly due to Friedrich of 
Niirnberg, say all Historians ; conjoining with him the then 
Archbishop of Mainz, who is officially President Elector (liter- 
ally Convener of Electors) : they two did it. Archbishop of 
Mainz had himself a pleasant accidental acquaintance with 
Rudolf, a night's lodging once at Hapsburg, with escort 

more readily be made to understand what qualities the man 
now had ; and how, in justness of insight, toughness of char- 
acter, and general strength of bridle-hand, this actually might 
be the adequate man. 

Kaiser Rudolf and Burggraf Friedrich UL 

Last time we saw Rudolf, near thirty years ago, he was some 
equerry or subaltern dignitary among the Ritters of King 
Ottocar, doing a Crusade against the Prussian Heathen, and 
seeing his master found Konigsberg in that country. Changed 
times now ! Ottocar King of Bohemia, who (by the strong 
hand mainly, and money to Richard of Cornwall, in the late 
troubles) has become Duke of Austria and much else, had 
himself expected the Kaisership ; and of all astonished men, 
King Ottocar was probably the most astonished at the choice 
made. A dread sovereign, fierce, and terribly opulent, and 
every way resplendent to such degree ; and this threadbare 
Swiss gentleman-at-arms, once "my domestic" (as Ottocar 
loved to term it), preferred to me ! Flat insanity, King Ottocar 
1 29th September, 1273. 


thought ; refused to acknowledge such a Kaiser ; would not in 
the least give up his unjust properties, or even do homage for 
them or the others. 

But there also Eudolf contrived to be ready for him. Eudolf 
invaded his rich Austrian territories ; smote down Vienna, and 
all resistance that there was ; * forced Ottocar to beg pardon 
and peace. " No pardon, nor any speech of peace, till you first 
do homage for all those lands of yours, whatever we may find 
them to be!" Ottocar was very loath; but could not help 
himself. Ottocar quitted Prag with a resplendent retinue, to 
come into the Danube country, and do homage to "my do- 
mestic " that once was. He bargained that the sad ceremony 
should be at least private ; on an Island in the Danube, between 
the two retinues or armies ; and in a tent, so that only official 
select persons might see it. The Island is called Camberg 
(near Vienna, I conclude), in the middle of the Donau Eiver : 
there Ottocar accordingly knelt ; he in great pomp of tailorage, 

it, charitable canvas, from all but a few ! Alas, precisely at 
this moment, the treacherous canvas rushes down, hung so 
on purpose, thinks Ottocar ; and it is a tent indeed, but a tent 
without walls ; and all the world sees me in this scandalous 

Ottocar rode home in deep gloom ; his poor Wife, too, up- 
braided him : he straightway rallied into War again; Eudolf 
again very ready to meet him. Eudolf met him, Friedrich of 
Nurnberg there among the rest under the Eeichs-Banner ; on 
the Marchfeld by the Donau (modern Wagram near by) ; and 
entirely beat and even slew and ruined Ottocar. 2 Whereby 
Austria fell now to Eudolf, who made his sons Dukes of it ; 
which, or even Archdukes, they are to this day. Bohemia, 
Moravia, of these also Eudolf would have been glad ; but of 
these there is an heir of Ottocar's left; these will require 
time and luck. 

Prosperous though toilsome days for Eudolf; who proved 

an excellent bit of stuff for a Kaiser ; and found no rest, 

proving what stuff he was. In which prosperities, as indeed 

1 1276 (Kohler, p. 263). a 26th August, 1278 (Kohler, p. 858). 


he continued to do in the perils and toils, Burggraf Fried- 
rich III. of Niimberg naturally partook : hence, and not gratis 
at all, the Hereditary Burggrafdom, and many other favors 
and accessions he got. For he continued Rudolf's steady 
helper, friend and first-man in all things, to the very end. 
Evidently one of the most important men in Germany, and 
candor will lead us to guess one of the worthiest, during those 
bad years of Interregnum, and the better ones of Kaisership. 
After Conrad his great-grandfather he is the second notable 
architect of the Family House; founded by Conrad; con- 
spicuously built up by this Friedrich III., and the first story 
of it finished, so to speak. Then come two Friedrichs as Burg- 
grafs, his son and his grandson's grandson, " Friedrich IV." 
and "Friedrich VI.," by whom it was raised to the second 
story and the third, thenceforth one of the high houses of 
the world. 

That is the glimpse we can give of Friedrich first Hereditary 
Burggraf, and of his Cousin Rudolf first Hapsburg Kaiser. 
The latest Austrian Kaisers, the latest Kings of Prussia, they 
are sons of these two men. 



WE have said nothing of the Ascanier Markgraves, Electors 
of Brandenburg, all this while ; nor, in these limits, can we 
now or henceforth say almost anything. A proud enough, 
valiant and diligent line of Markgraves ; who had much fight- 
ing and other struggle in the world, steadily enlarging their 
border upon the Wends to the north ; and adjusting it, with 
mixed success, against the Wettin gentlemen, who are Mark- 
graves farther east (in the Lausitz now), who bound us to the 
south too (Meissen, Misnia), and who in fact came in for the 
whole of modem Saxony in the end. Much fighting, too, there 
was with the Archbishops of Magdeburg, now that the Wends 



are down : standing quarrel there, on the small scale, like that 
of Kaiser and Pope on the great; such quarrel as is to be seen 
in all places, and on all manner of scales, in that era of the 
Christian World. 

None of our Markgraves rose to the height of their Pro- 
genitor, Albert the Bear; nor indeed, except massed up, as 
"Albert's Line," and with a History ever more condensing 
itself almost to the form of label, can they pretend to memora- 
bility with us. What can Dryasdust himself do with them ? 
That wholesome Dutch cabbages continued to be more and 
more planted, and peat-mire, blending itself with waste sand, 
became available for Christian mankind, intrusive Chaos, 
and especially Divine Triglaph and his ferocities being well 
held aloof : this, after all, is the real History of our Mark- 
graves ; and of this, by the nature of the case, Dryasdust can 
say nothing. "New Mark," which once meant Brandenburg 
at large, is getting subdivided into Mid-Mark, into ZTb&ermark 
(closest to the Wends) ; and in Old Mark and New much is 
spreading, much getting planted and founded. In the course 
of centuries there will grow gradually to be " seven cities ; 
and as many towns," says one old jubilant Topographer, 
"as there are days in the year," struggling to count up 
365 of them. 

Qf Berlin City. 

In the year (guessed to be) 1240, one Ascanier Markgraf 
" fortifies Berlin ;" that is, first makes Berlin a German Burg 
and inhabited outpost in those parts : the very name, some 
think, means "Little Rampart" (Wehrlin), built there, on the 
banks of the Spree, against the Wends, and peopled with 
Dutch; of which latter fact, it seems, the old dialect of the 
place yields traces. 1 How it rose afterwards to be chosen for 

l Nicolai, Beschrtibung der Kimiglichen Resideazstadte Berlin tmd Potsdam 
(Berlin, 1786), i. pp. 16, 17 of Einleitnng." Nicolai rejects the Wekrtin ety- 
mology; admits that the name was evidently appellative, not proper, "The 
Berlin," "To the Berlin;" finds in the world two objects, one of them at 
Halle, still called " The Berlin ; " and thinks it mm* hare meant (in some 
language of extinct mortals) " Wild Pasture-ground," " The Scrubs," as we 
should call it. - Possible ; perhaps likely. 



Metropolis, one cannot say, except that it had a central situa- 
tion for the now widened principalities of Brandenburg : the 
place otherwise is sandy by nature, sand and swamp the con- 
stituents of it ; and stands on a sluggish river the color of oil. 
Wendish fishermen had founded some first nucleus of it long 
before ; and called their fishing-hamlet Coin, which is said to 
be the general Wendish title for places founded on piles, a 
needful method where your basis is swamp. At all events, 
"Coin" still designates the oldest quarter in Berlin; and 
Coin on the Spree" (Cologne, or Coin on the Khine, being 
very different) continued, almost to modern times, to be the 
Official name of the Capital. 

How the Dutch and Wends agreed together, within their 
rampart, inclusive of both, is not said. The river lay be- 
tween; they had two languages; peace was necessary: it is 
probable they were long rather on a taciturn footing ! But 
in the oily river you do catch various fish; Coin, amid its 
quagmires and straggling sluggish waters, can be rendered 
very strong. Some husbandry, wet or dry, is possible to dili- 
gent Dutchmen. There is room for trade also ; Spree Havel 
Elbe is a direct water-road to Hamburg and the Ocean; by 
the Oder, which is not very far, you communicate with the 
Baltic on this hand, and with Poland and the uttermost parts 
of Silesia on that. Enough, Berlin grows ; becomes, in about 
300 years, for one reason and another, Capital City of the 
country, of these many countries. The Markgraves or Elec- 
tors, after quitting Brandenburg, did not come immediately 
to Berlin ; their next Eesidence was Tangermunde (Mouth of 
the Tanger, where little Tanger issues into Elbe) ; a much 
grassier place than Berlin, and which stands on a Hill, clay- 
and-sand Hill, likewise advantageous for strength. That 
Berlin should have grown, after it once became Capital, is 
not a mystery. It has quadrupled itself, and more, within 
the last hundred years, and I think doubled itself within the 
last thirty. 



Markgraf Otto IV., or Otto with the Arrow. 
One Ascanier Markgraf, and one only, Otto IV. by title, 
was a Poet -withal; had an actual habit of doing verse. 
There are certain so-called Poems of his, still extant, read 
by Dryasdust, with such enthusiasm as he can get up, in the 
old Collection of Minnesingers, made by Manesse the Zurich 
Biirgermeiater, while the matter was much fresher than it 
now is. 1 Madrigals all; .Mwwe-Songs, describing the pas- 
sion of love; how Otto felt under it, well and also ill; 
with little peculiarity of symptom, as appears. One of his 
lines is, 

"Ich winsch ich wen tot, I wish that I were dead : " 
the others shall remain safe in Manesse's Collection. 

This same Markgraf Otto IV., Year 1278, had a dreadful 
quarrel with the See of Magdeburg, about electing a Brother 
of his. The Chapter had chosen another than Otto's Brother ; 
Otto makes war upon the Chapter. Comes storming along; 
"will stable my horses in your Cathedral," on such and such 
a day ! But the Archbishop chosen, who had been a fighter 
formerly, stirs up the Magdeburgers, by preaching ("Horses 
to be stabled here, my Christian brethren"), by relics, and 
quasi-miracles, to a furious condition ; leads them out against 
Otto, beats Otto utterly ; brings him in captive, amid hooting 
jubilations of the conceivable kind : " Stable ready ; but where 
are the horses, Serene child of Satanas ! " Archbishop 
makes a Wooden Cage for Otto (big beams, spars stout 
enough, mere straw to lie on), and locks him up there. In 
a public situation in the City of Magdeburg ; visible to 
mankind so, during certain months of that year 1278. It 
was in the very time while Ottocar was getting finished in 
the March! eld ; much mutiny still abroad, and the new Kaiser 
Rudolf very busy. 

Otto's Wife, all streaming in tears, and flaming in zeal, 

l Riidigei Yon Manesse, who fought the Auatriana, too, made his Sammtwy 
(Collection) in the latter half of the fourteenth century ; it was printed, after 
many narrow risks of destruction in the interim, in 1758, Bodmer and 
Breitinger editing ; at Zurich, 2 rob. 4to. 
VOL. v. 8 



what shall she do ? " Sell your jewels," so advises a certain 
old Johann von Buch, discarded Ex-official: "Sell your jewels, 
Madam; bribe the Canons of Magdeburg with extreme secrecy, 
none knowing of his neighbor; they will consent to ransom 
on terms possible. Poor Wife bribed as was bidden ; Canons 
voted as they undertook; unanimous for ransom, high, but 
humanly possible. Markgraf Otto gets out on parole. But 
now, How raise such a ransom, our very jewels being sold ? 
Old Johann von Buch again indicates ways and means, 
miraculous old gentleman: Markgraf Otto returns, money 
in hand; pays, and is solemnly discharged. The title of the 
sum I could give exact ; but as none will in the least tell me 
what the value is, I humbly forbear. 

"We are clear, then, at this date?" said Markgraf Otto 
from his horse, just taking leave of the Magdeburg Canonry. 
"Yes," answered they. "Pshaw, you don't know the value 
of a Markgraf ! " said Otto. " What is it, then ? " " Bain 
gold ducats on his war-horse and him," said Otto, looking 
up with a satirical grin, "till horse and Markgraf are buried 
in them, and you cannot see the point of his spear atop ! " 
That would be a cone of gold coins equal to the article, thinks 
our Markgraf; and rides grinning away. 1 The poor Arch- 
bishop, a sraliant pious man, finding out that late strangely 
unanimous vote of his Chapter for ransoming the Markgraf, 
took it so ill, that he soon died of a broken heart, say the old 
Books. Die he did, before long; and still Otto's Brother 
was refused as successor. Brother, however, again survived ; 
behaved always wisely ; and Otto at last had his way. " Makes 
an excellent Archbishop, after all!" said the Magdeburgers. 
Those were rare times, Mr. Eigmarole. 

The same Otto, besieging some stronghold of his Magde- 
burg or other enemies, got an arrow shot into the skull of 
him ; into, not through ; which no surgery could extract, not 
for a year to come. Otto went about, sieging much the same, 
with the iron in his head; and is called Otto mit dem Pfeile, 
Otto Sagittarius, or Otto with the Arrow, in consequence. 
A Markgraf who writes Madrigals ; who does sieges with an 
1 Michaelis, i. 371 ; Fanli, L 316 ; Kloss; Jbc. 


arrow in his head; who lies in a wooden cage, jeered by the 
Magdeburgers, and proposes such a cone of ducats: I thought 
him the memorablest of those forgotten Markgraves ; and 
that his jolting Life-pilgrimage might stand as the general 
sample. Multiply a year of Otto by 200, you have, on easy 
conditions, some imagination of a History of the Ascanier 
Markgraves. Forgettable otherwise ; or it can be read in the 
gross, darkened with endless details, and thrice-dreary, half- 
intelligible traditions, in Pauli's fatal Quartos, and elsewhere, 
if any one needs. The year of that Magdeburg speech about 
the cone of ducats is 1278 : King Edward the First, in this 
country, was walking about, a prosperous man of forty, with 
very Long Shanks, and also with a head of good length. 

Otto, as had been the case in tha former Line, was a fre- 
quent name among those Markgraves : " Otto the Pious " 
(whom we saw crusading once in Preussen, with King Otto- 
car his Brother-in-law), "Otto the Tall," "Otto the Short 
(Parvus);" I know not how many Ottos besides him "with 
the Arrow." Half a century after this one of the Arrow 
(under his Grand-Nephew it was), the Ascanier Markgraves 
ended, their Line also dying out. 

Not the successfulest of Markgraves, especially in later 
times. Brandenburg was indeed steadily an Electorate, its 
Markgraf a Kurfiir&t, or Elector of the Empire ; and always 
rather on the increase than otherwise. But the Territories 
were apt to be much split up to younger sons ; two or more 
Markgraves at once, the eldest for Elector, with other arrange- 
ments ; which seldom answer. They had also fallen into the 
habit of borrowing money ; pawning, redeeming, a good deal, 
with Teutsch Bitters and others. Then they puddled consid- 
erably, and to their loss, seldom choosing the side that 
proved winner, in the general broils of the Eeich, which 
at that time, as we have seen, was unusually anarchic. None 
of the successfulest of Markgraves latterly. But they were 
regretted beyond measure in comparison with the next set 
that came; as we shall see. 




BBAXDEXBURG aad the Hohenzollern Family of Niirnberg 
have hitherto no mutual acquaintanceship whatever : they go, 
each its own course, wide enough apart in the world ; little 
dreaming that they are to meet by and by, and coalesce, wed 
for better and worse, and become one flesh. As is the way in 
all romance. "Marriages," among men, and other entities of 
importance, "are, evidently, made in Heaven." 

Friedrich IV. of Niirnberg, Son of that Friedrich III., 
Kaiser Rudolf s successful friend, was again a notable in- 
creaser of his House ; which finally, under his Great-grand- 
son, named Friedrich VI., attained the Electoral height. Of 
which there was already some hint. Well; under the first 
of these two Friedriehs, some slight approximation, and 
under his Son, a transient express introduction (so to speak) 
of Brandenburg to Hohenzollern took place, without imme- 
diate result of consequence; but under the second of them 
occurred the wedding, as we may call it, or union " for better 
or worse, till death do us part." How it came about ? Easy 
to ask, How ! The reader will have to cast some glances into 
the confused .BeieAs-History of the time; timid glances, for 
the element is of dangerous, extensive sort, mostly jungle and 
shaking bog ; and we must travel through this corner of it, 
as on shoes of swiftness, treading lightly. 

Contested Elections in the Reich: Kaiser Albert I. ; after 
whom Six Non-Hapsburg Kaisers. 

The Line of Rudolf of Hapsburg did not at once succeed 
continuously to the Empire, as the wont had been in such 
cases, where the sons were willing and of good likelihood. 


After such a spell of anarchy, parties still ran higher than 
usual in the Holy Roman Empire; and wide-yawning splits 
would not yet coalesce to the old pitch. It appears too the 
posterity of Rudolf, stiff, inarticulate, proud men, and of a turn 
for engrossing and amassing, were not always lovely to the 
public. Albert, Rudolf's eldest son, for instance, Kaiser Al- 
bert I., who did succeed, though not at once, or till after 
killing Rudolf's immediate successor, 1 Albert was by no 
means a prepossessing man, though a tough and hungry one. 
It must be owned, he had a harsh ugly character ; and face to 
match : big-nosed, loose-lipped, blind of an eye : not Kaiser- 
like at all to an Electoral Body. "Est homo monoculiis, et 
vultu rustico ; non potest esse Imperator (A one-eyed fellow, 
and looks like a elown ; he cannot be Emperor) ! " said Pope 
Boniface VIII., when consulted about him. 2 

Enough, from the death of Rudolf, A.D. 1291, there inter- 
vened a hundred and fifty years, and eight successive Kaisers 
singly or in line, only one of whom (this same Albert of the 
unlovely countenance) was a Hapsburger, before the Fam- 
ily, often trying it all along, could get a third time into the 
Imperial saddle. Where, after that, it did sit steady. Once in 
for the third time, the Hapsburgers got themselves "elected" 
(as they still called it) time after time; always elected, 
with but one poor exception, which will much concern my 
readers by and by, to the very end of the matter. And saw 
the Holy Roman Empire itself expire, and as it were both 
saddle and horse vanish out of Nature, before they would 
dismount. Nay they still ride there on the shadow of a sad- 
dle, so to speak ; and are " Kaisers of Austria. " at this hour. 
Steady enough of seat at last, after many vain trials ! 

For during those hundred and fifty years, among those 
six intercalary Kaisers, too, who followed Albert, they were 
always trying; always thinking they had a kind of quasi 
right to it; whereby the Empire often fell into trouble at 
Election-time. For they were proud stout men, our Haps- 

1 Adolf of Nassau; slain by Albert's own hand; "Battle" of Haienbnuel 
" near Worms, 2d July, 1298 " (KSbler, p. 265). 
* Eohler, pp. 267-273; and Muattbdaaigmgen, six. 156-160. 


burgers, though of taciturn unconciliatory ways ; and Rudolf 
had so fitted them out with fruitful Austrian Dukedoms, 
which they much increased by marriages and otherwise, 
Styria, Carinthia, the Tyrol, by degrees, not to speak of their 
native Hapsbwrg much enlarged, and claims on Switzerland 
all round it, they haJiL excellent means of battling for their 
pretensions and disputable elections. None of them succeeded, 
however, for a hundred and fifty years, except that same one- 
eyed, loose-lipped unbeautiful Albert I. ; a Kaiser dreadfully 
fond of earthly goods, too. Who indeed grasped all round 
him, at property half his, or wholly not his : Rhine-tolls, 
Crown of Bohemia, Landgraviate of Thiiringen, Swiss Forest 
Cantons, Crown of Hungary, Crown of France even : getting 
endless quarrels on his hands, and much defeat mixed with 
any victory there was. Poor soul, he had six-and-twenty 
children by one wife ; and felt that there was need of apa- 
nages ! He is understood (guessed, not proved) to have insti- 
gated two assassinations in pursuit of these objects ; and he 
very clearly underwent one in his own person. Assassination 
first was of Dietzman the Thuringian Landgraf, an Anti- 
Albert champion, who refused to be robbed by Albert, for 
whom the great Dante is (with almost palpable absurdity) 
fabled to have written an Epitaph still legible in the Church 
at Leipzig. 1 Assassination second was of Wenzel, the poor 
young Bohemian King, Ottocar's Grandson and last heir. Sure 
enough, this important young gentleman "was murdered by 
some one at Olmutz next year " (1306, a promising event for 
Albert then), "but none yet knows who it was." 4 

Neither of which suspicious transactions came to any result 
for Albert; as indeed most of his unjust graspings proved 
failures. He at one time had thoughts of the Crown of 
France ; " Yours I solemnly declare ! " said the Pope. But 
that came to nothing; only to France's shifting of the 
Popes to Avignon, more under the thumb of France. What 
his ultimate success with Tell and the Forest Cantons was, we 
all know ! A most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, 

1 Mencken!! Scriptont, i. Frederick Admortut (by Tentzel). 

* Eohler, p. 270. 



tough and unbeautif ul man. Whom his own Nephew, at last, 
had to assassinate, at the Ford of the Reus (near Windisch 
Village, meeting of the Eeus and Aar ; 1st May, 1308) : " Scan- 
dalous Jew pawnbroker of an Uncle, wilt thou flatly keep from 
me my Father's heritage, then, intrusted to thee in his hour 
of death ? Begardless of God and man, and of the last look 
of a dying Brother ? Uncle worse than pawnbroker ; for it 
is a heritage with no pawn on it, with much the reverse I " 
thought the Nephew, and stabbed said Uncle down dead; 
having gone across with him in the boat ; attendants looking 
on in distraction from the other side of the river. Was called 
Johannes Parricida in consequence ; fled out of human sight 
that day, he and his henchmen, never to turn up again till 
Doomsday. For the pursuit was transcendent, regardless of 
expense ; the cry for legal vengeance very great (on the part 
of Albert's daughters chiefly), though in vain, or nearly so, in 
this world. 1 

Qf Kaiser Henry VH. and the Luxemburg Kaisers. 

Of the other six Kaisers not Hapsburgers we are bound to 
mention one, and dwell a little on his fortunes and those of 
the family he founded ; both Brandenburg and our Hohenzol- 
lerns coming to be much connected therewith, as time went on. 
This is Albert's next successor, Henry Count of Luxemburg ; 
called among Kaisers Henry VII. He is founder, he alone 
among these Non-Hapsburgers, of a small intercalary line 
of Kaisers, "the Luxemburg Line ; " who amount indeed only 
to Four, himself included; and are not otherwise of much 
memorability, if we except himself; though straggling about 
like well-rooted briers, in that favorable ground, they have 
accidentally hooked themselves upon World-History in one 
or two points. By accident a somewhat noteworthy line, 
those Luxemburg Kaisers : a celebrated place, too, or name 
of a place, that "Luxembourg" of theirs, with its French Mar- 
shals, grand Parisian Edifices, lending it new lustre: what, 

* Kohler, p/272. Hormayr, (Esterreiduscher Plutarch, oder Leben and BOd 
note, #c. (12 Bandchen ; Wien, 1807, a superior Book), i. 65. 

thinks the reader, is the meaning of Luzzenburg, Luxemburg, 
Luxembourg ? Merely LutzefoiiTg, wrong pronounced ; and 
that again is nothing but Littleborough : such is the luck of 

Heinrich Graf von Luxemburg was, after some pause on 
the parricide of Albert, chosen Kaiser, "on account of his 
renowned valor," say the old Books, and also, add the 
shrewder of them, because his Brother, Archbishop of Trier, 
was one of the Electors, and the Pope did not like either the 
Austrian or the French candidate then in the field. Chosen, 
at all events, he was, 27th November, 1308; 1 clearly, and by 
much, the best Kaiser that could be had. A puissant soul, 
who might have done great things, had he lived. He settled 
feuds ; cut off oppressions from the Iteicfistiidte (Free Towns) ; 
had a will of just sort, and found or made a way for it. Bohe- 
mia lapsed to him, the old race of Kings having perished out, 
the last of them far too suddenly " at Olmiitz," as we saw 
lately ! Some opposition there was, but much more favor espe- 
cially by the Bohemian People ; and the point, after some small 
" Siege of Prag " and the like, was definitely carried by the 
Kaiser. The now Burggraf of Niirnberg, Friedrich IV., son of 
KudolFs friend, was present at this Siege of Prag; 2 a Burg- 
graf much attached to Kaiser Henry, as all good Germans 
were. But the Kaiser did not live. 

He went to Italy, our Burggraf of Niirnberg and many more 
along with him, to pull the crooked Guelf-Ghibelline Facts 
and Avignon Pope a little straight, if possible ; and was vigor- 
ously doing it, when he died on a sudden ; " poisoned in sacra- 
mental wine," say the Germans ! One of the crowning summits 
of human scoundrelism, which painfully stick in the mind. 
It is certain he arrived well at Buoneonvento near Sienna, on 
the 24th September, 1313, in full march towards the rebellions 
King of Naples, whom the Pope much countenanced. At 
Buoneonvento, Kaiser Henry wished to enjoy the communion ; 
and a Dominican monk, whose dark rat-eyed look men after- 
wards bethought them of, administered it to him in both 
species (Council of Trent not yet quite prohibiting the liquid 
i Eohler, p. 874. 1310 (Benteoh, p. 311). 


species, least of all to Kaisers, who are by theory a kind of 
"Deacons to the Pope," or something else x ) ; administered 
it in both species : that is certain, and also that on the morrow 
Henry was dead. The Dominicans endeavored afterwards to 
deny; which, for the credit of human nature, one wishes they 
had done with effect." But there was never any trial had; 
the denial was considered lame; and German History con- 
tinues to shudder, in that passage, and assert. Poisoned in 
the wine of his sacrament : the Florentines, it is said, were at 
the bottom of it, and had hired the rat-eyed Dominican ; "0 
Italia, Mrenze ! " That is not the way to achieve Italian 
Liberty, or Obedience to God ; that is the way to confirm, as 
by frightful stygian oath, Italian Slavery, or continual Obedi- 
ence, tinder varying forms, to the Other Party ! The voice 
of Dante, then alive among men, proclaims, sad and loving as 
a mother's voice, and implacable as a voice of Doom, that you 
are wandering, and have wandered, in a terrible manner ! 

Peter, the then Archbishop of Mainz, says there had not for 
hundreds of years such a death befallen the German Empire ; 
to which Kohler, one of the wisest moderns, gives his assent : 
" It could not enough be lamented," says he, "that so vigilant 
a Kaiser, in the flower of his years, should have been torn 
from the world in so devilish a manner : who, if he had lived 
longer, might have done Teutschland unspeakable benefit." * 

Henry's Son Johann is King of Bohemia; and Ludwig the 
Bavarian, with a Contested Election, is Kaiser. 

Henry VII. having thus perished suddenly, his Son Johann, 
scarcely yet come of age, could not follow him as Kaiser, ac- 
jording to the Father's thought ; though in due time he prose- 
suted his advancement otherwise to good purpose, and proved 
a, very stirring man in the world. By his Father's appoint- 
ment, to whom as Kaiser the chance had fallen, he was already 

i Voltaire, Essai no- les Maun, c. 67, Henri VH. ( (Euvret, xxi. 184). 
* Kohler, p. 281 (Ptolemy of Lucca, himself a Dominican, is one of the 
accusing spirits : Mnratori, 1. zi. Ptelomasus Lucensu, AJ>. 1313). 
Kohler, pp. 282-285. 


King of Bohemia, strong in his right and in the favor of the 
natives; though a titular Competitor, Henry of the Tyrol, 
beaten off by the kite Kaiser, was still extant : whom, how- 
ever, and all other perils Johann contrived to weather ; grow- 
ing up to be a far-sighted stout-hearted man, and potent 
Bohemian King, widely renowned in his day. He had a Son, 
and then two Grandsons, who were successively Kaisers, after 
a sort ; making up the " Luxemburg Four" we spoke of. He 
did Crusades, one or more, for the Teutsch Bitters, in a shin- 
ing manner; unhappily with loss of an eye; nay ultimately, 
by the aid of quack oculists, with loss of both eyes. An am- 
bitious man, not to be quelled by blindness ; man with much 
negotiation in him ; with a heavy stroke of fight too, and tem- 
per nothing loath at it ; of which we shall see some glimpse 
by and by. 

The pity was, for the Beich if not for him, he could not 
himself become Kaiser. Perhaps we had not then seen Henry 
VIL's fine enterprises, like a fleet of half-built ships, go mostly 
to planks again, on the waste sea, had his Son followed him. 
But there was, on the contrary, a contested election ; Austria 
in again, as usual, and again unsuccessful. The late Kaiser's 
Austrian competitor, "Friedrich the Fair, Duke of Austria," 
the parricided Albert's Son, was again one of the parties. 
Against whom, with real but not quite indisputable majority, 
stood Ludwig Duke of Bavaria : " Ludwig IV.," " Ludwig der 
Baier (the Bavarian) " as they call him among Kaisers. Con- 
test attended with the usual election expenses ; war-wrestle, 
namely, between the parties till one threw the other. There 
was much confused wrestling and throttling for seven years 
or more (1315-1322). Our Niirnberg Burggraf, Friedrich IV., 
held with Ludwig, as did the real majority, though in a lan- 
guid manner, and was busy he as few were; the Austrian 
Hapsburgs also doing their best, now under, now above. 
Johann King of Bohemia was on Ludwig's side as yet. Lud- 
wig's own Brother, Kur-Pfalz (ancestor of all the Electors, 
and their numerous Branches, since known there), an elder 
Brother, was, "out of spite " as men thought, decidedly against 


In the eighth year came a Fight that proved decisive. Fight 
at Muhldorf on the Inn, 28th September, 1322, far down in 
those Danube Countries, beyond where Marlborough ever was, 
where there has been much fighting first and last ; Burggraf 
Friedrich was conspicuously there. A very great Battle, say 
the old Books, says Hormayr, in a new readable Book, 1 
giving minute account of it. Ludwig rather held aloof rear- 
ward ; committed his business to the Hohenzollern Burggraf 
and to one Schweppermann, aided by a noble lord called 
Kindsmaul (" Cowmouth," no less), and .by others experienced 
in such work. Friedrich the Hapsburger der Schone, Duke 
of Austria, and self-styled Kaiser, a gallant handsome man, 
breathed mere martial fury, they say : he knew that his 
Brother Leopold was on march with a reinforcement to him 
from the Strasburg quarter, and might arrive any moment; 
but he could not wait, perhaps afraid Ludwig might run ; 
he rashly determined to beat Ludwig without reinforcement. 
Our rugged fervid Hormayr (though imitating Tacitus and 
Johannes von Miiller overmuch) will instruct fully any mod- 
ern that is curious about this big Battle : what furious charg- 
ing, worrying; how it "lasted ten hours," how the blazing 
Handsome Friedrich stormed about, and "slew above fifty 
with his own hand." To us this is the interesting point : At 
one turn of the Battle, tenth hour of it now ending, and the 
tug of war still desperate, there arose a cry of joy over all 
the Austrian ranks, " Help coming ! Help ! " and Friedrich 
noticed a body of Horse, " in Austrian cognizance " (such the 
cunning of a certain man), coming in upon his rear. Austrians 
and Friedrich never doubted but it was Brother Leopold just 
getting on the ground; and rushed forward doubly fierce. 
Doubly fierce; and were doubly astonished when it plunged 
in upon them, sharp-edged, as Burggraf Friedrich of Niirn- 
berg, and quite ruined Austrian Friedrich. Austrian Fried- 
rich fought personally like a lion at bay; but it availed 
nothing. Eindsmaul (not lovely of lip, Coremovth, so-called) 
disarmed him : " I will not surrender except to a Prince ! " 
so Burggraf Friedrich was got to take surrender of him ; and 

T PhdnrdL. ii. 31-37. 


the Fight, and whole Controversy with it, was completely 
won. 1 

Poor Leopold, the Austrian Brother, did not arrive till the 
morrow ; and saw a sad sight, before flying off again. Fried- 
rich the Fair sat prisoner in the old Castle of Traussnitz (Ober 
Pfalz, Upper Palatinate, or Niirnberg country) for three years ; 
whittling sticks : Tourists, if curious, can still procure speci- 
mens of them at the place, for a consideration. There sat 
Friedrich, Brother Leopold moving Heaven and Earth, and 
in fact they said, the very Devil by art magic,* to no pur- 
pose, to deliver him. And his poor Spanish Wife cried her 
eyes, too literally, out, sight gone in sad fact. 

Ludwig the Bavarian reigned thenceforth, though never 
on easy terms. How grateful to Friedrich of Nurnberg we 
need not say. For one thing, he gave him all the Austrian 
Prisoners; whom Friedrich, judiciously generous, dismissed 
without ransom except that they should be feudally subject 
to him henceforth. This is the third Hohenzollern whom we 
mark as a conspicuous acquirer in the Hohenzollern family, 
this Friedrich IV., builder of the second story of the House. 
If Conrad, original Burggraf, founded the House, then (figura- 
tively speaking) the able Friedrich III, who was Rudolf of 
Hapsburg's friend, built it one story high ; and here is a new 
Friedrich, his Son, who has added a second story. It is as- 
tonishing, says Dryasdust, how many feudal superiorities the 
Anspach and Baireuth people still have in Austria; they 
maintain their own Lehnprobst, or Official Manager for fief- 
casualties, in that country : all which proceed from this 
Battle of Miihldorf. 8 Battle fought on the 28th of Septem- 
ber, 1322 : eight years after Bannockburn ; while our poor 
Edward IL and England with him were in such a welter with 

1 Jedem Mann ein Ey (One egg to every man), 
Demjrommen Scfueeppermann xioey (Two to the excellent Schwepper- 

Tiadition still repeats this old rhyme, as the Kaiser's Address to his Army, 
or his Head Captains, at supper, after such a day's work, in a country 
already eaten to the bone. 

* Kohler, p. 288. Rentsch, p. 813 ; Paul! ; &c. 



their Spencers and their Gavestons : eight years after Ban- 
nockburn, and four-and-twenty before Crecy. That will date 
it for English readers. 

Kaiser Ludwig reigned some twenty-five years more, in a 
busy and even strenuous, but not a successful way. He had 
good windfalls, too ; for example, Brandenburg, as we shall 
see. He made friends ; reconciled himself to his Brother 
Kur-Pfalz and junior Cousinry there, settling handsomely, 
and with finality, the debatable points between them. Ene- 
mies, too, he made ; especially Johann the Luxemburger, King 
of Bohemia, on what ground will be seen shortly, who became 
at last inveterate to a high degree. But there was one su- 
premely sore element in his lot : a Pope at Avignon to whom 
he could by no method make himself agreeable. Pope who 
put him under ban, not long after that Muhldorf victory ; and 
kept him so ; inexorable, let poor Ludwig turn as he might. 
Ludwig's German Princes stood true to him; declared, in 
solemn Diet, the Pope's ban to be mere spent shot, of no avail 
in Imperial Politics. Ludwig went vigorously to Italy ; tried 
setting up a Pope of his own ; but that did not answer, nor 
of course tend to mollify the Holiness at Avignon. 

In fine, Ludwig had to carry this cross on his back, in a 
sorrowful manner, all his days. The Pope at last, finding 
Johann of Bohemia in a duly irritated state, persuaded him 
into setting up an Anti-Kaiser, Johann's second Son as 
Anti-Kaiser, who, though of little account, and called 
Pfaffen-Kaiser (Parsons' Kaiser) by the public, might have 
brought new troubles, had that lasted. We shall see some 
ultimate glimpses of it farther on. 



Two years before the victory at Miihldorf, a bad chance 
befell in Brandenburg: the Ascanier Line of Markgraves or 
Electors ended. Magniloquent Otto with the Arrow, Otto 
the Short, Hermann the Tall, all the Ottos, Hermanns and 
others, died by course of nature; nephew Waldemar him- 
self, a stirring man, died prematurely (A.D. 1319), and left 
only a young cousin for successor, who died few months 
after : 1 the Line of Albert the Bear went out in Brandenburg. 
They had lasted there about two hundred years. They had 
not been, in late times, the successf ulest Markgraves : terri- 
tories much split up among younger sons, joint Markgraves 
reigning, which seldom answers ; yet to the last they always 
made stout fight for themselves ; walked the stage in a high 
manner ; and surely might be said to quit it creditably, leaving 
such a Brandenburg behind them, chiefly of their making, 
during the Two Centuries that had been given them before 
the night came. 

There were plenty of Ascanier Cousins still extant in those 
parts, Saxon dignitaries, Anhalt dignitaries, lineal descend- 
ants of Albert the Bear ; to some of whom, in usual times, 
Albert's inheritance would naturally have been granted. But 
the times were of battle, uncertainty, contested election : and 
the Ascaniers, I perceive, had rather taken Friedrich of Aus- 
tria's side, which proved the losing one. Kaiser Ludwig der 
Bai&r would appoint none of these ; Anti-Kaiser Friedrich's 
appointments, if he made any, could be only nominal, in those 
distant Northern parts. Ludwig, after his victory of MuM- 
dorf, preferred to consider the Electorate of Brandenburg as 
> September, 1320 (Panli, i. 391). Miehaelis, i. 260-477 

lapsed, lying vacant, ungoverned these three years; and now 
become the Kaiser's again. Kaiser, in consequence, gave it 
to his Son; whose name also is Ludwig: the date of the 
Investiture is 1323 (year after that victory of Mtihldorf) ; a 
date unfortunate to Brandenburg. We come now into a Line 
of Bavarian Markgraves, and then of Luxemburg ones ; both 
of which are of fatal significance to Brandenburg. 

The Ascanier Cousins, high Saxon dignitaries some of them, 
gloomed mere disappointment, and protested hard ; but could 
not mend the matter, now or afterwards. Their Line went 
out in Saxony too, in course of time ; gave place to the Wet- 
tins, who are still there. The Ascanier had to be content 
with the more pristine state of acquisitions, high pedigrees, 
old castles of Ascanien and Ballenstadt, territories of Anhalt 
or what else they had ; and never rose again to the lost 
height, though the race stiU lives, and has qualities besides 
its pedigree. We said the "Old Dessauer," Leopold Prince 
of Anhalt-Dessau, was the head of it in Friedrich Wilhelm's 
time ; and to this day he has descendants. Catharine II. of 
Russia was of Anhalt-Zerbst, a junior branch. Albert the 
Bear, if that is of any use to him, has still occasionally no- 
table representatives. 

Ludwig junior, Kaiser Ludwig the Bavarian's eldest son, 
was still under age when appointed Kurfiirst of Brandenburg 
in 1323 : of course he had a " Stateholder" (Viceregent, Statt- 
halter) ; then, and afterwards in occasional absences of his, 
a series of such. Kaiser's Councillors, Burggraf Friedrich IV. 
among them, had to take some thought of Brandenburg in its 
new posture. Who these Brandenburg Statthalters were, is 
heartily indifferent even to Dryasdust, except that one of 
them for some time was a Hohenzollern : which circumstance 
Dryasdust marks with the due note of admiration. What 
he did there," Dryasdust admits, "is not written anywhere;" 
good, we will hope, and not evil; but only the Diploma 
nominating him (of date 1346, not in Ludwig's minority, but 
many years after that ended 1 ) now exists by way of record, 


A difficult problem he, like the other regents and viceregents, 
must have had ; little dreaming that it was intrinsically for 
a grandson of his own, and long line of grandsons. The 
name of this temporary Statthalter, the first Hohenzollern 
who had ever the least concern with Brandenburg, is Burg- 
graf Johann II., eldest Son of our distinguished Muhldorf 
friend Friedrich IV. ; and Grandfather (through another 
Friedrich) of Burggraf Friedrich VI., which last gentle- 
man, as will be seen, did doubtless reap the sowings, good 
and bad, of all manner of men in Brandenburg. The same 
Johann II. it was who purchased Plassenburg Castle and 
Territory (cheap, for money down), where the Family after- 
wards had its chief residence. Hof, Town and Territory, 
had fallen to his Father in those parts ; a gift of gratitude 
from Kaiser Ludwig : most of the Voigtland is now Hohen- 

Kaiser Ludwig the Bavarian left his sons Electors of 
Brandenburg ; " Electors, KurfUrsts," now becomes the com- 
moner term for so important a Country; Electors not in 
easy circumstances. But no son of his succeeded Ludwig 
as Kaiser, successor in the Reich was that Pfaffen-Kaiser, 
Johann of Bohemia's son, a Luxemburger once more. No 
son of Ludwig's ; nor did any descendant, except, after four 
hundred years, that unfortunate Kaiser Karl VII., in Maria 
Theresa's time. He was a descendant. Of whom we shall 
hear more than enough. The unluckiest of all Kaisers, that 
Karl VII. ; less a Sovereign Kaiser than a bone thrown into 
the ring for certain royal dogs, Louis XV., George IL and 
others, to worry about ; watch-dogs of the gods ; apt some- 
times to run into hunting instead of warding. We will 
say nothing more of Ludwig the Baier, or his posterity, at 
present : we will glance across to Preussen, and see, for one 
moment, what the Teutsch Bitters are doing in their new 
Century. It is the year 1330; Johann II. at JTtonberg, as 
yet only coming to be Burggraf, by no means yet adminis- 
tering in Brandenburg; and Ludwig junior seven years old 
in his new dignity there. 


The Teutsch Eitters, after infinite travail, have subdued 
heathen Preussen ; colonized the country with industrious Ger- 
man immigrants ; banked the Weichsel and the Nogat, subdu- 
ing their quagmires into meadows, and their waste streams 
into deep ship-courses. Towns are built, Konigsberg (King 
Ottocar's town), Thoren (Thorn, City of the Gates), with many 
others : so that the wild population and the tame now lived 
tolerably together, under Gospel and Ltibeck Law; and all 
was ploughing and trading, and a rich country ; which had 
made the Teutsch Hitters rich, and victoriously at their ease 
in comparison. But along with riches and the ease of victory, 
the common bad consequences had ensued. Bitters given up 
to luxuries, to secular ambitions; ritters no longer clad in 
austere mail and prayer; ritters given up to wantonness of 
mind and conduct ; solemnly vowing, and quietly not doing ; 
without remorse or consciousness of wrong, daily eating for- 
bidden fruit ; ritters swelling more and more into the fatted-ox 
condition, for whom there is but one doom. How far they 
had carried it, here is one symptom that may teach us. 

In the year 1330, one Werner von Orseln was Grand-master 
of these Eitters. The Grand-master, who is still usually the 
best man they can get, and who by theory is sacred to them 
as a Grand-Lama or Pope among Cardinal-Lamas, or as an 
Abbot to his Monks, Grand-master Werner, we say, had 
lain down in Marienburg one afternoon of this year 1330, to 
take his siesta, and was dreaming peaceably after a moderate 
repast, when a certain devil-ridden mortal, Johann von Endorf, 
one of his Eitters, long grumbling about severity, want of 
promotion and the like, rushed in upon the good old man; 
ran him through, dead for a ducat; 1 and consummated a 
parrieide at which the very cross on one's white cloak shud- 
ders ! Parricide worse, a great deal, than that at the Ford of 
Eeuss upon one-eyed Albert. 

We leave the shuddering Eitters to settle it, sternly 
vengeful ; whom, for a moment, it has struck broad-awake to 
some sense of the very questionable condition they are getting 

Voigt, iv. 474, 482. 


title; a sorry enough Kaiser, and by nature an enemy of 

It was in this whirl of intricate misventures that Kurfurst 
Ludwig had to deal with his False Waldemar, conjured from 
the deeps upon him, like a new goblin, where already there 
were plenty, in the dance round poor Ludwig. Of which 
nearly inextricable goblin-dance; threatening Brandenburg, 
for one thing, with annihilation, and yet leading Brandenburg 
abstrusely towards new birth and higher destinies, how will 
it be possible (without raising new ghosts, in a sense) to give 
readers any intelligible notion ? Here, flickering on the edge 
of conflagration after duty done, is a poor Note which perhaps 
the reader had better, at the risk of superfluity, still in part 
take along with him : 

"Kaiser Henry VII., who died of sacramental wine, First 
of the Luxemburg Kaisers, left Johann still a boy of fifteen, 
who could not become the second of them, but did in time pro- 
duce the Second, who again produced the Third and Fourth. 

" Johann was already King of Bohemia ; the important 
young gentleman, Ottocar's grandson, whom we saw 'mur- 
dered at Olmtitz none yet knows by whom,' had left that 
throne vacant, and it lapsed to the Kaiser; who, the Nation 
also favoring, duly put in his son Johann. There was a com- 
petitor, 'Duke of the Tyrol,' who claimed on loose grounds; 
' My wife was Aunt of the young murdered King,' said he ; 
' wherefore ' ! Kaiser, and Johann after him, rebutted this 
competitor ; but he long gave some trouble, having great wealth 
and means. He produced a Daughter, Margaret Heiress of 
the Tyrol, with a terrible mouth to her face, and none of 
the gentlest hearts in her body : that was perhaps his prin- 
cipal feat in the world. He died 1331 ; had styled himself 
'King of Bohemia' for twenty years, ever since 1308; 
but in the last two years of his life he gave it up, and ceased 
from troubling, having come to a beautiful agreement with 

"Johann, namely, wedded his eldest Son to this competitor's 
fine Daughter with the mouth (Year 1329): 'In this manner 
do not Bohemia and the Tyrol come together in my blood and 

in yours, and both of us are made men?' said the two con- 
tracting parties. Alas, no: the competitor Duke, father of 
the Bride, died some two years after, probably with diminished 
hopes of it; and King Johann lived to see the hope expire 
dismally altogether. There came no children, there came no 
In fact Margaret, after a dozen years of wedlock, in unpleasant 
circumstances, broke it off as if by explosion ; took herself and 
her Tyrol irrevocably over to Kaiser Ludwig, quite away from 
King Johann, who, his hopes of the Tyrol expiring in such 
dismal manner, was thenceforth the bitter enemy of Ludwig 
and what held of him." 

Tyrol explosion was in 1342. And now, keeping these 
preliminary dates and outlines in mind, we shall understand 
the big-mouthed Lady better, and the consequences of her in 
the world. 

Margaret with the Pouchmouth. 

What principally raised this dance of the devils round poor 
Ludwig, I perceive, was a marriage he had made, three years 
before Waldemar emerged ; of which, were it only for the sake 
of the Bride's name, some mention is permissible. Margaret 
of the Tyrol, commonly called, by contemporaries and pos- 
terity, Maultasche (Mouthpoke, Pocket-mouth), she was the 
bride : marriage done at Innspruck, 1342, under furtherance 
of father Ludwig the Kaiser : such a mouth as we can fancy, 
and a character corresponding to it. This, which seemed to 
the two Ludwigs a very conquest of the golden-fleece under 
conditions, proved the beginning of their worst days to both 
of them. 

Not a lovely bride at all, this Maultasche ; who is verging 
now towards middle life withal, and has had enough to cross 
her in the world. Was already married thirteen years ago; 
not wisely nor by any means too well. A terrible dragon of 
a woman. Has been in nameless domestic quarrels ; in wars 
and sieges with rebellious vassals; claps you an iron cap on 
her bead, and takes the field when need is : furious she-bear 
of the Tyrol. But she has immense possessions, if wanting 
in female charms. She came by mothers from that Duke of 


Meran whom -we saw get his death (for cause), in the Plassen- 
burg a hundred years ago. 1 Her ancestor was Husband to an 
Aunt of that homicided Duke : from him, principally from 
him, she inherits the Tyrol, Carinthia, Styria ; is herself an 
only child, the last of a line : hugest Heiress now going. So 
that, in spite of the mouth and humor, she has not wanted 
for wooers, especially prudent fathers wooing her for their 

In her Father's lifetime, Johann King of Bohemia, always 
awake to such symptoms of things, and having very peculiar 
interests in this case, courted and got her for his Crown- 
Prince (as we just saw), a youth of great outlooks, outlooks 
towards Kaisership itself perhaps ; to whom she was wedded, 
thirteen years ago, and duly brought the Tyrol for Heritage : 
but with the worst results. Heritage, namely, could not be 
had without strife with Austria, which likewise had claims. 
Far worse, the marriage itself went awry: Johann's Crown- 
Prince was "a soft-natured Herr," say the Books: why bring 
your big she-bear into a poor deer's den ? Enough, the mar- 
riage came to nothing, except to huge brawlings far enough 
away from us : and Margaret Pouch-mouth has now divorced 
her Bohemian Crown-Prince as a Nullity ; and again weds, on 
similar terms, Kaiser Ludwig's son, our Brandenburg Kur- 
fttrst, who hopes possibly that he now may succeed as Kaiser, 
on the strength of his Father and of the Tyrol. Which turned 
out far otherwise. 

The marriage was done in the Church of Innspruck, 10th 
February, 1342 (for we love to be particular), "Kaiser Lud- 
wig," happy man, "and many Princes of the Empire, looking 
on ; " little thinking what a coil it would prove. At the high 
altar she stript off her veil," symbol of wifehood or widow- 
hood," and put on a jungfernkranz (maiden's-garland)," sym- 
bolically testifying how happy Ludwig junior still was. They 
had a son by and by ; but their course otherwise, and indeed 
this-wise too, was much checkered. 

King Johann, seeing the Tyrol gone in this manner, gloomed 

terribly upon his Crown-Prince; flung him aside as a Nullity 


"Go to Moravia, out of sight, on an apanage, you; be Crown- 
Prince no longer ! " And took to fighting Kaiser Ludwig ; 
colleagued diligently with the hostile Pope, with the King 
of France; intrigued and colleagued far and wide; swearing 
by every method everlasting enmity to Kaiser Ludwig; and 
set up his son Karl as Pfaffen-Kaiser. Nay, perhaps he was 
at the bottom of Post-obit Waldemar too. In brief, he raised, 
he mainly, this devils'-dance, in which, Kaiser Ludwig having 
died, poor Kurfttrst Ludwig, with Maultasche hanging on him, 
is sometimes near his wits' end. 

Johann's poor Crown-Prince, finding matters take this turn, 
retired into Mahren (Moravia) as bidden; "Margrave of Mah- 
ren; " and peaceably adjusted himself to his character of Nul- 
lity and to the loss of Maultasche ; chose, for the rest, a new 
Princess in wedlock, with more moderate dimensions of mouth ; 
and did produce sons and daughters on a fresh score. Pro- 
duced, among others, one Jobst, his successor in the apanage 
or Margrafdom ; who, as Jobst, or Jodocus, of Mahren, made 
some noise for himself in the next generation, and will turn 
up again in reference to Brandenburg in this History. 

As for Margaret Pouch-mouth, she, with her new Husband 
as with her old, continued to have troubles, pretty much as the 
sparks fly upwards. She had fierce siegings after this, and 
explosive procedures, little short of Monk Schwartz, who 
was just inventing gunpowder at the time. We cannot hope 
she lived in Elysian harmony with Kurfurst Ludwig; the 
reverse, in fact ; and of tenest with the whole breadth of Ger- 
many between them, he in Brandenburg, she in the Tyrol. 
Nor did Ludwig junior ever come to be Kaiser, as his Father 
and she had hoped ; on the contrary, King Johann of Bohe- 
mia's people, it was they that next got the Kaisership and 
kept it ; a new provocation to Maultasche. 

Ludwig and she had a son, as we said; Prince of the Tyrol 
and appendages, titular Margraf of Mahren and much else, by 
nature : but alas, he died about ten ; a precocious boy, fancy 
the wild weeping of a maternal She-bear ! And the Father had 
already died ; 1 a malicious world whispering that perhaps she 
1 In 1361, died Knrfiirat Ludwig; 1363, the Boy ; 1366, Maultasche herself. 


poisoned them both. The proud woman, now old too, pursed 
her big coarse lips together at such rumor, and her big coarse 
soul, in a gloomy scorn appealing beyond the world ; in a 
sorrow that the world knew not of. She solemnly settled her 
Tyrol and appendages upon the Austrian Archdukes, who were 
children of her Mother's Sister; whom she even installed into 
the actual government, to make matters surer. This done, she 
retired to Vienna, on a pension from them, there to meditate 
and pray a little, before Death came ; as it did now in a short 
year or two. Tyrol and the appendages continue with Austria 
from that hour to this, Margaret's little boy having died. 

Margaret of the Pouch-mouth, rugged dragoon-major of a 
woman, with occasional steel cap on her head, and capable of 
swearing terribly in Flanders or elsewhere, remains in some 
measure memorable to me. Compared with Pompadour, Duch- 
ess of Cleveland, of Kendal and other high-rouged unfortunate 
females, whom it is not proper to speak of without necessity, 
though it is often done, Maultasche rises to the rank of His- 
torical. She brought the Tyrol and appendages permanently 
to Austria; was near leading Brandenburg to annihilation, 
raising such a goblin-dance round Ludwig and it, yet did 
abstrusely lead Brandenburg towards a far other goal, which 
likewise has proved permanent for it. 



KAISEB LUDWIG died in 1347, while the False Waldemar 
was still busy. We saw Karl IV., Johann of Bohemia's second 
son, come to the Kaisership thereupon, Johann's eldest Nul- 
lity being omitted. This Fourth Karl, other three Karls 
are of the Charlemagne set, Karl the Bald, the Fat, and such 
like, and lie under our horizon, while Charles Fifth is of a 
still other set, and known to everybody, this Karl IV. is 

the Kaiser who discovered the Well of Karlsbad (Bath of 
Karl), known to Tourists of this day ; and made the Golden 
Butt, which I forbid all Englishmen to take for an agricul- 
tural Prize Animal, the thing being far other, as is known to 

There is little farther to be said of Karl in Keichs-History. 
An unesteemed creature ; who strove to make his time peace- 
able in this world, by giving from the Holy Roman Empire 
with both hands to every bull-beggar, or ready-payer who ap- 
plied. Sad sign what the Koman Empire had come and was 
coming to. The Kaiser's shield, set up aloft in the Eoncalic 
Plain in Barbarossa's time, intimated, and in earnest too, "Ho, 
every one that has suffered wrong!" intimates now, "Ho, 
every one that can bully me, or has money in his pocket ! " 
Unadmiring posterity has confirmed the nickname of this Karl 
IV. ; and calls him Pfaffen-Kaiser. He kept mainly at Prag, 
ready for receipt of cash, and holding well out of harm's way. 
In younger years he had been much about the French Court ; 
in Italy he had suffered troubles, almost assassinations ; much 
blown to and fro, poor light wretch, on the chaotic winds of 
his Time, steering towards no star. 

Johann, King of Bohemia, did not live to see Karl an ac- 
knowledged Kaiser. Old Johann, blind for some time back, 
had perished two years before that event; bequeathing a 
Heraldic Symbol to the World's History and to England's, if 
nothing more. Poor man, he had crusaded in Preussen in a 
brilliant manner, being fond of fighting. He wrung Silesia, 
gradually by purchase and entreaty (pretio aoprece), from the 
Polish King ; * joined it firmly to Bohemia and Germany, 
unconsciously waiting for what higher destinies Silesia might 
have. For Maultasche and the Tyrol he brought sad woes on 
Brandenburg; and yet was unconsciously leading Branden- 
burg, by abstruse courses, whither it had to go. A restless, 
ostentatious, far-grasping, strong-handed man; who kept the 
world in a stir wherever he was. All which has proved voice- 
less in the World's memory; while the casual Shadow of a 
1 1827-1341 (Kohler t p.802). 


Feather he once wore has proved vocal there. World's mem- 
ory is very whimsical now and then. 

Being much implicated with the King of France, who with 
the Pope was his chief stay in these final Anti-Ludwig opera- 
tions, Johann in 1346, Pfaffen-Kaiser Karl just set on foot 
had led his chivalry into France, to help against the English 
Edwards, who were then very intrusive there. Johann was 
blind, but he had good ideas in war. At the Battle of Crecy, 
24th August, 1346, he advised we know not what ; but he ac- 
tually fought, though stone-blind. "Tied his bridle to that of 
the Knight next him-, and charged in," like an old blind 
war-horse kindling madly at the sound of the trumpet ; and 
was there, by some English lance or yew, laid low. They 
found him on that field of carnage (field of honor, too, in a 
sort) ; his old blind face looking, very blindly, to the stars : 
on his shield was blazoned a Plume of three ostrich-feathers 
with " Ich dien (I serve) " written under : with which em- 
blem every English reader is familiar ever since ! This Editor 
himself, in very tender years, noticed it on the Britannic Maj- 
esty's war-drums ; and had to inquire of children of a larger 
growth what the meaning might be. 

That is all I had to say of King Johann and his "Ich dien." 
Of the Luxemburg Kaisers (four in number, two sons of Karl 
still to come) ; who, except him of the sacramental wine, 
with " Ich dien " for son, are good for little ; and deserve no 
memory from mankind except as they may stick, not easily 
extricable, to the history of nobler men : of them also I 
could wish to be silent, but must not. Must at least explain 
how they came in, as " Luxemburg KurfUrsts " in Branden- 
burg ; and how they went out, leaving Brandenburg not anni- 
hilated, but very near it. 

End of Resuscitated Waldemar ; KurfUrst Ludwig setts out. 

Imaginary Waldemar being still busy in Brandenburg, it 
was natural for Kaiser Karl to find him genuine, and keep 
np that goblin-dance round poor Kurfttrst Ludwig, the late 
Kaiser's son, by no means a lover of Karl's. Considerable 

support was managed to be raised for Waldemar. Kaiser 
Karl regularly infeoffed him as real Kurfiirst, so far as parch- 
ment could do it; and in case of his decease, says Karl's 
diploma farther, the Princes of Anhalt shall succeed, Lud- 
wig in any case is to be zero henceforth. War followed, or 
what they called war : much confused invading, bickering and 
throttling, for two years to come. "Most of the Towns de- 
clared for Waldemar, and their old Anhalt line of Margraves : " 
Ludwig and the Bavarian sort are clearly not popular here. 
Ludwig held out strenuously, however ; would not be beaten. 
He had the King of Denmark for Brother-in-law ; had connec- 
tions in the Reich : perhaps still better he had the Reichs- 
Insignia, lately his Father's, still in hand. He stood obstinate 
siege from the Kaiser's people and the Anhalters ; shouted-in 
Denmark to help ; started an Anti-Kaiser, as we said, tem- 
porary Anti-Kaiser Giinther of Schwartzburg, whom the reader 
can forget a second time : in brief, Ludwig contrived to 
bring Kaiser Karl, and Imaginary Waldemar with his An- 
halters, to a quietus and negotiation, and to get Brandenburg 
cleared of them. Year 1349, they went their ways ; and that 
devils'-dance, which had raged five years and more round Lud- 
wig, was fairly got kid or lulled again. 

Imaginary Waldemar, after some farther ineffectual wrig- 
glings, retired altogether into private life, at the Court of 
Dessau ; and happily died before long. Died at the Court of 
Dessau ; the Anhalt Cousins treating him to the last as Head 
Representative of Albert the Bear, and real Prince Waldemar ; 
for which they had their reasons. Portraits of this False 
Waldemar still turn up in the German Print-shops ; 1 and repre- 
sent a very absurd fellow, much muffled in drapery, mouth par- 
tially open, eyes wholly and widely so, never yet recovered 
from his astonishment at himself and things in general ! How 
it fared with poor Brandenburg, in these chaotic throttlings 
and vicissitudes, under the Bavarian Kurfiirsts, we can too 
well imagine ; and that is little to what lies ahead for it. 
However, in that same year, 1349, temporary quietus having 
i la Kloss ( raterlaadac/ie GemSldf, ii. 29), sorry Compilation, above re- 
f erred to, without value except for the old Excerpts, &c., there is a Copy of it 


come, Kurf first Ludwig, weary of the matter, gave it over to 
his Brother: "Have not I an opulent Maultasche, Gorgon- 
Wife, susceptible to kindness, in the Tyrol; have not I in 
the Eeich elsewhere resources, appliances ?" thought Kurfurst 
Ludwig. And gave the thing over to his next Brother. 
Brother whose name also is Lud'teig (as their Father's also had 
been, three Ludwigs at once, for our dear Germans shine in 
nomenclature): "Ludwig the Roman" this new one; the 
elder Brother, our acquaintance, being Ludwig simply, distin- 
guishable too as Kurfurst Ludwig, or even as Ludwig Senior 
at this stage of the affair. Kurfurst Ludwig, therefore, Year 
1349, washes his hands of Brandenburg while the quietus 
lasts ; retaining only the Electorship and Title ; and goes his 
ways, resolving to take his ease in Bavaria and the Tyrol 
thenceforth. How it fared with him there, with his loving 
Gorgon and him, we will not ask farther. They had always 
separate houses to fly to, in case of extremity ! They held out, 
better or worse, twelve years more ; and Ludwig left his little 
Boy still surviving him, in 1361. 

Second, and then Third and last, of the Bavarian Kurfurats 

In Brandenburg, the new Markgraf Ludwig, who we say is 
called " the Roman " (Ludwig der Bb'mer, having been in Eome) 
to distinguish him, continued warring with the Anarchies, 
fifteen years in a rather tough manner, without much victory 
on either side; made his peace with Kaiser Karl however, 
delivering up the Beichs-Insiffnia ; and tried to put down the 
domestic Bobbers, who had got on foot, " many of them per- 
sons of quality; "* till he also died, childless, A.D. 1366; hav- 
ing been Kurfurst too, since his Brother's death, for some four 

Whereupon Brandenburg, Electorship and all Titles with 
it, came to Otto, third son of Kaiser Ludwig, who is happily 
the last of these Bavarian Electors. They were an unlucky set 
of Sovereigns, not hitherto without desert ; and the unlucky 


Country suffered much under them. By far the unluckiest, 
and by far the worst, was this Otto; a dissolute, drinking, 
entirely worthless Herr ; under whom, for eight years, con- 
fusion went worse confounded; as if plain Chaos were coming; 
and Brandenburg and Otto grew tired of each other to the 

In which state of matters, A.D. 1373, Kaiser Karl offered 
Otto a trifle of ready money to take himself away. Otto ac- 
cepted greedily ; sold his Electorate and big Mark of Branden- 
burg to Kaiser Karl for an old song, 200,000 thalers (about 
30,000, and only half of it ever paid); 1 withdrew to his 
Schloss of Wolf stein in Bavaria; and there, on the strength 
of that or other sums, " rolled deep as possible in every sort 
of debauchery." And so in few years puddled himself to 
death; foully ending the Bavarian set of Kurfiirsts. They 
had lasted fifty years; with endless trouble to the Country 
and to themselves ; and with such mutual profit as we have 



Iv Brandenburg suffered much under the Bavarian Kur- 
f firsts for Fifty years, it was worse, and approached to the 
state of worst, under the Luxemburgers, who lasted for some 
Forty more. Ninety years of anarchy in all ; which at length 
brought it to great need of help from the Fates ! 

Karl IV. made his eldest Boy Wenzel, still only about 
twelve, Elector of Brandenburg; 8 Wenzel shall be Kaiser 
and King of Bohemia, one day, thinks Karl; which actu- 
ally came to pass, and little to Wenzel's profit, by and by. 
In the mean while Karl accompanied him to Brandenburg; 
which country Karl liked much at the money, and indeed ever 
after, in his old days, he seemed rather to busy himself with 
it. He assembled some kind of Stande (States) twice over; 
i Michaelis, i. 283. * 1373 (born 1361). 


got the Country "incorporated with Bohemia" by them, 
and made tight and handy so far. Brandenburg shall rest 
from its woes, and be a silent portion of Bohemia hence- 
forth, thinks Karl, if the Heavens so please. Karl, a futile 
Kaiser, would fain have done something to " encourage trade " 
in Brandenburg; though one sees not what it was he did, 
if anything. He built the Schloss of Tangenntinde, and often- 
est lived there in time coming; a quieter place than even 
Prag for him. In short, he appears to have fancied his cheap 
Purchase, and to have cheered his poor old futile life with 
it, as with one thing that had been successful. Poor old 
creature: he had been a Kaiser on false terms, "Ho every 
one that dare bully me, or that has money in his pocket ; " 
a Kaiser that could not but be futile ! In five years' time 
he died ; 1 and doubtless was regretted in Brandenburg and 
even in the Eeich, in comparison with what came next. 

In Brandenburg he left, instead of one indifferent or even 
bad governor steadily tied to the place and in earnest to make 
the best of it, a fluctuating series of governors holding loose, 
and not in earnest ; which was infinitely worse. These did 
not try to govern it; sent it to the Pawnbroker, to a fluc- 
tuating series of Pawnbrokers; under whom, for the next 
five-and-thirty years, Brandenburg tasted all the fruits of 
Non-government, that is to say, Anarchy or Government by 
the Pawnbroker; and sank faster and faster, towards anni- 
hilation as it seemed. That was its fate under the Luxem- 
burg Kurfursts, who made even the Bavarian and all others 
be regretted. 

One thing Kaiser Karl did, which ultimately proved the 
saving of Brandenburg : made friendship with the Hohenzol- 
lern Burggraves. These, Johann II., temporary " Statthalter " 
Johann, and his Brother, who were Co-regents in the Family 
Domain, when Karl first made appearance, had stood true 
to Kaiser Ludwig and his Son, so long as that play lasted 
at all ; nay one of these Burggraves was talked of as Kaiser 

i King of Bohemia, 1346, on his Father's death ; Kaiser (acknowledged on 
Ludwig the Eater's death), 1347 ; died, 1378, age 62. 



after Ludwig's death, but had the wisdom not to try. Kaiser 
Ludwig being dead, they still would not recognize the Pfaffen- 
Kaiser Karl, but held gloomily out. So that Karl had to 
march in force into the Ntirnberg country, and by great 
promises, by considerable gifts, and the "example of the 
other Princes of the Empire," 1 brought them over to do 

After which, their progress, and that of their successor 
(Johann's son, Friedrich V.), in the grace of Karl, was some- 
thing extraordinary. Karl gave his Daughter to this Fried- 
rich V.'s eldest Son ; appointed a Daughter of Friedrich's for 
his own Second Prince, the famed Sigismund, famed that is 
to be, which latter match did not take effect, owing to 
changed outlooks after Karl's death. Nay there is a Deed still 
extant about marrying children not yet born : Karl to pro- 
duos a Princess within five years, and Burggraf Friedrich V. 
a Prince, for that purpose ! a But the Burggraf never had 
another Prince ; though Karl produced the due Princess, and 
was ready, for his share. Unless indeed this strange eager- 
looking Document, not dated in the old Books, may itself re- 
late to the above wedding which did come to pass ? Years 
before that, Karl had made his much-esteemed Burggraf 
Friedrich V. "Captain-General of the Reich;" "Imperial 
Vicar " (Substitute, if need were), and much besides ; nay had 
given him the Landgraviate of Elsass (Alsace), so far as 
lay with him to give, of which valuable country this Fried- 
rich had actual possession so long as the Kaiser lived. " Best 
of men," thought the poor light Kaiser; "never saw such a 
man ! " 

Which proved a salutary thought, after all. The man had 
a little Boy Fritz (not the betrothed to Karl's Princess), still 
chasing butterflies at Culmbach, when Karl died. In this 
Boy lie new destinies for Brandenburg : towards him, and not 
towards annihilation, are Karl and the Luxemburg Kurf iirsts 
and Pawnbrokers unconsciously guiding it. 

1 Hallow-eve, 1347, on the Keld of Niiraherg," Agreement was come to 




KAKL left three young Sons, Wenzel, Sigismund, Johann ; 
and also a certain Nephew much older ; all of whom now more 
or less concern us in this unfortunate History. 

Wenzel the eldest Son, heritable Kurfttrst of Brandenburg 
as well as King of Bohemia, was as yet only seventeen, who 
nevertheless got to be Kaiser, 1 and went widely astray, poor 
soul. The Nephew was no other than Margrave Jobst of 
Moravia (son of Maultasche's late Nullity there), now in the 
vigor of his years and a stirring man : to him, for a time, the 
chief management in Brandenburg fell, in these circumstances. 
Wenzel, still a minor, and already Kaiser and King of Bohe- 
mia, gave up Brandenburg to his two younger Brothers, most 
of it to Sigismund, with a cutting for Johann, to help their 
apanages ; and applied his own powers to govern the Holy 
Eoman Empire, at that early stage of life. 

To govern the Holy Eoman Empire, poor soul ; or rather 
"to drink beer, and dance with the girls ; " in which, if defec- 
tive in other things, Wenzel had an eminent talent. He was 
one of the worst Kaisers, and the least victorious on record. 
He would attend to nothing in the Eeich ; " the Trag white 
beer, and girls " of various complexion, being much pref erable, 
as he was heard to say. He had to fling his poor Queou's 
Confessor into the Eiver Moldau, Johann of Nepomuk, 
Saint so called, if he is not a fable altogether ; whose Statue 
stands on Bridges ever since, in those parts. Wenzel's Bohe- 
mians revolted against him; put him in jail; and he broke 
prison, a boatman's daughter helping him out, with adven- 
tures. His Germans were disgusted with him ; deposed him 
i 1378, on his Father's death. 


from the Kaisership ; chose Rupert of the Pf alz ; and then 
after Kupert's death, 2 chose Wenzel's own Brother Sigismund, 
in his stead, left Wenzel to jumble about in his native Bo- 
hemian element, as King there, for nineteen years longer, still 
breaking pots to a ruinous extent. 

He ended, by apoplexy, or sudden spasm of the heart ; terri- 
ble Zisca, as it were, killing him at second-hand. For Zisca, 
stout and furious, blind of one eye and at last of both, a kind 
of human rhinoceros driven mad, had risen out of the ashes of 
murdered Huss, and other bad Papistic doings, in the interim ; 
and was tearing up the world at a huge rate. Ehinoceros 
Zisca was on the Weissenberg, or a still nearer Hill of Prag 
since called ZiscarBerg (Zisca Hill) : and none durst whisper of 
it to the King. A servant waiting at dinner inadvertently let 
slip the word : " Zisca there ? Deny it, slave ! " cried Wen- 
zel frantic. Slave durst not deny. Wenzel drew his sword 
to run at him, but fell down dead: that was the last pot 
broken by Wenzel. The hapless royal ex-imperial Phantasm 

ship too early ; was a thin violent creature, sensible to the 
charms and horrors of created objects ; and had terrible rhi- 
noceros Ziscas and unruly horned-cattle to drive. He was one 
of the worst Kaisers ever known, could have done Opera- 
singing much better ; and a sad sight to Bohemia. Let us 
leave him there : he was never actual Elector of Brandenburg, 
having given it up in time; never did any ill to that poor 

Sigiemund is Kurfiirxt of JBrandenbury, but is King of 
Hungary also. 

The real Kurfurst of Brandenburg all this while was Sigis- 
mnnd Wenzel's next Brother, under tutelage of Cousin Jobst 
or otherwise ; real and yet imaginary, for he never himself 
governed, but always had Jobst of Mahren or some other in 
his place there. Sigismund, as above said, was to have mar- 
l 25th May, 1400 (Kohler, p. 331). * 1410 (ib. p. 336). 

30th July, 1419 (Hormayr, vii. 119). 
vot. v. 10 


ried a Daughter of Burggraf Friedrich Y. ; and he was him- 
self, as was the young lady, well inclined to this arrangement. 
But the old people being dead, and some offer of a King's 
Daughter turning up for Sigismund, Sigismund broke off ; and 
took the King's Daughter, King of Hungary's, not without 
regret then and afterwards, as is believed. At any rate, the 
Hungarian charmer proved a wife of small merit, and a Hun- 
garian successor she had was a wife of light conduct even ; 
Hungarian charmers, and Hungarian affairs, were much other 
than a comfort to Sigismund. 

As for the disappointed Princess, Burggraf Friedrich's 
Daughter, she said nothing that we hear; silently became a 
Nun, an Abbess : and through a long life looked out, with her 
thoughts to herself, upon the loud whirlwind of things, where 
Sigismund (oftenest like an imponderous rag of conspicuous 
color) was riding and tossing. Her two Brothers also, joint 
Burggraves after their Father's death, seemed to have recon- 
ciled themselves without difficulty. The elder of them was 
already Sigismund's Brother-in-law; married to Sigismund's 
and Wenzel's sister, by such predestination as we saw. 
Burggraf Johann III. was the name of this one: a stout 
fighter and manager for many years ; much likecl., and looked 
to, by Sigismund. As indeed were both the Brothers, for that 
matter ; always, together or in succession, a kind of right- 
hand to Sigismund. Friedrich the younger Burggraf, and ulti- 
mately the survivor and inheritor (Johann having left no sons), 
is the famed Burggraf Friedrich VL, the last and notablest 
of all the Burggraves. A man of distinguished importance, 
extrinsic and intrinsic ; chief or among the very chief of Ger- 
man public men in his time; and memorable to Posterity, 
and to this History, on still other grounds ! But let us not 

Sigismund, if apanaged with Brandenburg alone, and 
wedded to his first love, not a King's Daughter, might have 
done tolerably well there ; better than Wenzel, with the 
Empire and Bohemia, did. But delusive Fortune threw her 
golden apple at Sigismund too; and he, in the wide high 
world, had to play strange pranks. His Father-in law died in 



Hungary, Sigismund's first wife his only child. Father-in- 
law bequeathed Hungary to Sigismund: 1 who plunged into a 
strange sea thereby; got troubles without number, beatings 
not a few, and had even to take boat, and sail for his life 
down to Constantinople, at one time. In which sad adventure 
Burggraf Johann escorted him, and as it were tore him out 
by the hair of the head. These troubles and adventures lasted 
many years ; in the course of which, Sigismund, trying all 
manner of friends and expedients, found in the Burggraves 
of Kurnberg, Johann and Friedrich, with their talents, pos- 
sessions and resources, the main or almost only sure support 
he got. 

No end of troubles to Sigismund, and to Brandenburg 
through him, from this sublime Hungarian legacy! Like a 
remote fabulous golden-fleece, which you have to go and con- 
quer first, and which is worth little when conquered. Before 
ever setting out (A.D. 1387), Sigismund saw too clearly he 
would have cash to raise: an operation he had never done 
with, all his life afterwards. He pawned Brandenburg to 
Cousin Jobst of Mahren ; got " 20,000 Bohemian gulden," 
I guess, a most slender sum, if Dryasdust would but interpret 
it. This was the beginning of Pawnings to Brandenburg; 
of which when will the end be? Jobst thereby came into 
Brandenburg on his own right for the time, not as Tutor or 
Guardian, which he had hitherto been. Into Brandenburg ; 
and there was no chance of repayment to get him out again. 

Cousin Jobst has Brandenburg in Pawn. 

Jobst tried at first to do some governing; but finding all 
very anarchic, grew unhopeful ; took to making matters easy 
for himself. Took, in fact, to turning a penny on his pawn- 
ticket; alienating crown domains, winking hard at robber- 
barons, and the like ; and after a few years, went home 
to Moravia, leaving Brandenburg to shift for itself, under 
a Statthalter (Viceregewt, more like a hungry land-steward), 
whom nobody took the trouble of respecting. Bobber-castles 
11387 (Sigismund's age then twenty). 


flourished ; all else decayed. No highway not unsafe ; many 
a Turpin with sixteen quarters, and styling himself Edle Herr 
(noble Gentleman), took to "living from the saddle : " what 
are Hamburg pedlers made for but to be robbed ? 

The Towns suffered much ; any trade they might have had, 
going to wreck in this manner. Not to speak of private 
feuds, which abounded ad libitum. Neighboring potentates, 
Archbishop of Magdeburg and others, struck in also at discre- 
tion, as they had gradually got accustomed to do, and snapped 
away (alzwackten) some convenient bit of territory, or, more 
legitimately, they came across to coerce, at their own haud, 
this or the other Edle Herr of the Turpin sort, whom there 
was no other way of getting at, when he carried matters quite 
too high. " Droves of six hundred swine," I have seen (by 
reading in those old Books) certain noble Gentlemen, " of 
Putlitz," I think, driving them openly, captured by the 
stronger hand ; and have heard the short querulous squeak of 
the bristly creatures : " What is the use of being a pig at all, 
if I am to be stolen in this way, and surreptitiously made 
into ham ? " Pigs do continue to be bred in Brandenburg : 
but it is under such discouragements. Agriculture, trade, 
well-being and well-doing of any kind, it is not encourage- 
ment they are meeting here. Probably few countries, not 
even Ireland, have a worse outlook, unless help come. 1 

Jobst came back in 1398, after eight years' absence ; but no 
help came with Jobst. The Neumark part of Brandenburg, 
which was Brother Johann's portion, had fallen home to 
Sigismund, Brother Johann having died : but Sigismund, far 
from redeeming old pawn-tickets with the Newmark, pawned 
the Newmark too, the second Pawnage of Brandenburg. 
Pawned the Newmark to the Teutsch Bitters "for 63,000 
Hungarian gold gulden " (I think, about 30,000) : and gave 
no part of it to Jobst ; had not nearly enough for himself and 
his Hungarian occasions. 

Seeing which, and hearing such squeak of pigs surrep- 
titiously driven, with little but discordant sights and sounds 
everywhere, Jobst became disgusted with the matter ; and 

1 Panli, i. 541-612. Michaelis, i. 283-285. 

resolved to -wash his hands of it, at least to have his money 
out of it again. Having sold what of the Domains he could 
to persons of quality, at an uncommonly easy rate, and so 
pocketed what ready cash there was among them, he made 
over his pawn-ticket, or properly he himself repawned Bran- 
denburg to the Saxon Potentate, a speculative moneyed 
man, Markgraf of Meissen, "Wilhelm the Rich" so called. 
Pawned it to Wilhelm the Rich, sum not named; and 
went home to Moravia, there to wait events. This is the 
third Brandenburg pawning : let us hope there may be a 
fourth and last. 

Brandenburg in the hands of the Pawnbrokers; Bupert of 
the Pfah is Kaiser. 

And so we have now reached that point in Brandenburg 
History when, if some help do not come, Brandenburg will 
not long be a country, but will either get dissipated in pieces 
and stuck to the edge of others where some government is, or 
else go waste again and fall to the bisons and wild bears. 

Who now is Kurfurst of Brandenburg, might be a question. 
" I unquestionably ! " Sigismund would answer, with astonish- 
ment. " Soft, your Hungarian Majesty," thinks Jobst : " till 
my cash is paid, may it not probably be another?" This 
question has its interest: the Electors just now (A.D. 1400) 
are about deposing Wenzel ; must choose some better Kaiser. 
If they wanted another scion of the House of Luxemburg ; a 
mature old gentleman of sixty; full of plans, plausibilities, 
pretensions, Jobst is their man. Jobst and Sigismund were 
of one mind as to Wenzel's going ; at least Sigismund voted 
clearly so, and Jobst said nothing counter : but the Kurf iirsts 
did not think of Jobst for successor. After some stumbling, 
they fixed upon Eupert Kur-Pfalz (Elector Palatine, Rupreckt 
von der Pfalz) as Kaiser. 

Eupert of the Pfalz proved a highly respectable Kaiser; 
lasted for ten years (1400-1410), with honor to himself and 
the Reich. A strong heart, strong head, but short of means. 
He chastised petty mutiny with vigor ; could not bring down 
the Milanese Visconti, who had perched themselves so high on 

money paid to Wenzel ; could not heal the schism of the 
Church (Double or Triple Pope, Eome-Avignon affair), or 
awaken the Reich to a sense of its old dignity and present 
loose condition. In the late loose times, as Antiquaries re- 
mark, 1 most Members of the Empire, Petty Princes even and 
Imperial Towns, had been struggling to set up for themselves ; 
and were now concerned chiefly to become Sovereign in their 
own Territories. And Schilter informs us, it was about this 
period that most of them attained such rather unblessed con- 
summation ; Rupert of himself not able to help it, with all his 
willingness. The People called him " Rupert Klemm (Rupert 
Smith'wiee)" from his resolute ways; which nickname 
given him not in hatred, but partly in satirical good-will 
is itself a kind of history. Prom Historians of the Reich he 
deserves honorable regretful mention. 

He had for Empress a Sister of Burggraf Friediich's; which 
high lady, unknown to us otherwise, except by her Tomb at 
Heidelberg, we remember for her Brother's sake. Kaiser 
Rupert great-grandson of that Kur-Pfalz who was Kaiser 
Ludwig's elder brother is the culminating point of the 
Electors Palatine; the Highest that Heidelberg produced. 
Ancestor of those famed Protestant "Palatines;" of all the 
Palatines or Pfalzes that reign in these late centuries. Ances- 
tor of the present Bavarian Majesty; Kaiser Ludwig's race 
having died out. Ancestor of the unfortunate Winterkonig, 
Friedrich King of Bohemia, who is too well known in English 
History; ancestor also of Charles XII. of Sweden, a highly 
creditable fact of the kind to him. Fact indisputable : A 
cadet of Pfalz-Zweibruck (Deux-Ponts, as the French call it), 
direct from Rupert, went to serve in Sweden in his soldier 
business; distinguished himself in soldiering; had a Sister 
of the great Gustav Adolf to wife ; and from her a renowned 
Son, Karl Gustav (Christina's Cousin), who succeeded as 
King ; who again had a Grandson made in his own likeness, 
only still more of iron in his composition. Enough now of 
Rupert Smith'wvx ; who died in 1410, and left the Reich 
again vacant 

i Kohler, p 334 ; who quotes Schilter. 

Rupert's funeral is hardly done, when, over in Preussen, far 
off in the Memel region, place called Tannenberg, where there 
is still " a churchyard to be seen," if little more, the Teutsch 
Bitters had, unexpectedly, a terrible Defeat : consummation of 
their Polish Miscellaneous quarrels of long standing; and the 
end of their high courses in this world. A ruined Teutsch 
Bitterdom, as good as ruined, ever henceforth. Kaiser Eupert 
died 18th May; and on the 15th July, within two months, was 
fought that dreadful "Battle of Tannenberg," Poland and 
Polish King, with miscellany of savage Tartars and revolted 
Prussians, versus Teutsch Bitterdom ; all in a very high mood 
of mutual rage; the very elements, "wild thunder, tempest 
and rain-deluges," playing chorus to them on the occasion. 1 
Bitterdom fought lion-like, but with insufficient strategic and 
other wisdom ; and was driven nearly distracted to see its 
pride tripped into the ditch by such a set. Vacant Eeich 
could not in the least attend to it ; nor can we farther at 

Sigismund, with a struggle, becomes Kaiser. 

Jobst and Sigismund were competitors for the Kaisership ; 
Wenzel, too, striking in with claims for reinstatement : the 
House of Luxemburg divided against itself. Wenzel, finding 
reinstatement not to be thought of, threw his weight, such as 
it was, into the scale of Cousin Jobst ; remembering angrily 
how Brother Sigismund voted in the Deposition case, ten 
years ago. The contest was vehement, and like to be lengthy. 
Jobst, though he had made over his pawn-ticket, claimed to 
be Elector of Brandenburg ; and voted for Himself. The like, 
with still more emphasis, did Sigismund, or Burggraf Fried- 
rich acting for him : " Sigismund, sure, is Kur-Brandenburg 
though under pawn I" argued Friedrich, and, I almost guess, 
though that is not said, produced from his own purse, at some 
stage of the business, the actual money for Jobst, to close his 
Brandenburg pretension. 

Both were elected (majority contested in this manner); and 
old Jobst, then above seventy, was like to have given much 

l Voiljt, vii. 82. Buschimt, Erdbeichreibang (Hambmx, 1770), ii. 1038. 


trouble: but happily in three months he died; 1 and Sigis- 
mund became indisputable. Jobst was the son of Maultasche's 
Nullity j him too, in an involuntary sort, she was the cause of. 
In his day Jobst made much noise in the world, but did little 
or no good in it. " He was thought a great man," says one 
satirical old Chronicler ; " and there was nothing great about 
him but the beard." 

"The cause of Sigismund's success with the Electors," 
says Kohler, " or of his having any party among them, was 
the faithful and unwearied diligence which had been used 
for him by the above-named Burggraf Friedrich VI. of 
Niirnberg, who took extreme pains to forward Sigismund to 
the Empire ; pleading that Sigismund and Wenzel would be 
sure to agree well henceforth, and that Sigismund, having 
already such extensive territories (Hungary, Brandenburg and 
so forth) by inheritance, would not be so exact about the 
Meichs-ToUs and other Imperial Incomes. This same "Fried- 
rich also, when the Election fell out doubtful, was Sigismund's 
best support in Germany, nay almost his right-hand, through 
whom he did whatever was done." * 

Sigismund is Kaiser, then, in spite of Wenzel. King of 
Hungary, after unheard-of troubles and adventures, ending 
some years ago in a kind of peace and conquest, he has long 
been. King of Bohemia, too, he at last became ; having 
survived Wenzel, who was childless. Kaiser of the Holy 
Roman Empire, and so much else : is not Sigismund now a 
great man ? Truly the loom he weaves upon, in this world, 
is very large. But the weaver was of headlong, high-pacing, 
flimsy nature ; and both warp and woof were gone dreadfully 

This is the Kaiser Sigismund who held the Council of 
Constance ; and " blushed visibly," when HUBS, about to die, 
alluded to the Letter of Safe-conduct granted him, which 
was issuing in such fashion. 8 Sigismund blushed ; but could 
not conveniently mend the matter, so many matters press- 
ing on him just now. As they perpetually did, and had done. 

i "JodocnsBarfral 
* Kohler, p. 337. 


An always-hoping, never-resting, unsuccessful, vain and empty 
Kaiser. Specious, speculative ; given to eloquence, diplomacy, 
and the windy instead of the solid arts; always short of 
money for one thing. He roamed about, and talked elo- 
quently; aiming high, and generally missing: how he 
went to conquer Hungary, and had to float down the Donau 
instead, with an attendant or two, in a most private manner, 
and take refuge with the Grand Turk : this we have seen, 
and this is a general emblem of him. Hungary and even the 
Eeich have at length become his; but have brought small 
triumph in any kind ; and instead of ready money, debt on 
debt. His Majesty has no money, and his Majesty's occasions 
need it more and more. 

He is now (A.D. 1414) holding this Council of Constance, 
by way of healing the Church, which is sick of Three simul- 
taneous Popes and of much else. He finds the problem diffi- 
cult; finds he will have to run into Spain, to persuade a 
refractory Pope there, if eloquence can (as it cannot) : all 
which requires money, money. At opening of the Council, 
he " officiated as deacon ; " actually did some kind of litany- 
ing "with a surplice over him," 1 though Kaiser and King 
of the Romans. But this passage of his opening speech 
is what I recollect best of him there : " Eight Eeverend 
Fathers, date operam wt Ula nefanda sehisma eradicetur," ex- 
claims Sigismund, intent on having the Bohemian Schism 
well dealt with, which he reckons to be of the feminine 
gender. To which a Cardinal mildly remarking, "Domine, 
sehisma est generis neutriits (Sehisma is neuter, your Majesty)," 
Sigismund loftily replies, "Ego sum Rex Romanus et super 
yrammatieam (I am King of the Eomans, and above Gram- 
mar)!"* For which reason I call him in my Note-books 
Sigismund super Grammatieam, to distinguish him in the im- 
broglio of Kaisers. 

i 25th December, U14 (Kohler, p. 340). 

s Wolfgang Mentzel, Geichickte der Deutehen, i 477. 


dreamt of; and we caa now, right willingly, quit Sigismund 
and the Reichs-History ; leave Kaiser Sigismund to sink or 
swim at his own will henceforth. His grand feat in life, the 
wonder of his generation, was this same Council of Constance ; 
which proved entirely a failure ; one of the largest vnnd-eggs 
ever dropped with noise and travail in this world. Two 
hundred thousand human creatures, reckoned and reckoning 
themselves the elixir of the Intellect and Dignity of Europe ; 
two hundred thousand, nay some, counting the lower menials 
and numerous unfortunate females, say four hundred thou- 
sand, were got congregated into that little Swiss Town; and 

what pious Intellect and Valor could be scraped together in 
the world, they labored with all their select might for four 
years' space. That was the Council of Constance. And except 
this transfer of Brandenburg to Friedrich of Hohenzollern, 
resulting from said Council in the quite reverse and involun- 
tary way, one sees not what good result it had. 

They did indeed burn Huss ; but that could not be called a 
beneficial incident; that seemed to Sigismund and the Council 
a most small and insignificant one. And it kindled Bohemia, 
and kindled rhinoceros Zisca, into never-imagined flame of 
vengeance ; brought mere disaster, disgrace, and defeat on de- 
feat to Sigismund, and kept his hands full for the rest of his 
life, however small he had thought it. As for the sublime 
four years' deliberations and debates of this Sanhedrim of the 
Universe, eloquent debates, conducted, we may say, under 
such extent of wig as was never seen before or since, they 
have fallen wholly to the domain of Dryasdust ; and amount, 
for mankind at this time, to zero plus the Burning of Huss. 
On the whole, Bnrggraf Friedrich's Electorship, and the first 
Hohenzollern to Brandenburg, is the one good result. 

Adieu, then, to Sigismund. Let us leave him at this his 
culminating point, in the Market-place of Constance ; red as a 
flamingo ; doing one act of importance, though unconsciously 
and against Ms will. I subjoin here, for refreshment of the 
reader's memory, a Synopsis, or bare arithmetical List, of 
those Intercalary Non-Hapsburg Kaisers, which, now that 


its original small duty is done, may as well be printed as 

The Seven Intercalary or Non-Hapsburg Kaisers. 

Rudolf of Hapsburg died A.D. 1291, after a reign of eighteen vigorous 
years, very useful to the Empire after its Anarchic Interregnum. He 
was succeeded, not by any of his own sons or kindred, but by 

1. Adolf of Nassau, 1291-1298. A stalwart but necessitous Herr; 
much concerned in the French projects of our Edward Longshanks : 
miles sttpendiariw Eduaardti, as the Opposition party scornfully termed 
him. Slain in battle by the Anti-Kaiser, Albrecht or Albert eldest son 
of Rudolf, who thereupon became Kaiser. 

Albert I. (of Hapsburg, he), 1298-1308. Parrieided, in that latter 
year, at the Ford of the Reuss. 

2 (a). Henry VII. of Luxemburg, 1308-1313; poisoned (1313) in 
sacramental wine. The first of the Luxemburgers; who are marked 
here, in their order, by the addition of an alphabetic letter. 

3. Ludwig der Baier, 1314-1347 (Duke of Ober-Eaiern, Upper 
Bavaria ; progenitor of the subsequent Kurfursts of Baiern, who are 
Cousins of the Pfalz Family). 

4 (6). Karl IV., 1347-1378, Son of Johann of Bohemia (Johann 
Ich-dieti), and Grandson of Henry VII. Nicknamed the Pfaffen- 
Kaiser (Parsons'-Kaiser). Karlsbad; the Golden Bull; Castle of 

5 (c). Wenzel (or Wenceslaus), 1378-1400, Karl's eldest Son. 
Elected 1378, still very young ; deposed in 1400, Kaiser Rupert suc- 
ceeding. Continued King of Bohemia till his death (by Zisca at second- 
hand) nineteen years after. Had been Kaiser for twenty-two years. 

6. Rupert of the Pfalz, 1400-1410; called Rupert Klemm (Pincers, 
Smith's- vice) ; lirother-in-law to Burggraf Friedrich VI. (afterwards 
Knrfurst Friedrieh I.), who marched with him to Italy and often else- 
whither, Burggraf Johann the elder Brother-in-law being then oftenest 
in Hungary with Sigismund, Karl IV.'s second Son. 

7 (?) Sigismund, 141 0-1437, Wenzel's younger Brother; the fourth 
and last of the Luxemburgers, seventh and last of the Intercalary Kai- 
sers. Sold Brandenburg, after thrice or oftener pawning it. Sigismuud 
super Grammaticam. 

Super-Grammaticam died 9th December, 1437; left only a Daugh- 
ter, wedded to the then Albert Duke of Austria ; which Albert, on the 
strength of this, came to the Kingship of Bohemia and of Hungary, as 
big Wife's inheritance, and to the Empire by election. Died thereupon 


in few months : " throe crowns, Bohemia, Hungary, the Reich, in 
that one year, 1438," say the old Historians; " and then next year he 
quitted them all, for a fourth and more lasting crown, as is hoped." 
Kaiser Albert II., 1438-1439: After whom all are Hapsburgers, 
excepting, if that is an exception, the unlucky Earl VII. alone (1742- 
1745), who descends from Ludwig the Baier. 




BuBGGEAi 1 FBIEDHICH, on his first coming to Brandenburg, 
found but a cool reception as Statthalter. 1 He came as the 
representative of law and rule ; and there had been many help- 
ing themselves by a ruleless life, of late. Industry was at a 
low ebb, violence was rife ; plunder, disorder everywhere ; too 
much the habit for baronial gentlemen to "live by the saddle," 
as they termed it, that is by highway robbery in modern 

The Towns, harried and plundered to skin and bone, were 
glad to see a Statthalter, and did homage to him with all their 
heart. But the Baronage or Squirearchy of the country were 
of another mind. These, in the late anarchies, had set up for 
a kind of kings in their own right : they had their feuds ; made 
war, made peace, levied tolls, transit-dues ; lived much at their 
own discretion in these solitary countries ; rushing out from 
their stone towers (" walls fourteen feet thick "), to seize any 
herd of " six hundred swine," any convoy of Liibeck or Ham- 
burg merchant-goods, that had not contented them in passing. 
What were pedlers and mechanic fellows made for, if not to 

i Jokamutage " (24 Jnne) 1412," he firet get foot in Brandenbnrg, with 
due escort, in due state ; only Statthalter (Viceregent) as yet: Pauli, i. 594, 
ii. 58; Stenzel, Geschichte des Pmussischen Stoats (Hamburg, 1830, 1851), 
L 167-169. 

be plundered when needful ? Arbitrary rule, on the part of 
these Noble Robber-Lords! And then much of the Crown- 
Domains had gone to the chief of them, pawned (and the 
pawn-ticket lost, so to speak), or sold for what trifle of ready 
money was to be had, in Jobst and Company's time. To these 
gentlemen, a Statthalter coming to inquire into matters was 
no welcome phenomenon. Your Edle Herr (Noble Lord) of 
Putlitz, Noble Lords of Quitzow, Eochow, Maltitz and others, 
supreme in their grassy solitudes this long while, and accus- 
tomed to nothing greater than themselves in Brandenburg, 
how should they obey a Statthalter ? 

Such was more or less the universal humor in the Squire- 
archy of Brandenburg ; not of good omen to Burggraf Fried- 
rich. But the chief seat of contumacy seemed to be among 
the Quitzows, Putlitzes, above spoken of; big Squires in the 
district they call the Priegnitz, in the Country of the sluggish 
Havel Eiver, northwest from Berlin a fifty or forty miles. 
These refused homage, very many of them ; said they were 
"incorporated with Bohmen;" said this and that; much 
disinclined to homage ; and would not do it. Stiff surly fel- 
lows, much deficient in discernment of what is above them and 
what is not : a thick-skinned set ; bodies clad in buff leather ; 
minds also cased in ill habits of long continuance. 

Friedrich was very patient with them ; hoped to prevail by 
gentle methods. He "invited them to dinner;" "had them 
often at dinner for a year or more : " but could make no prog- 
ress in that way. " Who is this we have got for a Governor ? " 
said the noble lords privately to each other : "A Nurnberger 
Tand (Nurnberg Plaything, wooden image, such as they 
make at Nurnberg)," said they, grinning, in a thick-skinned 
way: "If it rained Burggraves all the year round, none of 
them would come to luck in this Country ; " and continued 
their feuds, toll-levyings, plunderings and other contumacies. 

Seeing matters come to this pass after waiting above a 
year, Burggraf Friedrich gathered his Frankish men-at-arms ; 
quietly made league with the neighboring Potentates, Thii- 
ringen and others ; got some munitions, some artillery together 
especially one huge gun, the biggest ever seen, " a twenty- 


four pounder " no less ; to which the peasants, dragging her 
with difficulty through the clayey roads, gave the name of 
Faule Grete (Lazy, or Heavy Peg); a remarkable piece of 
ordnance. Lazy Peg he had got from the Landgraf of Thii- 
ringen, on loan merely ; but he turned her to excellent account 
of his own. I have often inquired after Lazy Peg's fate in 
subsequent times ; but could never learn anything distinct : 
the German Dryasdust is a dull dog, and seldom carries any- 
thing human in those big wallets of his ! 

Equipped in this way, Burggraf Friedrich (he was not yet 
Kurfttrst, only coming to be) marches for the Havel Country 
(early days of 1414) ; x makes his appearance before Quitzow's 
strong-house of Friesack, walls fourteen feet thick: "Yon 
Dietrich von Quitzow, are you prepared to live as a peaceable 
subject henceforth : to do homage to the Laws and me ? " 
" Never 1 " answered Quitzow, and pulled up his drawbridge. 
Whereupon Heavy Peg opened upon him, Heavy Peg and 
other guns ; and, in some eight-and-forty hours, shook Quit- 
zow's impregnable Friesack about his ears. This was in the 
month of February, 1414, day not given : Friesack was the 
name of the impregnable Castle (still discoverable in our 
time) ; and it ought to be memorable and venerable to every 
Prussian man. Burggraf Friedrich VI., not yet quite be- 
come Kurfurst Friedrich I., but in a year's space to become 
so, he in person was the beneficent operator ; Heavy Peg, and 
steady Human Insight, these were clearly the chief imple- 

Quitzow being settled, for the country is in military occu- 
pation of Friedrich and his allies, and except in some stone 
castle a man has no chance, straightway Putlitz or another 
mutineer, with his drawbridge up, was battered to pieces, and 
his drawbridge brought slamming down. After this manner, 
in an incredibly short period, mutiny was quenched ; and it 
became apparent to Noble Lords, and to all men, that here 
at length was a man come who would have the Laws obeyed 
again, and could and would keep mutiny down. 

i Michaelto, i. 287 ; Stenzel, i. 168 (where, contrary to wont, is an insignia- 
cant error or two). Fault (ii. 58) is, as usual, lost in water. 
vol. v. 11 

Friedrich showed no cruelty ; fax the contrary. Your mu- 
tiny once ended, and a little repented of, he is ready to be 
your gracious Prince again : Fair-play and the social wine-cup, 
or inexorable war and Lazy Peg, it is at your discretion which. 
Brandenburg submitted ; hardly ever rebelled more. Branden- 
burg, under the wise Kurfurst it has got, begins in a small 
degree to be cosmic again, or of the domain of the gods; 
ceases to be chaotic and a mere cockpit of the devils. 

There is no doubt but this Friedrich also, like his ancestor 
Friedrich III., the First Hereditary Burggraf, was an excel- 
lent citizen of his country: a man conspicuously important 
in all German business in his time. A man setting up for 
no particular magnanimity, ability or heroism, but uncon- 
sciously exhibiting a good deal; which by degrees gained 
universal recognition. He did not shine much as Reichs-Gen- 

Zisca ; on the contrary, he presided over huge defeat and rout, 
once and again, in that capacity ; and indeed had represented 
in vain that, with such a species of militia, victory was impos- 
sible. He represented and again represented, to no purpose ; 
whereupon he declined the office farther; in which others 
fared no better. 1 

The offer to be Kaiser was made him in his old days ; but 
he wisely declined that too. It was in Brandenburg, by what 
he silently founded there, that he did his chief benefit to 
Germany and mankind. He understood the noble art of gov- 
erning men; had in him the justice, clearness, valor and 
patience needed for that. A man of sterling probity, for one 
thing. Which indeed is the first requisite in said art: if 
you will have your laws obeyed without mutiny, see well 
that they be pieces of God Almighty's Law: otherwise all the 
artillery in the world will not keep down mutiny. 

Friedrich " travelled much over Brandenburg ; " looking 
into everything with his own eyes; making, I can well 
fancy, innumerable crooked things straight. Reducing more 
and more that famishing dog-kennel of a Brandenburg into 
a fruitful arable field. His portraits represent a square- 

1 Hormayr, (Eiterreichitcher Plutarch vii. 109-158, Zitca. 


headed, mild-looking solid gentleman, with a certain twinkle 
of mirth in the serious eyes of him. Except in those Hussite 
wars for Kaiser Sigismund and the Reich, in which no man 
could prosper, he may be defined as constantly prosperous. 
To Brandenburg he was, very literally, the blessing of bless- 
ings ; redemption out of death into life. In the ruins of that 
old Friesack Castle, battered down by Heavy Peg, Antiqua- 
rian Science (if it had any eyes) might look for the tap-root 
of the Prussian Nation, and the beginning of all that Branden- 
burg has since grown to under the sun. 

Friedrich, in one capacity or another, presided over Bran- 
denburg near thirty years. He came thither first of all in 
1412; was not completely Kurfurst in his own right tiU 1415; 
nor publicly installed, "with 100,000 looking on from the roofs 
and windows," in Constance yonder, till 1417, age then some 
forty-five. His Brandenburg residence, when he happened to 
have time for residing or sitting still, was Tangermiinde, the 
Castle built by Kaiser Karl IV. He died there, 21st Septem- 
ber, 1440 ; laden tolerably with years, and still better with 
memories of hard work done. Eentsch guesses by good infer- 
ence he was born about 1372. As I count, he is seventh 
in descent from that Conrad, Burggraf Conrad I., Cadet of 
Hohenzollern, who came down from the Eauhe Alp, seek- 
ing service with Kaiser Eedbeard, above two centuries ago : 
Conrad's generation and six others had vanished successively 
from the world-theatre in that ever-mysterious manner, and 
left the stage clear, when Burggraf Friedrich the Sixth came 
to be First, Elector. Let three centuries, let twelve genera- 
tions farther come and pass, and there will be another still 
more notable Friedrich, our little Fritz, destined to be 
Third King of Prussia, officially named Friedrich II., and 
popularly Frederick the Great This First Elector is his 
lineal ancestor, twelve times removed. 1 

i Kentsch, pp. 849-372 ; Hubner, 1. 176. 

ELEVEN successive Kurfursts followed Friedrich in Bran- 
denburg. Of whom and their births, deaths, wars, marriages, 
negotiations and continual multitudinous stream of smaller or 
greater adventures, much has been written, of a dreary con- 
fused nature ; next to nothing of which ought to be repeated 
here. Some list of their Names, with what rememberable 
human feature or event (if any) still speaks to us in them, we 
must try to give. Their Names, well dated, with any actions, 
incidents, or phases of life, which may in this way get to 
adhere to them in the reader's memory, the reader can insert, 
each at its right place, in the grand Tide of European Events, 
or in such Picture as the reader may have of that. Thereby 
with diligence he may produce for himself some faint twilight 
notion of the Flight of Time in remote Brandenburg, con- 
vince himself that remote Brandenburg was present all along, 
alive after its sort, and assisting, dumbly or otherwise, in the 
great World-Drama as that went on. 

We have to say in general, the history of Brandenburg 
under the Hohenzollerns has very little in it to excite a 
vulgar curiosity, though perhaps a great deal to interest an 
intelligent one. Had it found treatment duly intelligent; 
which, however, how could it, lucky beyond its neigh- 
bors, hope to do .' Commonplace Dryasdust, and volumi- 
nous Stupidity, not worse here than elsewhere, play their 

It is the history of a State, or Social Vitality, growing from 
small to great ; steadily growing henceforth under guidance : 
and the contrast between guidance and no-guidance, or mis- 
guidance, in such matters, is again impressively illustrated 
there. This we see well to be the fact ; and the details of 


this would be of moment, were they given us : but they are 
not ; how could voluminous Dryasdust give them ? Then, 
on the other hand, the Phenomenon is, for a long while, on 
so small a scale, wholly without importance in European poli- 
tics and affairs, the commonplace Historian, writing of it on 
a large scale, becomes unreadable and intolerable. Witness 
grandiloquent Pauli our fatal friend, with his Eight watery 
Quartos; which gods and men, unless driven by necessity, 
have learned to avoid ! 1 The Phenomenon of Brandenburg 
is small, remote; and the essential particulars, too delicate 
for the eye of Dryasdust, are mostly wanting, drowned deep 
in details of the unessential. So that we are well content, 
my readers and I, to keep remote from it on this occasion. 

On one other point I must give the reader warning. A 
rock of offence on which if he heedlessly strike, I reckon 
he will split ; at least no help of mine can benefit him till 
he be got off again. Alas, offences must come; and must 
stand, like rocks of offence, to the shipwreck of many ! Mod- 
ern Dryasdust, interpreting the mysterious ways of Divine 
Providence in this Universe, or what he calls writing His- 
tory, has done uncountable havoc upon the best interests of 
mankind. Hapless godless dullard that he is ; driven and 
driving on courses that lead only downward, for him as for 
us ! But one could forgive him all things, compared with this 
doctrine of devils which he has contrived to get established, 
pretty generally, among his unfortunate fellow-creatures for 
the time! I must insert the following quotation, readers 
guess from what author : 

" In an impudent Pamphlet, forged by I know not whom, 
and published in 1766, under the title of Matinees du Boi de 
Prusse, purporting to be 'Morning Conversations' of Fred- 
erick the Great with his Nephew the Heir-Apparent, every 
line of which betrays itself as false and spurious to a reader 
who has made any direct or effectual study of Frederick or 
his manners or affairs, it is set forth, in the way of exordium 
i Dr. Carl Friedrich Pauli, Allgememe Preussische Staatt-GesdudOe, often 
enough cited here. 


to these pretended royal confessions, that < noire maison,' our 
Family of Hohenzollern, ever since the first origin of it among 
the Swabian mountains, or its first descent therefrom into the 
Castle and Imperial Wardenship of Nttrnberg, some six hun- 
dred years ago or more, has consistently travelled one road, 
and this a very notable one. 'We, as I myself the royal Fred- 
erick still do, have all along proceeded,' namely, ' in the -way 
of adroit Machiavelism, as skilful gamblers in this world's 
business, ardent gatherers of this world's goods ; and in brief 
as devout worshippers of Beelzebub, the grand regulator and 
rewarder of mortals here below. Which creed we, the Hohen- 
zollerns, have found, and I still find, to be the true one ; learn 
it you, my prudent Nephew, and let all men learn it. By 
holding steadily to that, and working late and early in such 
spirit, we are come to what you now see ; and shall advance 
still farther, if it please Beelzebub, who is generally kind to 
those that serve him well.' Such is the doctrine of this im- 
pudent Pamphlet ; ' original Manuscripts ' of which are still 
purchased by simple persons, who have then nobly offered 
them to me, thrice over, gratis or nearly so, as a priceless curi- 
osity. A new printed edition of which, probably the fifth, 
has appeared within few years. Simple persons consider it a 
curious and interesting Document ; rather ambiguous in origin 
perhaps, but probably authentic in substance, and throwing 
unexpected light on the character of Frederick whom men call 
the Great. In which new light they are willing a meritorious 
Editor should share. 

"Who wrote that Pamphlet I know not, and am in no con- 
dition to guess. A certain snappish vivacity (very unlike the 
style of Frederick whom it personates) ; a wearisome grima- 
cing, gesticulating malice and smartness, approaching or reach- 
ing the sad dignity of what is called 'wit ' in modern times ; 
in general the rottenness of matter, and the epigrammatic 
unquiet graciosity of manner in this thing, and its elaborately 
inhuman turn both of expression and of thought, are visible 
characteristics of it. Thought, we said, if thought it can be 
called : thought all hamstrung, shrivelled by inveterate rheu- 
matism, on the part of the poor ill-thriven thinker ; nay tied 


(so to speak, for he is of epigrammatic tarn withal), as by 
cross ropes, right shoulder to left foot ; and forced to advance, 
hobbling and jerking along, in that sad guise : not in the way 
of walk, but of saltation and dance ; and this towards a false 
not a true aim, rather no-whither than some-whither : Here 
were features leading one to think of an illustrious Prince de 
Ligne as perhaps concerned in the affair. The Bibliographi- 
cal Dictionaries, producing no evidence, name quite another 
person, or series of persons, 1 highly unmemorable otherwise. 
Whereupon you proceed to said other person's acknowledged 
Works (as they are called) ; and find there a style bearing no 
resemblance whatever; and are left in a dubious state, if it 
were of any moment. In the absence of proof, I am unwilling 
to charge his Highness de Ligne with such an action; and 
indeed am little careful to be acquainted with the individual 
who did it, who could and would do it. A Prince of Coxcombs 

of insincere foolish persons, and of doing detriment to them, 
not benefit; a man without reverence for truth or human ex- 
cellence ; not knowing in fact what is true from what is false, 
what is excellent from what is sham-excellent and at the top 
of the mode; an apparently polite and knowing man, but 
intrinsically an impudent, dark and merely modish-insolent 
man; who, if he fell in with Rhadamanthus on his travels, 
would not escape a horse-whipping. Him we will willingly 
leave to that beneficial chance, which indeed seems a certain 
one sooner or later; and address ourselves to consider the 
theory itself, and the facts it pretends to be grounded on. 

"As to the theory, I must needs say, nothing can be falser, 
more heretical or more damnable. My own poor opinion, and 
deep conviction on that subject is well known, this long while. 
And, in fact, the summary of all I have believed, and have 
been trying as I could to teach mankind to believe again, is 
even that same opinion and conviction, applied to all provinces 

i A certain "N. de BonneviUe" (afterwords a Kevolutionary spiritnal- 
monntebank, for some time) is now the favorite Name ; proves, on inves- 
tigation, to be an impossible one. Barbier (Didiorrnairt det Aamyma), in a 
helpfew doubting manner, gives etffl others. 

of things. Alas, in this his sad theory about the world, our 
poor impudent Pamphleteer is by no means singular at present ; 
nay rather he has in a manner the whole practical part of man- 
kind on his side just now ; the more is the pity for us all ! 

"It is very certain, if Beelzebub made this world, our 
Pamphleteer, and the huge portion of mankind that follow 
him, are right. But if God made the world ; and only leads 
Beelzebub, as some ugly muzzled bear is led, a longer or shorter 
temporary dance in this divine world, and always draws him 

in a certain hot Lake, with sure intent to lodge him there to 
all eternity at last, then our Pamphleteer, and the huge 
portion of mankind that follow him, are wrong. 

"More I will not say; being indeed quite tired of speaking 
on that subject. Not a subject which it concerns me to speak 
of ; much as it concerns me, and all men, to know the truth of 
it, and silently in every hour and moment to do said truth. 
As indeed the sacred voice of their own soul, if they listen, 
will conclusively admonish all men ; and truly if it do not, 
there will be little use in my logic to them. For my own 
share, I want no trade with men who need to be convinced of 
that fact. If I am in their premises, and discover such a thing 
of them, I will quit their premises ; if they are in mine, I 
will, as old Samuel advised, count my spoons. Ingenious gen- 
tlemen who believe that Beelzebub made this world, are not a 
class of gentlemen I can get profit from. Let them keep at a 
distance, lest mischief fall out between us. They are of the 
set deserving to be called and this not in the way of profane 
swearing, but of solemn wrath and pity, I say of virtuous anger 
and inexorable reprobation the damned set. For, in very 
deed, they are doomed and damned, by Nature's oldest Act 
of Parliament, they, and whatsoever thing they do or say or 
think; unless they can escape from that devil-element. Which 
I still hope they may I 

"But with regard to the facts themselves, <de notre maison,' 
I take leave to say, they too are without basis of truth. They 
are not so false as the theory, because nothing can in falsity 
quite equal that, ' Notre maison,' this Pamphleteer may learn, 


if he please to make study and inquiry before speaking, did 
not rise by worship of Beelzebub at all in this world ; but by 
a quite opposite line of conduct. It rose, in fact, by the course 
which all, except fools, stockjobber stags, cheating gamblers, 
forging Pamphleteers and other temporary creatures of the 
damned sort, have found from of old to be the one way of per- 
manently rising : by steady service, namely, of the Opposite 
of Beelzebub. By conforming to the Laws of this Universe ; 
instead of trying by pettifogging to evade and profitably con- 
tradict them. The Hohenzollerns too have a History still ar- 
ticulate to the human mind, if you search sufficiently ; and this 
is what, even with some emphasis, it will teach us concerning 
their adventures, and achievements of success in the field of 
life. Resist the Devil, good reader, and he will flee from 
you!" So ends our indignant friend. 

How the Hohenzollerns got their big Territories, and came 
to what they are in the world, will be seen. Probably they 
were not, any of them, paragons of virtue. They did not walk 
in altogether speckless Sunday pumps, or much clear-starched 
into consciousness of the moral sublime ; but in rugged prac- 
tical boots, and by such roads as there were. Concerning their 
moralities, and conformities to the Laws of the Road and of the 
Universe, there will much remain to be argued by pamphlet- 
eers and others. Men will have their opinion, Men of more 
wisdom and of less ; Apes by the Dead-Sea also will have theirs. 
But what man that believed in such a Universe as that of this 
Dead-Sea Pamphleteer could consent to live in it at all ? Who 
that believed in such a Universe, and did not design to live 
like a Papin's-Digester, or Porcus JEpicuri, in an extremely 
ugly manner in it, could avoid one of two things: Going 
rapidly into Bedlam, or else blowing his brains out ? "It will 
not do for me at any rate, this infinite Dog-house ; not for me, 
ye Dryasdusts, and omnipotent Dog-monsters and Mud-gods, 
whoever you are. One honorable thing I can do : take leave 
of you and your Dog-establishment. Enough!" 




THE First Friedrich's successor "was a younger son, Friedrich 
II. ; who lasted till 1471, above thirty years ; and proved like- 
wise a notable manager and governor. Very capable to assert 
himself, and his just rights, in this world. He was but Twenty- 
seven at his accession ; but the Berlin Burghers, attempting to 
take some liberties with him, found he was old enough. He 
got the name Ironteeth. Friedrich Ferratia Dentibus, from his 
decisive ways then and afterwards. He had his share of brab- 
bling with intricate litigant neighbors ; quarrels now and then 
not to be settled without strokes. His worst war was with 
Pommern, just claims disputed there, and much confused 
bickering, sieging and harassing in consequence: of which 
quarrel we must speak anon. It was he who first built the 
conspicuous Schloss or Palace at Berlin, having got the ground 
for it (same ground still covered by the actual fine Edifice, 
"which is a second edition of Friedrich's) from the repentant 
Burghers ; and took up his chief residence there. 1 

But his principal achievement in Brandenburg History is his 
recovery of the Province called the Neumark to that Elector- 
ate. In the thriftless Sigismund times, the Neumark had been 
pledged, had been sold; Teutsch Bitterdom, to whose domin- 
ions it lay contiguous, had purchased it -with money down. The 
Teutsch Eitters were fallen moneyless enough since then; they 
offered to pledge the Neumark to Friedrich, who accepted, and 
advanced the sum : after a while the Teutsch Eitters, for a 
small farther sum, agreed to sell If eumark. 8 Into which Trans- 
action, with its dates and circumstances, let us cast one glance, 
for our behoof afterwards. The Teutsch Eitters were an opu- 
lent domineering Body in Sigismund's early time ; but they are 
1 1442-1451 (Nicolai, i. 81J 2 Michaelis, I 301. 


now come well down in Friedrich IL's 1 And are coming ever 
lower. Sinking steadily, or with desperate attempts to rise, 
which only increase the speed downwards, ever since that fatal 
Tannenberg Business, 15th July, 1410. Here is the sad prog- 
ress of their descent to the bottom ; divided into three stages 
or periods : 

"Period First is of Thirty years : 1410-1440. A peace with 
Poland soon followed that Defeat of Tannenberg j humiliating 
peace, with mulct in money, and slightly in territory, attached 
to it. Which again was soon followed by war, and ever again ; 
each new peace more humiliating than its foregoer. Teutsch 
Order is steadily sinking, into debt, among other things; 
driven to severe finance-measures (ultimately even to ' debase 
its coin '), which produce irritation enough. Poland is gradu- 
ally edging itself into the territories and the interior troubles 
of Preussen; prefatory to greater operations that lie ahead 

" Second Period, of Fourteen years. So it had gone on, from 
bad to worse, till 1440 ; when the general population, through 
its Heads, the Landed Gentry and the Towns, wearied out 
with fiscal and other oppressions from its domineering Eitter- 
dom brought now to such a pinch, began everywhere to stir 
themselves into vocal complaint. Complaint emphatic enough : 
'Where will you find a man that has not suffered injury in 
his rights, perhaps in his person ? Our friends they have in- 
vited as guests, and under show of hospitality have murdered 
them. Men, for the sake of their beautiful wives, have been 
thrown into the river like dogs,' and enough of the like sort. 1 
No want of complaint, nor of complainants : Town of Thorn, 
Town of Dantzig, Kulm, all manner of Towns and Baronages, 
proceeded now to form a Bund, or general Covenant for com- 
plaining; to repugn, in hotter and hotter form, against a 
domineering Eitterdom with back so broken ; in fine, to col- 
league with Poland, what was most ominous of all. Baron- 
age, Burgherage, they were German mostly by blood, and 
by culture were wholly German ; but preferred Poland to a 

i Voigt, yii. 747 ; quoting evidently, not on express manifesto, but one 
manufactured by the old Chroniclers. 

Teutsch Bitterdom of that nature. Nothing but brabblings, 
scuMngs, objurgations ; a great outbreak ripening itself. 
Teutsch Bitterdom has to hire soldiers; no money to pay 
them. It was in these sad years that the Teutsch Eitterdom, 
fallen moneyless, offered to pledge the Neumark to our Kur- 
fiirst ; 1444, that operation was consummated. 1 All this goes 
on, in hotter and hotter form, for ten years longer. 

"Period Third begins, early in 1464, with an important 
special catastrophe; and ends, in the Thirteenth year after, 
with a still more important universal one of the same nature. 
Prussian Bund, or Anti-Oppression Covenant of the Towns and 
Landed Gentry, rising in temperature for fourteen years at 
this rate, reached at last the igniting point, and burst into fire. 
February 4th, 1454, the Town of Thorn, darling first-child of 
Teutsch Eitterdom, child 223 years old at this time," and 
grown very big, and now very angry, suddenly took its old 
parent by the throat, so to speak, and hurled him out to the 
dogs ; to the extraneous Polacks first of all. Town of Thorn, 
namely, sent that day its ' Letter of Renunciation ' to the 
Hochmeister over at Marienburg ; seized in a day or two more 
the Hochmeister's Official Envoys, Dignitaries of the Order ; 
led them through the streets, amid universal storm of execra- 
tions, hootings and unclean projectiles, straight to jail; and 
besieged the Hochmeister's Burg (Bastille of Thorn, with a 
few Hitters in it), all the artillery and all the throats and 
hearts of the place raging deliriously upon it. .So that the 
poor Bitters, who had no chance in resisting, were in few days 
obliged to surrender; had to come out in bare jerkin; and 
Thorn ignominiously dismissed them into space forevermore. 
with actual 'kicks,' I have read in some Books, though 

1 Panli, ii. 187, does not name the sum. 

2 " Founded 1231, aa a wooden Burg, just across the river, on the Heathen 
side, mainly round the stem of an immense old Oak that grew handy there, 
Seven Barges always on the river (Weichsel), to fly to our own side if quite 
overwhelmed " Oak and Seem Barges is still the Town's-Arms of Thorn. 
See Kohler, MSmbduttiffungen, xxii. 107; quoting Dusbnrg (a Priest of the 
Order) and his old Chronica Terra Prusdoe, written in 1326. 

> 8th February, 1454, says Voigt (viiL 361) ; 16th, says Kohler (Miinzbelusti- 


others veil that sad feature. Thorn threw out its old parent 
in this manner ; swore fealty to the King of Poland j and in- 
vited other Towns and Knightages to follow the example. To 
which all were willing, wherever able. 

" War hereupon, which blazed up over Preussen at large, 
Prussian Covenant and King of Poland versus Teutsch Kitter- 
dom, and lasted into the thirteenth year, before it could go 
out again; out by lack of fuel mainly. One of the fellest 
wars on record, especially for burning and ruining; above 
'300,000 fighting-men' are calculated to have perished in it; 
and of towns, villages, farmsteads, a cipher which makes the 
fancy, as it were, black and ashy altogether. Bitterdom 
showed no lack of fighting energy ; but that could not save it, 
in the pass things were got to. Enormous lack of wisdom, of 
reality and human veracity, there had long been ; and the hour 
was now come. Finance went out, to the last coin. Large 
mercenary armies all along ; and in the end not the color of 
money to pay them with; mercenaries became desperate; 'be- 
sieged the Hochmeister and his Bitters in Marienburg;' 
finally sold the Country they held; formally made it over to 
the King of Poland, to get their pay out of it. Hochmeister 
had to see such things, and say little. Peace, or extinction 
for want of fuel, came in the year 1466. Poland got to itself 
the whole of that fine German Country, henceforth called 
' West Preussen' to distinguish it, which goes from the left 
bank of the Weichsel to the borders of Brandenburg and Neu- 
mark; would have got Neumark too, had not Kurfurst 
Friedrich been there to save it. The Teutsch Order had to 
go across the Weichsel, ignominiously driven; to content 
itself with 'East Preussen,' the Konigsberg-Memel country, 
and even to do homage to Poland for that. Which latter was 
the bitterest clause of all : but it could not be helped, more 
than the others. In this manner did its revolted children 
fling out Teutsch Kitterdom ignominiously to the dogs, to tie 
Polacks, first of all, Thorn, the eldest child, leading off or 
setting the example." 

And so the Teutsch Bitters are sunk beyond retrieval; and 
West Preussen, called subsequently J5oyal Preussen," not 


having homage to pay as the "Ducal " or East Preussen had, 
is German no longer, but Polish, Sclavic; not prospering by 
the change. 1 And all that fine German country, reduced to 
rebel against its unwise parent, was cut away by the Polish 
sword, and remained with Poland, which did not prove very 
wise either; till till, in the Year 1773, it was cut back by 
the German sword! All readers have heard of the Partition 
of Poland : but of the Partition of Preussen, 307 years before, 
all have not heard. 

It was in the second year of that final tribulation, marked 
above as Period Third, that the Teutsch Bitters, famishing 

Friedrich ; Neumark, already pawned to him ten years before, 
they in 1455, for a small farther sum, agreed to seU ; and he, 
long carefully steering towards such an issue, and dexterously 
keeping out of the main broil, failed not to buy. Friedrich 
could thenceforth, on his own score, protect the Neumark; 
keep up an invisible but impenetrable wall between it and the 

Neumark has ever since remained with Brandenburg, its origi- 
nal owner. 

As to Priedrich's Pomeranian quarrel, this is the figure of 
it. Here is a scene from Rentsch, which falls out in Fried- 
rich's time ; and which brought much battling and broiling to 
him and his. Symbolical withal of much that befell in Bran- 
denburg, from first to last. Under the Hoheazollerns as before, 
Brandenburg grew by aggregation, by assimilation ; and we see 
here how difficult the process often was. 

Pommern (Pomerania), long Wendish, but peaceably so since 
the time of Albert the Bear, and growing ever more German, 
had, in good part, according to Friedrich's notion, if there were 
force in human Treaties and Imperial Laws, fallen fairly to 
Brandenburg, that is to say, the half of it, Stettin-Pommern 

i What Thorn had strnk to, out of its palmy state, see in Nanke'e Wan- 
derungen dunk Preussen (Hamburg & Altona, 1800), ii. 177-200 : a pleasant 
little Book, treating mainly of Natural History ; but drawing yon, by its ouux 
CM* BUBplicitF and geniality, to read with thanks whatever is in it. 


had fairly fallen, in the year 1464, when Duke Otto of 
Stettin, the last Wendish Duke, died without heirs. In that 
case by many bargains, some with bloody crowns, it had been 
settled, If the Wendish Dukes died out, the country was to 
fall to Brandenburg ; and here they were dead. " At Duke 
Otto's burial, accordingly, in the High Church of Stettin, when 
the coffin was lowered into its place, the Stettin Biirgermeister, 
Albrecht Glinde, took sword and helmet, and threw the same 
into the grave, in token that the Line was extinct. But Franz 
von Eichsted," apparently another Burgher instructed for the 
nonce, " jumped into the grave, and picked them out again ; 
alleging, No, the Dukes of Wolgast-'Pommem were of kin; 
these tokens we must send to his Grace at Wolgast, with 
offer of our homage, said Franz von Eichsted." * And sent 
they were, and accepted by his Grace. And perhaps half-a- 
score of bargains, with bloody crowns to some of them ; and 
yet other chances, and centuries, with the extinction of new 
Lines, had to supervene, before even Stettin-Pommern, and 
that in no complete state, could be got. 2 As to Pommern at 
large, Pommern not denied to be due, after such extinction 
and re-extinction of native Ducal Lines, did not fall home for 
centuries more ; and what struggles and inextricable armed- 
litigations there were for it, readers of Brandenburg-History 
too wearisomely know. The process of assimilation not the 
least of an easy one! 

This Friedrich was second son: his Father's outlook for 
him had, at first, been towards a Polish Princess and the 
crown of Poland, which was not then so elective as after- 
wards: and with such view his early breeding had been 
chiefly in Poland; Johann, the eldest son and heir-apparent, 
helping his Father at home in the mean while. But these 
Polish outlooks went to nothing, the young Princess having 
died ; so that Friedrich came home ; possessed merely of the 
Polish language, and of what talents the gods had given him, 

1 Kentsch, p. 110 (whose printer has pat his date awry) ; Stenzel (i. 233) 
calls the man "Lorenz Eikstetten, a resolute Gentleman." 

2 1648, by Treaty of Westphalia. 

which were considerable. And now, in the mean while, Johann, 
who at one time promised well in practical life, had taken to 
Alchemy ; and was busy with crucibles and speculations, to a 
degree that seemed questionable. Father Friedrich, therefore, 
had to interfere, and deal with this " Johann the Alchemist " 
(Johannes Alohemista, so the Books still name him) ; who loy- 
ally renounced the Electorship, at his Father's bidding, in 
favor of Friedrich; accepted Baireuth (better half of the 
Culmbach Territory) for apanage; and there peacefully dis- 
tilled and sublimated at discretion; the government there 
being an easier task, and fitter for a soft speculative Herr. 
A third Brother, Albert by name, got Anspach, on the Father's 
decease ; very capable to do any fighting there might be occa- 
sion for, in Culmbach. 

As to the Burggrafship, it was now done, all but the Title. 
The First Friedrich, once he was got to be Elector, wisely 
parted with it. The First Friedrich found his Electorship 
had dreadfully real duties for him, and that this of the Burg- 
grafship had fallen mostly obsolete ; so he sold it to the Niirn- 
bergers for a round sum : only the Principalities and Territories 
are retained in that quarter. About which too, and their feu- 
dal duties, boundaries and tolls, with a jealous litigious Niirn- 
berg for neighbor, there at length came quarrelling enough. 
But Albert the third Brother, over at Anspach, took charge 
of all that ; and nothing of it fell in Johann's way. 

The good Alchemist died, performed his last sublimation, 
poor man, six or seven years before his Brother Friedrich ; 
age then sixty-three. 1 Friedrich, with his Iron Teeth and 
faculties, only held out till fifty-eight, 10th February, 1471. 
The manner of his end was peculiar. In that War with 
Pommern, he sat besieging a Pomeranian town, Uckermunde 
the name of it : when at dinner one day, a cannon-ball plunged 
down upon the table, 2 with such a crash as we can fancy ; 
which greatly confused the nerves of Friedrich ; much injured 
his hearing, and even his memory thenceforth. In a few 
months afterwards he resigned, in favor of his Successor ; re- 
tired to Plassenburg, and there died in about a year more. 
i 14th November, 1464. * Michaelis, i. 303. 



If EITHBK Friedrich nor Johann left other than daughters : 
so that the united Heritage, Brandenburg and Culmbach both, 
came now to the third Brother, Albert ; who has been in Culm- 
bach these many years already. A tall, fiery, tough old gen- 
tleman, of formidable talent for fighting, who was called the 
" Achilles of Germany " in his day ; being then a very blazing 
far-seen character, dim as he has now grown. 1 This Albert 
Achilles was the Third Elector ; Ancestor he of all the Bran- 
denburg and Culinbach Hohenzollern Princes that have since 
figured in the world. After him there is no break or shift 
in the succession, down to the little Friedrich now born ; 
Friedrich the old Grandfather, First King, was the Twelfth 

We have to say, they followed generally in their Ancestors' 
steps, and had success of the like kind, more or less ; Hohen- 
zollerns all of them, by character and behavior as well as 
by descent. No lack of quiet energy, of thrift, sound sense. 
There was likewise solid fair-play in general, no founding of 
yourself on ground that will not carry; and there was in- 
stant, gentle but inexorable, crushing of mutiny, if it showed 
itself ; which, after the Second Elector, or at most the Third, 
it had altogether ceased to do. Young Eriedrich II., upon 
whom those Berlin Burghers had tried to close their gates, 
till he should sign some "Capitulation" to their mind, got 
from them, and not quite in ill-humor, that name Ironteeth : 
" Not the least a Nose-of-wax, this one ! No use trying here, 
then ! " which, with the humor attached to it, is itself symbol- 
ical of Friedrich and these Hohenzollern Sovereigns. Albert, 
his Brother, had plenty of fighting in his time : but it was in 

> Born 1414 ; Kurfiirst, 1471-1486. 
VOL. v. 12 


the Eurnberg and other distant regions ; no fighting, or hardly 
any, needed in Brandenburg henceforth. 

With Niirnberg, and the Ex-Burggrafship there, now when 
a new generation began to tug at the loose clauses of that Bar- 
gain with Friedrich I., and all Free-Towns were going high 
upon their privileges, Albert had at one time much trouble, 
and at length actual furious War ; other Free-Towns counte- 
nancing and assisting Nurnberg in the affair ; numerous petty 
Princes, feudal Lords of the vicinity, doing the like by Albert. 
Twenty years ago, all this ; and it did not last, so furious 
was it. "Eight victories," they count on Albert's part, 
furious successful skirmishes, call them; in one of which, I 
remember, Albert plunged in alone, his Bitters being rather 
shy ; and laid about him hugely, hanging by a standard he 
had taken, till his life was nearly beaten out. 1 Eight victories ; 
and also one defeat, wherein Albert got captured, and had to 
ransom himself. The captor was one Kunz of Kauffungen, 
the Nurnberg hired General at the time: a man known to 
some readers for his Stealing of the Saxon Princes (Prinzen- 
rmtb, they call it) ; a feat which cost Kunz his head. 2 Albert, 
however, prevailed in the end, as he was apt to do ; and got 
his If urnbergers fixed to clauses satisfactory to him. 

In his early days he had f ought against Poles, Bohemians 
and others, as Imperial general. He was much concerned, 
all along, in those abstruse armed-litigations of the Austrian 
House with its dependencies; and diligently helped the 
Kaiser, Friedrich III., rather a weakish, but an eager and 
greedy Kaiser, through most of them. That inextricable 
Hungarian-Bohemian-Polish Donnybrook (so we may call it) 
which Austria had on hand, one of Sigismund's bequests to 
Austria; distressingly tumultuous Donnybrook, which goes 
from 1440 to 1471, fighting in a fierce confused manner ; 
the Anti-Turk Hunniades, the Anti-Austrian Corvinus, the 
royal Majesties Gteorge Podiebrad, Ladislaus Posthumus, Lud- 
wig Ohne Haut (Ludwig No-Skin), and other Ludwigs, Ladis- 
lauses and Vladislauses, striking and getting struck at such a 

i 1449 (Rentsch, p. 399). 

a Carlyle's Mitcdlaaiei (London, 1869), vi. Primenraub. 


rate : Albert was generally what we may call chief-constable 
in all that ; giving a knock here and then one there, in the 
Kaiser's name. 1 Almost from boyhood, he had learned soldier- 
ing, which he had never afterwards leisure to forget. Great 
store of fighting he had, say half a century of it, off and 
on, during the seventy and odd years he lasted in this world. 
With the Donnybrook we spoke of; with the Nurnbergers ; 
with the Dukes of Bavaria (endless bickerings with these 
Dukes, Ludwig Beardy, Ludwig Superbm, Ludwig Gilboms or 
Hunchback, against them and about them, on his own and the 
Kaiser's score); also with the French, already clutching at 
Lorraine ; also with Charles the Rash of Burgundy ; lastly 
with the Bishop of Bamberg, who got him excommunicated 
and would not bury the dead. 

Knrfiirst Albert's Letter on this last emergency, to his Vice- 
gerent in Culmbach, is a famed Piece still extant (date 1481) ;* 
and his plan in such emergency, is a simple and likely one : 
" Carry the dead bodies to the Parson's house ; let him see 
whether he will not bury them by and by ! One must fence 
off the Devil by the Holy Cross," says Albert, appeal to 
Heaven with what honest mother-wit Heaven has vouchsafed 
one, means Albert. " These fellows " (the Priests), continues 
he, "would fain have the temporal sword as well as the 
spiritual. Had God wished there should be only one sword, 
he could have contrived that as well as the two. He surely 
did not want for intellect (Er war gar ein weiser Mann)," 
want of intellect it clearly was not ! In short, they had to 
bury the dead, and do reason ; and Albert hustled himself well 
clear of this broil, as he had done of many. 

Battle enough, poor man, with steel and other weapons : 
and we see he did it with sharp insight, good forecast ; now 
and then in a wildly leonine or aquiline manner. A tall hook- 
nosed man, of lean, sharp, rather taciturn aspect ; nose and 
look are very aquiline ; and there is a cloudy sorrow in those 
old eyes, which seems capable of sudden effulgence to a 

1 Hormayr, ii. 138, 140 ( Huayady Corvi*); Rentech, pp. 389-422; Mi 
chaelis, i. 304-313. 
a Rentsch, p. 409. 

ing. Spoke "four hours at a stretch in Kaiser Max's Diets, 
in elegantly flowing Latin ; " with a fair share of meaning, 
too; and had bursts of parliamentary eloquence in Tihn 
that were astonishing to hear. A tall, square-headed man, of 
erect, cheerfully composed aspect, head flung rather back if 
anything : his bursts of parliamentary eloquence, once glorious 
as the day, procured him the name " Johannes Cicero ; " and 
that is what remains of them : for they are sunk now, irre- 
trievable he and they, into the belly of eternal Night ; the 
final resting-place, I do perceive, of much Ciceronian ware in 
this world. Apparently he had, like some of his Descendants, 
what would now be called " distinguished literary talents," 
insignificant to mankind and us. I find he was likewise called 
der Grosse, " John the Great ; " but on investigation it proves 
to be mere "John the Big," a name coming from his tall 
stature and ultimate fatness of body. 

For the rest, he left his family well off, connected with high 
Potentates all around ; and had increased his store, to a fair 
degree, in his time. Besides his eldest Son who followed as 
Elector, by name Joachim I., a burly gentleman of whom 
much is written in Books, he left a second Son, Archbishop 
of Magdeburg, who in time became Archbishop of Mainz and 
Cardinal of Holy Church, 1 and by accident got to be for- 
ever memorable in Church-History, as we shall see anon. 
Archbishop of Mainz means withal Eur-Mains, Elector of 
Mainz; who is Chief of the Seven Electors, and as it were 
their President or "Speaker." Albert was the name of this 
one ; his elder Brother, the then Kur-Brandenburg, was called 
Joachim. Cardinal Albert Kur-Mainz, like his brother Joa- 
chim Kur-Brandenburg, figures much, and blazes widely 
abroad, in the busy reign of Karl V., and the inextricable 
Lutheran-Papal, Turk-Christian business it had. 

1 TJlrich ron Button's grand "Panegyric" upon this Albert on Ma first 
Entrance into Mainz (9th October, 1514), "entrance with a retinue of 
2,000 horse, mainly furnished by the Brandenburg and Culmbach kindred 
ay the old Books, - w in UlriM ab HuUm E^ti, Germom Opera (MHnch' 
edition; Berlin, 1821), i. 276-810. 

But the notable point in this Albert of Mainz was that of 
Leo X. and the Indulgences. 1 Pope Leo had permitted Albert 
to retain his Archbishopric of Magdeburg and other dignities 
along with that of Mainz ; which was an unusual favor. But 
the Pope expected to be paid for it, to have 30,000 ducats 
(15,000), almost a King's ransom at that time, for the "Pal- 
lium " to Mainz ; Pallium, or little Bit of woollen Cloth, on sale 
by the Pope, without which Mainz could not he held. Albert, 
with all his dignities, was dreadfully short of money at the time. 
Chapter of Mainz could or would do little or nothing, having 
been drained lately ; Magdeburg, Halberstadt, the like. Albert 
tried various shifts; tried a little stroke of trade in relics, 
gathered in the Mainz district " some hundreds of fractional 
sacred bones, and three whole bodies," which he sent to Halle 
for pious purchase ; but nothing came of this branch. The 
15,000 remained unpaid ; and Pope Leo, building St. Peter's, 
" furnishing a sister's toilet," and doing worse things, was in 
extreme need of it. What is to be done ? "I could borrow 
the money from the Fuggers of Augsburg," said the Arch- 
bishop hesitatingly ; " but then ? " "I could help you 
to repay it!" said his Holiness: "Could repay the half of 
it, if only we had (but they always make such clamor about 
these things) an Indulgence published in Germany ! " 
"Well; it must be!" answered Albert at last, agreeing to 
take the clamor on himself, and to do the feat ; being at his 
wits'-end for money. He draws out his Full-Power, which, as 
first Spiritual Kurf first, he has the privilege to do ; nominates 
(1516) one Tetzel for Chief Salesman, a Priest whose hardness 
of face, and shiftiness of head and hand, were known to him ; 
and here is one Hohenzollern that has a place in History .' 
Poor man, it was by accident, and from extreme tightness for 
money. He was by no means a violent Churchman ; he had 
himself inclinations towards Luther, even of a practical sort, 
as the thing went on. But there was no help for it. 

Cardinal Albert, Kur-Mainz, shows himself a copious dex- 
terous public speaker at the Diets and elsewhere in those 
times ; a man intent on avoiding violent methods ; uncom- 
l Panli, T. 496-499 ; Kentsch, p. 869. 


fortably fat in his later years, to judge by the Portraits. Kur- 
Brandenburg, Kur-Mainz (the younger now officially even 
greater than the elder), these names are perpetually turning 
up in the German Histories of that Reformation-Period; 
absent on no great occasion ; and they at length, from amid 
the meaningless bead-roll of Names, wearisomely met with in 
such Books, emerge into Persons for us as above. 


ALBEBT ACHILLES the Third Elector had, before his acces- 
sion, been Margraf of Anspach, and since his Brother the 
Alchemist's death, Margraf of Baireuth too, or of the whole 
Principality, "Margraf of Culmbach" we will call it, for 
brevity's sake, though the bewildering old Books have not 
steadily any name for it. 1 After his accession, Albert Achil- 
les naturally held both Electorate and Principality during 
the rest of his life. Which was an extremely rare predict 
ment for the two Countries, the big and the little. 

No other Elector held them both, for nearly a hundred 
years; nor then, except as it were for a moment. The two 
countries, Electorate and Principality, Hohenzollern both, and 
constituting what the Hohenzollerns had in this world, con- 
tinued intimately connected; with affinity and clientship care- 
fully kept up, and the lesser standing always under the express 

i A certain subaltern of this express title, "Margraf of Cnlmhach" (a 
Cadet, with some temporary apanage there, who was once in the service of 
him they call the Winter-King, and may again be transiently heard of by us 
here), is the altogether Mysterious Personage who prints kimself " Margui* 
de Lalenback" in Bromley's CotteOion of Royal Letters (London, 1787), pp. 52, 
&c.:_- oneof the most curious Books on the Thirty- Years War ; "edited" 
with a composed stupidity, and cheerful infinitude of ignorance, which still 
farther distinguish it. The Bromley Originals, well worth a real editing, 
turn out, on inquiry, to have been "sold as Autographs, and dispersed be- 
jrond recovery, about fifty years ago." 


protection and as it were eousinship of the greater. But they 
had their separate Princes, Lines of Princes ; and they oiily 
twice, in the time of these Twelve Electors, came even tem- 
porarily under the same head. And as to ultimate onion, 
Brandenburg-Baireuth and Brandenburg-Anspach were not 
incorporated with Brandenburg-Proper, and its new fortunes, 
till almost our own day, namely in 1791 ; nor then either to 
continue ; having fallen to Bavaria, in the grand Congress of 
Vienna, within the next five-and-twenty years. All which, 
with the complexities and perplexities resulting from it here, 
we must, in some brief way, endeavor to elucidate for the 

Two Lines in Culmbach or Bairewth-Anspach : The &era 
Bond 0/1598. 

Culmbach the Elector left, at his death, to his Second Son, 
properly to two sons, bat one of them soon died, and the 
other became sole possessor ; Friedrich by name ; who, as 
founder of the Elder Line of Brandenburg-Culmbach Princes, 
must not be forgotten by us. Founder of the First or Elder 
Line, for there are two Lines ; this of Friedrich's having gone 
out in about a hundred years ; and the Anspach-Baireuth ter- 
ritories having fallen home again to Brandenburg; where, 
however, they continued only during the then Kurfiirst's life. 
Johann George (1525-1598), Seventh Kurfiirst, was he to 
whom Brandenburg-Culmbach fell home, nay, strictly speak- 
ing, it was but the sure prospect of it that fell home, the thing 
itself did not quite fall in his time, though the disposal of it 
did, 1 to be conjoined again with Brandenburg-Proper. Con- 
joined for the short potential remainder of his own life ; and 
then to be disposed of as an apanage again ; which latter 
operation, as Johann George had three-and-twenty children, 
could be no difficult one. 

Johann George, accordingly (Year 1598), split the Terri- 
tory in two; Brandenburg-Baireuth was for his second son, 
Brandenburg-Anspach for his third: hereby again were two 
new progenitors of Culmbach Princes introduced, and a New 
"Disposal," 1598 ; thing itself, 1603, in his Son's time. 

Line, Second or " Younger Line " they call it (Line mostly 
split in two, as heretofore); which after complex adven- 
tures in its split condition, Baireuth under one head, Anspach 
under another continues active down to our little Fritz's 
time and farther. As will become but too apparent to us in 
the course of this History! 

From of old these Territories had been frequently divided : 
each has its own little capital, Town of Anspach, Town of 
Baireuth, 1 suitable for such arrangement. Frequently di- 
vided ; though always under the closest cousinship, and ready 
for reuniting, if possible. Generally under the Elder Line 
too, under Friedrich's posterity, which was rather numerous 
and often in need of apanages, they had been in separate 
hands. But the understood practice was not to divide farther ; 
Baireuth by itself, Anspach by itself (or still luckier if one 
hand could get hold of both), and especially Brandenburg 
by itself, uncut by any apanage : this, I observe, was the re- 
ceived practice. But Johann George, wise Kurfurst as he was, 
wished now to make it surer ; and did so by a famed Deed, 
called the Gera Bond (Geraisehe Vertrag), dated 1598," the 
last year of Johann George's life. 

Hereby, in a Family Conclave held at that Gera, a little 
town in Thuringen, it was settled and indissolubly fixed, That 
their Electorate, unlike all others in Germany, shall continue 
indivisible ; Law of Primogeniture, here if nowhere else, is to 
be in full force ; and only the Culmbach Territory (if other- 
wise unoccupied) can be split off for younger sons. Culmbach 
can be split off; and this again withal can be split, if need 
be, into two (Baireuth and Anspach); but not in any case 
farther. Which Household-Law was strictly obeyed hence- 
forth. Date of it 1598; principal author, Johann George, 
Seventh Elector. This "Gera Bond" the reader can note 
for himself as an excellent piece of Hohenzollern thrift, and 
important in the Brandenburg annals. On the whole, Bran- 
denburg keeps continually growing under these Twelve 
Hohenzollerns, we perceive; slower or faster, just as the 
>; 16,000 to 17,000 in our time. 

Burggrafdom had done, and by similar methods. A lucky 
outlay of money (as in the case of Friedrich Ironteeth in the 
Neumark) brings them one Province, lucky inheritance an- 
other : good management is always there, which is the mother 
of good luck 

And so there goes on again, from Johann George down- 
wards, a new stream of Culmbach Princes, called the Younger 
or New Line, properly two contemporary Lines, of Bai- 
reuthers and Anspachers ; always inclose affinity to Bran- 
denburg, and with ultimate reversion to Brandenburg, should 
both Lines fail; but with mutual inheritance if only one. 
They had intricate fortunes, service in foreign armies, much 
wandering about, sometimes considerable scarcity of cash: 
but, for a hundred and fifty years to come, neither Line by 
any means failed, rather the contrary, in fact. 

Of this latter or New Culmbach Line, or split Line, espe- 
cially of the Baireuth part of it, our little Wilhelmina, little 
Fritz's Sister, who became Margravine there, has given all 
the world notice. From the Anspach part of it (at that 
time in sore scarcity of cash) came Queen Caroline, famed 
in our George the Second's time. 1 From it too came an 
unmomentous Margraf, who married a little Sister of Wil- 
helmina's and Fritz's; of whom we shall hear. There is 
lastly a still more unmomentous Margraf, only son of said 
Unmomentous and his said Spouse ; who again combined the 
two Territories, Baireuth having failed of heirs ; and who, 
himself without heirs, and with a frail Lady Craven as Mar- 
gravine, died at Hammersmith, close by us, in 1806 ; and 
so ended the troublesome affair. He had already, in 1791, 
sold off to Prussia all temporary claims of his ; and let Prussia 
have the Heritage at once without waiting farther. Prussia, 
as we noticed, did not keep it long ; and it is now part of the 
Bavarian Dominion; for the sake of editors and readers, 
long may it so continue ! 

Of this Younger Line, intrinsically rather insignificant to 
mankind, we shall have enough to write in time and place : 
we must at present direct our attention to the Elder Line, 
i See a Synoptic Diagram of these Genealogies, infra, p. 8880. 


The Elder Line of Culmbach : Friedrich and hit Three 
notable Sons there. 

Kurfurst Albert Achilles's second son, Friedrich (146(X- 
1536), 1 the founder of the Elder Culmbach Line, ruled his 
country well for certain years, and was " a man famed for 
strength of body and mind ; " but claims little notice from us, 
except for the sons he had. A quiet, commendable, honorable 
man, with a certain pathetic dignity, visible even in the 
eclipsed state he sank into. Poor old gentleman, after grand 
enough feats in war and peace, he fell melancholy, fell imbe- 
cile, blind, soon after middle life ; and continued so for twenty 
years, till he died. During which dark state, say the old 
Books, it was a pleasure to see with what attention his Sons 
treated him, and how reverently the eldest always led him out 
to dinner. 4 They live and dine at that high Castle of Plassen- 
burg, where old Friedrich can behold the Bed or White Mayn 
no more. Alas, alas, Plassenburg is now a Correction-House, 
where male and female scoundrels do beating of hemp ; and 
pious Friedrich, like eloquent Johann, has become a forgotten 
object. He was of the German Reichs-Array, who marched to 
the Netherlands to deliver Max from durance ; Max, the King 
of the Romans, whom, for all his luck, the mutinous Flemings 
had put under lock-and-key at one time. 3 That is his one feat 
memorable to me at present. 

He was Johann Cicero's ffatf-biother, child by a second 
wife. Like his Uncle Kurfiirst Friedrich II., he had married 
a Polish Princess ; the sharp Achilles having perhaps an eye 
to crowns in that direction, during that Hungarian-Bohemian- 
Polish Donnybrook. But if so, there again came nothing of a 
crown with it ; though it was not without its good results for 
Friedrich's children by and by. 

He had eight Sons that reached manhood ; five or six of 
whom came to something considerable in the world, and Three 

l Bentsch, pp. 593-602. Ib. p. 612. 

* 1482 (Panli, ii. 389) : his beautiful young Wife, " thrown from her hone," 
had perished in a thrice-tragic way, short while before; and the Seventeen 
Province! were unruly under the guardianship of Max. 


are memorable down to this day. One of bis daughters he 
married to the Duke of Liegnitz in Silesia ; which is among 
the first links I notice of a connection that grew strong with 
that sovereign Duchy, and is worth remarking by my readers 
here. Of the Three notable Sons it is necessary that we say 
something. Casimir, George, Albert are the names of these 

Casimir, the eldest, 1 whose share of heritage is Baireuth, 
was originally intended for the Church ; but inclining rather 
to secular and military things, or his prospects of promotion 
altering, he early quitted that; and took vigorously to the 
career of arms and business. A truculent-looking Herr, with 
thoughtful eyes, and hanging under-lip : hat of enviable 
softness ; loose disk of felt flung carelessly on, almost like a 
nightcap artificially extended, so admirably soft; and the 
look of the man Casimir, between his cataract of black beard 
and this semi-nightcap, is carelessly truculent. He had much 
fighting with the Nurnbergers and others ; laid it right 
terribly on, in the way of strokes, when needful. He was 
especially truculent upon the Revolt of Peasants in their 
Bauernkrwg (1525). Them in their wildest rage he fronted ; 
he, that others might rally to him : " Unhappy mortals, will 
you shake the world to pieces, then, because you have much to 
complain of ? " and hanged the ringleaders of them literally 
by the dozen, when quelled and captured. A severe, rather 
truculent Herr. His brother George, who had Anspach for 
heritage, and a right to half those prisoners, admonished and 
forgave his half; and pleaded hard with Casimir for mercy to 
the others, in a fine Letter still extant ; * which produced no 
effect on Casimir. For the dog's sake, and for all sakes, " let 
not the dog learn to eat leather " (of which his indispensable 
leashes and muzzles are made)! That was a proverb often 
heard on the occasion, in Luther's mouth among the rest. 

Casimir died in 1527, age then towards fifty. For the last 
dozen years or so, when the Father's malady became hopeless, 
he had governed Culmbach, both parts of it ; the Anspach 

1 1481-1527. * In Bentsch, p. 637. 


part, which belonged to his next brother George, going natu- 
rally, in almost all things, along with Baireuth ; and George, 
who was commonly absent, not interfering, except on impor- 
tant occasions. Casimir left one little Boy, age then only six, 
name Albert; to whom George, henceforth practical sovereign 
of Culmbach, as his Brother had been, was appointed Guardian. 
This youth, very full of fire, wildfire too much of it, exploded 
dreadfully on Germany by and by (Albert Aloibiades the name 
they gave him) ; nay, towards the end of his nonage, he had 
been rather sputtery upon his Uncle, the excellent Guardian 
who had charge of him. 

Uncle George of Anspach, Casimir's next Brother, had 
always been of a peaceabler disposition than Casimir; not 
indeed without heat of temper, and sufficient vivacity of every 
kind. As a youth, he had aided Kaiser Max in two of his 
petty wars ; but was always rather given " to reading Latin," 
to Learning, and ingenious pursuits. His Polish Mother, who, 
we perceive, had given "Casimir" his name, proved much 
more important to George. At an early age he went to his 
Uncle Vladislaus, King of Hungary and Bohemia : for 
Alas, after all, we shall have to cast a glance into that un- 
beautiful Hungarian-Bohemian scramble, comparable to an 
"Irish Donnybrook," where Albert Achilles long walked as 
Chief-Constable. It behooves us, after all, to point out some 
of the tallest heads in it ; and whitherward, bludgeon in hand, 
they seem to be swaying and struggling. Courage, patient 
reader 1 

George, then, at an early age went, to his Uncle Vladislaus, 
King of Hungary and Bohemia : for George's Mother, as we 
know, was of royal kin ; daughter of the Polish King, Casi- 
mir IV. (late mauler of the Teutsch Ritters) ; which circum- 
stance had results for George and us. Daughter of Casimir 
IV. the Lady was ; and therefore of the Jagellon blood by her 
father, which amounts to little ; but by her mother she was 
Grand-daughter of that Kaiser Albert II. who "got Three 
Crowns in one year, and died the next ; " whose posterity have 

ever since, up to the lips in trouble with their confused 
competitive accompaniments, Hunniades, Corvinus, George 
Podiebrad and others, not to speak of dragon Turks coiling 
ever closer round you on the frontier, been Kings of Hun- 
gary and Bohemia ; two of the crowns (the heritable two) which 
were got by Kaiser Albert in that memorable year. He got 
them, as the reader may remember, by having the daughter of 
Kaiser Sigismund to wife, Sigismund Supe^Grrammaticum, 
whom we left standing, red as a flamingo, in the market-place 
of Constance a hundred years ago. Thus Time rolls on in its 
many-colored manner, edacious and f eracious. 

It is in this way that George's Uncle, Vladislaus, Albert's 
daughter's son, is now King of Hungary and Bohemia : the 
last King Vladislaus they had; and the last King but one, 
of any kind, as we shall see anon. Vladislaus was heir of 
Poland too, could he have managed to get it ; but he gave up 
that to his brother, to various younger brothers in succession ; 
having his hands full with the Hungarian, and Bohemian 
difficulty. He was very fond of Nephew George ; well recog- 
nizing the ingenuous, wise and loyal nature of the young 
man. He appointed George tutor of his poor son Ludwig ; 
whom he left at the early age of ten, in an evil world, and 
evil position there. "Born without Skin," they say, that is, 
born in the seventh month ; called Ludwig Ohne Haut 
(Ludwig JYb-Skin), on that account. Born -certainly, I can 
perceive, rather thin of skin ; and he would have needed one 
of a rhinoceros thickness ! 

George did his function honestly, and with success : Ludwig 
grew up a gallant, airy, brisk young King, in spite of difficul- 
ties, constitutional and other ; got a Sister of the great Kaiser 
Karl V. to wife ; determined (A.D. 1526) to have a stroke at 
the Turk dragon ; which was coiling round his frontier, and 
spitting fire at an intolerable rate. Ludwig, a fine young 
man of twenty, marched away with much Hungarian chivalry, 
right for the Turk (Summer 1526) ; George meanwhile going 
busily to Bohemia, and there with all his strength levying 
troops for reinforcement. Ludwig fought and fenced, for 
some time, with the Turk outskirts ; came at last to a furious 

general battle with the Turk (29th August, 1526), at a place 
called Mohacz, far east in the flats of the Lower Donau ; and 
was there tragically beaten and ended. Seeing the Battle 
gone, and his chivalry all in flight, Ludwig too had to fly ; 
galloping for life, he came upon bog which proved bottom- 
less, as good as bottomless; and Ludwig, horse and man, 
vanished in it straightway from this world. Hapless young 
man, like a flash of lightning suddenly going down there 
and the Hungarian Sovereignty along with him. For Hun- 
gary is part of Austria ever since; having, with Bohemia, 
fallen to Karl V.'s Brother Ferdinand, as now the nearest con- 
venient heir of Albert with his Three Crowns. Up to the lips 
in difficulties to this day ! 

George meanwhile, with finely appointed reinforcements, 
was in full march to join Ludwig ; but the sad news of 
Mohacz met him : he withdrew, as soon as might be, to his 
own territory, and quitted Hungarian politics. This, I think, 
was George's third and last trial of war. He by no means 
delighted in that art, or had cultivated it like Casimir and 
some of his brothers. 

George by this time had considerable property; part of it 
important to the readers of this History. Anspach we already 
know ; but the Duchy of Jagerndorf , that and its pleasant 
valleys, fine hunting-grounds and larch-clad heights, among 
the Giant Mountains of Silesia, that is to us the memora- 
ble territory. George got it in this manner : 

Some ten or fifteen years ago, the late King Vladislaus, our 
Uncle of blessed memory, loving George, and not having 
royal moneys at command, permitted him to redeem with his 
own cash certain Hungarian Domains, pledged at a ruinously 
cheap rate, but unredeemable by Vladislaus. George did so ; 
years ago, guess ten or fifteen. George did not like the Hun- 
garian Domains, with their Turk and other inconveniences ; 
he proposed to exchange them with King Vladislaus for the 
Bohemian-Silesian Duchy of Jagerndorf ; which had just then, 
by failure of heirs, lapsed to the King. This also Vladislaus, 
the beneficent cashless Uncle, liking George more and more, 

permitted to be done. And done it was ; I see not in what 
year ; only that the ultimate investiture (done, this part of 
the affair, by Ludwig Ohne Haut, and duly sanctioned by the 
Kaiser) dates 1524, two years before the fatal Mohacz busi- 

From the time of this purchase, and especially till Brother 
Casimir's death, which happened in 1527, George resided 
oftener at Jagerndorf than at Anspach. Anspach, by the side 
of Baireuth, needed no management; and in Jagerndorf much 
probably required the hand of a good Governor to put it 
straight again. The Castle of Jagerndorf, which towers up 
there in a rather grand manner to this day, George built : 
"the old Castle of the Schellenbergs " (extinct predecessor 
Line) now gone to ruins, " stands on a Hill with larches on 
it, some miles off." jMargraf George was much esteemed as 
Duke of Jagerndorf. What his actions in that region were, 
I know not ; but it seems he was so well thought of in Sile- 
sia, two smaller neighboring Potentates, the Duke of Oppeln 
and the Duke of Eatibor, who had no heirs of their body, 
bequeathed, with the Kaiser's assent, these towns and territo- 
ries to George: 1 in mere love to their subjects (Rentsch 
intimates), that poor men might be governed by a wise good 
Duke, in the time coming. The Kaiser would have got the 
Duchies otherwise. 

Kay the Kaiser, in spite of his preliminary assent, proved 
extortionate to George in this matter ; and exacted heavy sums 
for the actual possession of Oppeln and Eatibor. George, 
going so zealously ahead in Protestant affairs, grew less and 
less a favorite with Kaisers. But so, at any rate, on peace- 
able unquestionable grounds, grounds valid as Imperial Law 
and ready money, George is at last Lord of these two little 
Countries, in the plain of South-Silesia, as of Jagerndorf among 
the Mountains hard by. George has and holds the Duchy of 
Jagerndorf, with these appendages (Jagerndorf since 1524, 
Eatibor and Oppeln since some years later) j and lives con- 

Bentseh, pp. 623, 127-131. Kaiser is Ferdinand, Karl V.'s Brother, as 
yet only King of Bohemia and Hungary, trat supreme in regard t 
points. His assent is dated " 17th June, 1531 "-- 

stantly, or at the due intervals, in his own strong Mountain- 
Castle of Jagerndorf there, we have no doubt, to the 
marked benefit of good men in those parts. Hereby has 
Jagerndorf joined itself to the Brandenburg Territories : and 
the reader can note the circumstance, for it will prove memo- 
rable one day. 

In the business of he Reformation, Margraf George was 
very noble. A simple-hearted, truth-loving, modestly valiant 
man ; rising unconsciously, in that great element, into the 
heroic figure. " George the Pious (der Fromme)," " George the 
Confessor (Bekenner)" were the names he got from his country- 
men. Once this business had become practical, George inter- 
fered a little more in the Culmbach Government ; his brother 
Casimir, who likewise had Keformation tendencies, rather 
hanging back in comparison to George. 

In 1525 the Town-populations, in the Culmbach region, big 
Murnberg in the van, had gone quite ahead in the new Doc- 
trine ; and were becoming irrepressibly impatient to clear out 
the old mendacities, and have the Gospel preached freely to 
them. This was a questionable step ; feasible perhaps for a 
great Elector of Saxony; but for a Margraf of Anspach? 
George had come home from Jagerndorf, some three hundred 
miles away, to look into it for himself ; found it, what with 
darkness all round, what with precipices menacing on both 
hands, and zealous, inconsiderate Town-populations threaten- 
ing to take the bit between their teeth, a frightfully intri- 
cate thing. George mounted his horse, one day this year, day 
not dated farther, and " with only six attendants " privately 
rode off, another two hundred miles, a good three days' ride, to 
Wittenberg; and alighted at Dr. Martinus Lutherus's door. 1 
A notable passage ; worth thinking of. But such visits of high 
Princes, to that poor house of the Doctor's, were not then 
uncommon. Luther cleared the doubts of George ; George re- 
turned with a resolution taken ; " Ahead then, ye poor Voigfc- 
land Gospel populations ! I must lead you, we must on ! " 
And perils enough there proved to be, and precipices on each 
1 Bentsch, p. 625. 

hand : JBauernkriey, that is to say Peasants'-War, Anabaptistiy 
and Bed-Republic, on the one hand ; Jieichs-Acht, Ban of Em- 
pire, on the other. But George, eagerly, solemnly attentive, 
with ever new light rising on him, dealt with the perils as they 
came ; and went steadily on, in a simple, highly manful and 
courageous manner. 

He did not live to see the actual Wars that followed on 
Luther's preaching: he was of the same age with Luther, 
born few months later, and died two years before Luther ; 1 
but in all the intermediate principal transactions George is 
conspicuously present ; " George of Brandenburg," as the Books 
call him, or simply "Margraf George." 

At the Diet of Augsburg (1530), and the signing of the 
Augsburg Confession there, he was sure to be. He rode thither 
with his Anspach Knightage about him, "four hundred cava- 
liers," Seckendorfs, Huttens, Manses and other known kin- 
dreds, recognizable among the lists; 2 and spoke there, not 
bursts of parliamentary eloquence, but things that had mean- 
ing in them. One speech of his, not in the Diet, but in the 
Kaiser's Lodging (15th June, 1530; no doubt, in Anton Fug- 
ger's house, where the Kaiser " lodged for year and day " this 
time but without the " fires of cinnamon " they talk of on other 
occasions"), is still very celebrated. It was the evening of 
the Kaiser Karl Fifth's arrival at the Diet ; which was then 
already, some time since, assembled there. And great had 
been the Kaiser's reception that morning; the flower of Ger- 
many, all the Princes of the Empire, Protestant and Papal 
alike, riding out to meet him, in the open country, at the 
Bridge of the Lech. With high-flown speeches and benignities, 
on both sides ; only that the Kaiser willed all men, Protes- 
tant and other, should in the mean while do the Popish litany- 
ings, waxlight processionings and idolatrous stage-performances 

1 4th March, 1484, 87th Dec., [ 10th Norember, 1488 18th February, 

1543, George ; | 1516, Luther. 

2 Bentsch, p. 633. 

8 See Carlyle's Miscellanies (Hi. 259 n.). The House is at present an Inn, 
" Chuthou, zu den drei Mohren ; " where tourists lodge, and are still shown the 
room which the Kaiser occupied on such visits. 


with him on the morrow, which was Corpits-Christi Day ; and 
the Protestants could not nor would. Imperial hints there 
had already been, from Innspruck ; benign hopes, of the nature 
of commands, That loyal Protestant Princes would in the in- 
terim avoid open discrepancies, perhaps be so loyal as keep 
their chaplains, peculiar divine-services, private in the interim ? 
These were hints ; and now this of the Corpus-Christi, a still 
more pregnant hint ! Loyal Protestants refused it, therefore ; 
flatly declined, though bidden and again bidden. They at- 
tended in a body, old Johann of Saxony, young Philip of 
Hessen, and the rest ; Margraf George, as spokesman, with 
eloquent simplicity stating their reasons, to somewhat this 

Invinciblest all-gracious Kaiser, loyal are we to your high 
Majesty, ready to do your bidding by night and by day. But 
it is your bidding under God, not against God. Ask us not, 
gracious Kaiser ! I cannot, and we cannot ; and we must 
not, and dare not. And " before I would deny my God and 
his Evangel," these are George's own words, " I would rather 
kneel down here before your Majesty, and have my head struck 
off," hitting his hind-head, or neck, with the edge of his 
hand, by way of accompaniment ; a strange radiance in the 
eyes of him, voice risen into musical alt: " Ehe Ich wolte 
meinen Gott und sein Evangelium verlaugnen, ehe wolte Ich hier 
vor Surer Majestat niderknien, und mir den Kopf ahhaiten 
lassen." " Nti Kop ab, lover FSrst, nit Kop abl" answered 
Charles in his Flemish-German; "Not head off, dear Ftirst, 
not head off!" said the Kaiser, a faint smile enlightening 
those weighty gray eyes of his, and imperceptibly animating 
the thick Austrian under-lip. 1 

Speaker and company attended again on the morrow ; Mar- 
graf George still more eloquent. Whose Speech flew over Ger- 
many, like fire over dry flax ; and still exists, both Speeches 
now oftenest rolled into one by inaccurate editors. 8 And 
the Corpus-Christi idolatries were forborne the Margraf and his 

i Bentsch, p. 637. Maiheineke, Getdudae der Teutschen Reformation (Ber- 
lin, 1831), ii. 487. 

s At by Bentsch, ubi suprtL 

company this time ; the Kaiser himself, however, -walking, 
nearly roasted in the sun, in heavy purple-velvet cloak, with a 
big wax-candle, very superfluous, guttering and blubbering in 
the right hand of him, along the streets of Augsburg. Kur- 
Brandenburg, Blur-Mainz, high cousins of George, were at this 
Diet of Augsburg; Kur-Brandenburg (Elector Joachim I., 
Cicero's son, of whom we have spoken, and shall speak again) 
being often very loud on the conservative side ; and eloquent 
Kur-Mainz going on the conciliatory tack. Kur-Brandenburg, 
in his zeal, had ridden on to Innspruck, to meet the Kaiser 
there, and have a preliminary word with him. Both these 
high Cousins spoke, and bestirred themselves, a good deal, at 
this Diet. They had met the Kaiser on the plains of the Lech, 
this morning ; and, no doubt, gloomed unutterable things on 
George and his Speech. George could not help it. 

Till his death in 1543, George is to be found always in the 
front line of this high Movement, in the line where Kur-Sachsen, 
John the Steadfast (der Bestartdige), and j-oung Philip the 
Magnanimous of Hessen were, and where danger and difficulty 
were. Readers of this enlightened gold-nugget generation can 
form to themselves no conception of the spirit that then pos- 
sessed the nobler kingly mind. "The command of God en- 
dures through Eternity, Verbum Dei Manet In jEternum," was 
the Epigraph and Life-motto which John the Steadfast had 
adopted for himself; "V. D. M. I. M.," these initials he had 
engraved on all the furnitures of Ms existence, on his stand- 
ards, pictures, plate, on the very sleeves of his lackeys, and I 
can perceive, on his own deep heart first of all. V. D. M. I. E. : 
or might it not be read withal, as Philip of Hessen some- 
times said (Philip, still a young fellow, capable of sport in his ' 
magnanimous scorn), " Verbum Didboli Manet In Episcopis, 
The Devil's Word sticks fast in the Bishops " ? 

We must now take leave of Margraf George and his fine 
procedures in that crisis of World-History. He had got Ja- 
gerndorf, which became important for his Family and others : 
but what was that to the Promethean conquests (such we may 
call them) which he had the honor to assist in making for his 

Family, and for his Country, and for all men; very uncon- 
scious he of " bringing fire from Heaven," good modest simple 
man ! So far as I can gather, there lived, in that day, few 
truer specimens of the Honest Man. A rugged, rough-hewn, 
rather blunt-nosed physiognomy : cheek-bones high, cheeks 
somewhat bagged and wrinkly ; eyes with a due shade of anx- 
iety and sadness in them; affectionate simplicity, faithfulness, 
intelligence, veracity looking out of every feature of him. 
Wears plentiful white beard shortcut, plentiful gold-chains, 
ruffs, ermines ; a hat not to be approved of, in compari- 
son with brother Casimir's ; miserable inverted-colander of 
a hat ; hanging at an angle of forty-five degrees ; with band 
of pearls round the top not the bottom of it ; insecure upon 
the fine head of George, and by no means to its embellish- 

One of his Daughters he married to the Duke of Liegnitz , 
a new link in that connection. He left one Boy, George 
Friedrich ; who came under Alcibiades, his Cousin of Baireuth's 
tutelage; and suffered much by that connection, or indeed 
chiefly by his own conspicuously Protestant turn, to punish 
which, the Alcibiades connection was taken as a pretext. In 
riper years, George Friedrich got his calamities brought well 
under ; and lived to do good work, Protestant and other, in the 
world. To which we may perhaps allude again. The Line of 
Margraf George the Pious ends in this George Friedrich, who 
had no children; the Line of Margraf George, and the Elder 
Culmbach Line altogether (1603), Albert Alcibiades, Casimir's 
one son, having likewise died without posterity. 

"Of the younger Brothers," says my Authority, "some four 
were in the Church; two of whom rose to be Prelates ; here 
are the four: 

" 1. One, Wilhelm by name, was Bishop of Eiga, in the 
remote Prussian outskirts, and became Protestant; among 
the first great Prelates who took that heretical course ; being 
favored by circumstances to cast out the 'V. D. (Verbum Dior 
bolt),' as Philip read it. He is a wise-looking man, with mag- 
nificent beard, with something of contemptuous patience in the 
meditative eyes of him. He had great troubles with his Eiga 


people, as indeed was a perennial case between their Bishop 

2. The other Prelate held fast by the Papal Orthodoxy : he 
had got upon the ladder of promotion towards Magdeburg; 
hoping to follow his Cousin Kur-Mainz, the eloquent concilia- 
tory Cardinal, in that part of his pluralities. As he did, 
little to his comfort, poor man ; having suffered a good deal in 
the sieges and religious troubles of his Magdeburgers ; who 
ended by ordering him away, having openly declared them- 
selves Protestant, at length. He had to go ; and occupy him- 
self complaining, soliciting Aulic-Councils and the like, for the 
rest of his life. 

"3. The Probst of Wurzburg (Provost, kind of Head-Canon 
there) ; orthodox Papal he too ; and often gave his Brother 
George trouble. 

"4. A still more orthodox specimen, the youngest member 
of the family, who is likewise in orders : Gumbrecht (' Guinber- 
tus, a Canonicus of ' Something or other, say the Books) ; who 
went early to Rome, and became one of his Holiness Leo 
Tenth's Chamberlains; stood the 'Sack of Borne' (Consta- 
ble de Bourbon's), and was captured there and ransomed ; 
but died still young (1528). These three were Catholics, he of 
Wurzburg a rather virulent one." 

Catholic also was Johannes, a fifth Brother, who followed 
the soldiering and diplomatic professions, oftenest in Spain ; 
did Government-messages to Diets, and the like, for Karl V. ; 
a high man and well seen of his Kaiser ; he had wedded the 
young Widow of old King Ferdinand in Spain; which proved, 
seemingly, a troublous scene for poor Johannes. What we 
know is, he was appointed Commandant of Valencia ; and died 
there, still little turned of thirty, by poison it is supposed, 
and left his young Widow to marry a third time. 

These are the Five minor Brothers, four of them Catholic, 
sons of old blind Friedrich of Plassenburg; who are not, for 
their own sake, memorable, but are mentionable for the sake 
of the three major Brothers. So many orthodox Catholics, 
while Brother George and others went into the heresies at 
such a rate! A family much split by religion : and blind 


old Friedrich, dim of intellect, knew nothing of it ; and the 
excellent Polish Mother said and thought, we know not what. 
A divided Time ! 

Johannes of Valencia, and these Chief Priests, were all men 
of mark ; conspicuous to the able editors of their day : but the 
only Brother now generally known to mankind is Albert, Hoch- 
meister of the Teutsch Eitterdom ; by whom Preussen came 
into the Family. Of him we must now speak a little. 



ALBEET was born in 1490; George's junior by six years, 
Casimir's by nine. He too had been meant for the Church ; 
but soon quitted that, other prospects and tendencies open- 
ing. He had always loved the ingenuous arts ; but the 
activities too had charms for him. He early shone in his 
exercises spiritual and bodily; grew tall above his fellows, 
expert in arts, especially in arms; rode with his Father to 
Kaiser Max's Court ; was presented by him, as the light of 
his eyes, to Kaiser Max ; who thought him a very likely 
young fellow ; and bore him in mind, when the Mastership of 
the Teutsch Eitterdom fell vacant. 1 

The Teutsch Eitterdom, ever since it got its back broken 
in that Battle of Tannenberg in 1410, and was driven out 
of West-Preussen with such ignominious kicks, has been 
lying bedrid, eating its remaining revenues, or sprawling 
about in helpless efforts to rise again, which require no 
notice from us. Hopeless of ever recovering West-Preussen, 
it had quietly paid its homage to Poland for the Eastern 
part of that Country; quietly for some couple of genera- 
tions. But, in the third or fourth generation after Tannen- 


berg, there began to rise murmurs, in. the Holy Eoman 
Empire first of all. "Preussen is a piece of the Reich," said 
hot, inconsiderate people; "Preussen could not be alienated 
without consent of the Reich ! " To which discourses the 
afflicted Bitters listened only too gladly; their dull eyes 
kindling into new false hopes at sound of them. The point 
was, To choose as Hochmeister some man of German in- 
fluence, of power and connection in the Country, who might 
help them to their so-called right. With this view, they chose 
one and then another of such sort ; and did not find it very 
hopeful, as we shall see. 

Albert was chosen Grand-Master of Preussen, in February, 
1511 ; age then twenty-one. Made his entry into Konigsberg, 
November next year ; in grand cavalcade, " dreadful storm of 
rain and wind at the time," poor Albert all in black, and 
full of sorrow, for the loss of his Mother, the good Polish Prin- 
cess, who had died since he left home. Twenty months of 
preparation he had held since his Election, before doing any- 
thing : for indeed the case was intricate. He, like his prede- 
cessor in office, had undertaken to refuse that Homage to 
Poland; the Reich generally, and Kaiser Max himself, in a 
loose way of talk, encouraging him : " A piece of the Reich," 
said they all ; " Teutsch Ritters had no power to give it away 
in that manner." Which is a thing more easily said, than 
made good in the way of doing. 

Albert's predecessor, chosen on this principle, was a Saxon 
Prince, Friedrich of Meissen ; cadet of Saxony ; potently 
enough connected, he too ; who, in like manner, had under- 
taken to refuse the Homage. And zealously did refuse it, 
though to his cost, poor man. From the Reich, for all its big 
talking, he got no manner of assistance; had to stave off 
a Polish War as he could, by fair-speaking, by diplomacies 
and contrivances ; and died at middle age, worn down by the 
sorrows of that sad position. 

An idea prevails, in ill-informed circles, that our new Grand- 
Master Albert was no better than a kind of cheat ; that he 
took this Grand-Mastership of Preussen ; and then, in gayety 
of heart, surreptitiously pocketed Preussen for his own be- 

hoof. Which is an idle idea; inconsistent with the least 
inquiry, or real knowledge how the matter stood. 1 By no 
means in gayety of heart did Albert pocket Preussen; nor till 
after as tough a struggle to do other with it as could have 
been expected of any man. 

One thing not suspected by the Teutsch Ritters, and 
least of all by their young Hochmeister, was, That the 
Teutsch Bitters had well deserved that terrible down-come 
at Tannenberg, that ignominious dismissal out of West- 
Preussen with kicks. Their insolence, luxury, degeneracy 
had gone to great lengths. Nor did that humiliation mend 
them at all ; the reverse rather. It was deeply hidden from 
the young Hochmeister as from them, That probably they 
were now at length got to the end of their capability : and 
ready to be withdrawn from the scene, as soon as any good 
way offered ! Of course, they were reluctant enough to fulfil 
their bargain to Poland ; very loath they to do Homage now 
for Preussen, and own themselves sunk to the second degree. 
For the Ritters had still their old haughtiness of humor, 
their deep-seated pride of place, gone now into the unhappy 
conscious state. That is usually the last thing that deserts a 
sinking House : pride of place, gone to the conscious state ; 
as if, in a reverse manner, the House felt that it deserved to 

For the rest, Albert's position among them was what 
Friedrioh of Sachsen's had been; worse, not better; and 
the main ultimate difference was, he did not die of it, like 
Friedrich of Sachsen; but found an outlet, not open in 
Friedrich's time, and lived. To the Ritters, and vague Public 
which called itself the Reich, Albert had promised he would 
refuse the Homage to Poland ; on which Ritters and Reich 
had clapt their hands : and that was pretty much all the as- 
sistance he got of them. The Reich, as a formal body, 
had never asserted its right to Preussen, nor indeed spoken 
definitely on the subject : it was only the vague Public that 
had spoken, in the name of the Reich. From the Reich, or 
from any individual of it, Kaiser or Prince, when actually 
i Voigt, ix. 740-749; Panli, iv. 404-407. 



applied to, Albert could get simply nothing. Prom what 
Eitters were in Preussen, he might perhaps expect prompti- 
tude to fight, if it came to that ; which was not much as 
things stood. But from the great body of the Bitters, scat- 
tered over Germany, with their rich territories (baileys, 
bailliwicks), safe resources, and comfortable " Teutschmeis- 
ter " over them, he got flat refusal : 1 " We will not be con- 
cerned in the adventure at all ; we wish you well through 
it ! " Never was a spirited young fellow placed in more im- 
possible position. 

His Brother Casimir (George was then in Hungary), his 
Cousin Joachim Kur-Brandenburg, Friedrich Duke of Lieg- 
nitz, a Silesian connection of the Family, 2 consulted, advised, 
negotiated to all lengths ; Albert's own effort was incessant. 
" Agree with King Sigismund," said they ; " Uncle Sigismund, 
your good Mother's Brother; a King softly inclined to us 
all!" "How agree?" answered Albert: "He insists on 
the Homage, which I have promised not to give ! " Casimir 
went and came, to KSnigsberg, to Berlin ; went once himself 
to Cracow, to the King, on this errand : but it was a case of 
"Yes and No;" not to be solved by Casimir. 

As to King Sigismund, he was patient with it to a de- 
gree; made the friendliest paternal professions; testifying 
withal, That the claim was undeniable ; and could by him, Sig- 
ismund, never be foregone with the least shadow of honor, 
and of course never would : " My dear Nephew can consider 

l The titles ffochme.ister and Teutschmeister are defined, in many Books and 
in all manner of Dictionaries, as meaning the same thing. But that is not 
quite the case. They were at first synonymous, so far as I can see ; and after 
Albert's time, they again became so ; but at the date where we now are, and 
for a long while back, they represent different entities, and indeed oftenest, 
since the Prussian Decline began, antagonistic ones. Teutschmeister, Sub- 
president over the German affairs and possessions of the Order, resides at 
Mergentheim in that Country : Hochmeister is Chief President of the whole, 
but resident at Marienburg in Preussen; and feels there acutely where the 
shoe pinches, much too acutely, thinks the Tentschmeister in his soft list- 
slippers, at Mergentheim in the safe Wiirzbnrg region. 

* Duke Friedrich II. : " comes by mothers from Knrf first Friedrich I. ; 
marries Margraf George's Daughter even now, 1519 (Hiibner, tt. 179, 100, 


whether his dissolute, vain-minded, half-heretical Eitterdom, 
nay whether this Prussian fraction of it, is in a condition to 
take Poland by the beard in an unjust quarrel ; or can hope 
to do Tannenberg over again in the reverse way, by Beelze- 
bub's help ? " 

For seven years, Albert held out in this intermediate state, 
neither peace nor war ; moving Heaven and Earth to raise 
supplies, that he might be able to defy Poland, and begin 
war. The Eeich answers, " We have really nothing for you." 
Teutschmeister answers again and again, " I tell you we have 
nothing!" In the end, Sigismund grew impatient; made 
(December, 1519) some movements of a hostile nature. Albert 
did not yield ; eager only to procrastinate till he were ready. 
By superhuman efforts, of borrowing, bargaining, soliciting, 
and galloping to and fro, Albert did, about the end of next 
year, get up some appearance of an Army : " 14,000 German 
mercenaries horse and foot," so many in theory ; who, to the 
extent of 8,000 in actual result, came marching towards him 
(October, 1520) ; to serve " for eight months." With these he 
will besiege Dantzig, besiege Thorn ; will plunge, suddenly, 
like a fiery javelin, into the heart of Poland, and make Po- 
land surrender its claim. Whereupon King Sigismund be- 
stirred himself in earnest; came out with vast clouds of 
Polish chivalry; overset Albert's 8,000 ; who took to eat- 
ing the country, instead of fighting for it ; being indeed in 
want of all things. One of the gladdest days Albert had yet 
seen, was when he got the 8,000 sent home again. 

What then is to be done ? " Armistice for four years," 
Sigismund was still kind enough to consent to that : " Truce 
for four years : try everywhere, my poor Nephew ; after that, 
your mind will perhaps become pliant." Albert tried the 
Eeich again : "Four years, Princes, and then I must do it, or 
be eaten ! '-' Eeich, busy with Lutheran-Papal, Turk-Christian 
quarrels, merely shrugged its shoulders upon Albert. Teutsch- 
meister did the like ; everybody the like. In Heaven or Earth, 
then, is there no hope for me? thought Albert. And his 
stock of ready money we will not speak of that ! 

Meanwhile Dr. Osiander of Anspach had come to him ; and 


the pious young man was getting utterly shaken in his re- 
ligion. Monkish vows, Pope, Holy Church itself, what is one 
to think, Herr Doctor? Albert, religious to an eminent 
degree, was getting deep into Protestantism. In his many 
journeyings, to Nurnberg, to Brandenburg, and up and down, 
he had been at Wittenberg too: he saw Luther in person 
more than once there; corresponded with Luther; in fine 
believed in the truth of Luther. The Culmbach Brothers 
were both, at least George ardently was, inclined to Protest- 
antism, as we have seen ; but Albert was foremost of the three 
in this course. Osiander and flights of zealous Culmbaeh 
Preachers made many converts in Preussen. In these cir- 
cumstances the Pour Years came to a close. 

Albert, we may believe, is greatly at a loss ; and deep de- 
liberations, Culmbach, Berlin, Liegnitz, Poland all called in, 
are held : a case beyond measure intricate. You have given 
your word ; word must be kept, and cannot, without plain 
hurt, or ruin even, to those that took it of you. Withdraw, 
therefore ; fling it up ! Fling it up ? A valuable article to 
fling up; fling it up is the last resource. Nay, in fact, to 
whom will you fling it up? The Prussian Bitters them- 
selves are getting greatly divided on the point; and at last 
on all manner of points, Protestantism ever more spreading 
among them. As for the German Brethren, they and their 
comfortable Teutschmeister, who refused to partake in the 
dangerous adventure at all; are they entitled to have much 
to say in the settlement of it now ? 

Among others, or as chief oracle of all, Luther was con- 
sulted. "What would you have me do towards reforming 
the Teutsch Order ? " inquired Albert of his oracle. Luther's 
answer was, as may be guessed, emphatic. "Luther," says 
one reporter, " has in his Writings declared the Order to be 
' a thing serviceable neither to God nor man,' and the consti- 
tution of it ' a monstrous, frightful, hermaphroditish, neither 
secular nor spiritual constitution.' " 1 We do not know what 
Luther's answer to Albert was; but can infer the purport 
of it: That such a Teutsch Eitterdom was not, at any rate, 
C. J. Weber, Das Bittenaesta (Stnttgard, 1837), iii. SOS. 


a thing long for this world; that white cloaks with black 
crosses on them would not, of themselves, profit any Bitter- 
dom ; that solemn vows and high supramundane professions, 
followed by such practice as was notorious, are an afflicting, 
not to say a damnable, spectacle on God's Earth ; that a 
young Herr had better marry; better have done with the 
wretched Babylonian Nightmare of Papistry altogether ; bet- 
ter shake oneself awake, in God's name, and see if there are 
not still monitions in the eternal sky as to what it is wise to 
do, and wise not to do ! This I imagine to have been, in 
modern language, the purport of Dr. Luther's advice to Hoch- 
meister Albrecht on the present interesting occasion. 

It is certain, Albert, before long, took this course; Uncle 
Sigismund and the resident Officials of the Eitterdom having 
made agreement to it as the one practicable course. The man- 
ner as follows : 1. Instead of Elected Hochmeister, let us be 
Hereditary Duke of Preussen, and pay homage for it to Uncle 
Sigismund in that character. 2. Such of the resident Officials 
of the Bitterdom as are prepared to go along with us, we will 
in like manner constitute permanent Feudal Proprietors of 
what they now possess as Life-rent, and they shall be Sub- 
vassals under us as Hereditary Duke. 3. In all which Uncle 
Sigismund and the Republic of Poland engage to maintain us 
against the world. 

That is, in sum, the Transaction entered into, by King 
Sigismund I. of Poland, on the one part, and Hochmeister 
Albert and his Bitter Officials, such as went along with him, 
(which of course none could do that were not Protestant), on 
the other part: done at Cracow, 8th April, 1525. 1 Whereby 
Teutsch Eitterdom, the Prussian part of it, vanished from 

i Bentsch, p. 850. Here, certified by Bentsch, Voigt and others, is a 
worn-out patch of Paper, which is perhaps worth printing : 
1490, May 17, Albert is born. 1520, November 1 7, give it up. 

1511, February H, Hochmeister. 1521, April 10, Truce for Four Years. 

1519, December, King Sigismund's 1523, June, Albert consults Lather, 
first hostile movements. 1524, November, sees Luther. 

1520, October, German Mercenaries 152S, April 8, Peace of Cracow, and 
arrive. Albert to be Duke of Prussia. 

1520, November, try Siege of Dantrig. 


the world; dissolving itself, and its "hermaphrodite constitu- 
tion," like a kind of Male Nunnery, as so many female ones 
had done in those years. A Transaction giving rise to end- 
less criticism, then and afterwards. Transaction plainly not 
reconcilable with the letter of the law ; and liable to have 
logic chopped upon it to any amount, and to all lengths of 
time. The Teutschmeister and his German Brethren shrieked 
murder ; the whole world, then, and for long afterwards, had 
much to say and argue. 

To us, now that the logic-chaff is all laid long since, the 
question is substantial, not formal. If the Teutsch Eitterdom 
was actually at this time dead, actually stumbling about as 
a mere galvanized Lie beginning to be putrid, then, sure 
enough, it behooved that somebody should bury it, to avoid 
pestilential effects in the neighborhood. Somebody or other ; 
first flaying the skin off, as was natural, and taking that for 
his trouble. All turns, in substance, on this latter question ! 
If, again, the Kitterdom was not dead ? 

And truly it struggled as hard as Partridge the Almanac- 
maker to rebut that fatal accusation; complained (Teutsch- 
meister and German-Papist part of it) loudly at the Diets ; 
got Albert and his consorts put to the Ban (geacktet), fiercely 
menaced by the Kaiser Karl V. But nothing came of all that ; 
nothing but noise. Albert maintained his point ; Kaiser Karl 
always found his hands full otherwise, and had nothing but 
stamped parchments and menaces to fire off at Albert. Teutsch 
Kitterdom, the Popish part of it, did enjoy its valuable bailli- 
wicks, and very considerable rents in various quarters of Ger- 
many and Europe, having lost only Preussen; and walked 
about, for three centuries more, with money in its pocket, and 
a solemn white gown with black cross on its back, the most 
opulent Social Club in existence, and an excellent place for 
bestowing younger sons of sixteen quarters. But it was, and 
continued through so many centuries, in every essential re- 
spect, a solemn Hypocrisy; a functionless merely eating Phan- 
tasm, of the nature of goblin, hungry ghost or ghoul (of which 
kind there are many); till Napoleon finally ordered it to 
vanish ; its time, even as Phantasm, being come. 

Albert, I can conjecture, had Ms own difficulties as Regent 
in Preussen. 1 Protestant Theology, to make matters worse 
for him, had split itself furiously into 'doxies ; and there was 
an Osianderism (Osiander being the Duke's chaplain), much 
flamed upon by the more orthodox ism. "Foreigners," too, 
German-Anspach and other, were ill seen by the native gentle- 
men ; yet sometimes got encouragement. One Funccius, a 
shining Nurnberg immigrant there, son-in-law of Osiander, 
who from Theology got into Politics, had at last (1664) to be 
beheaded, old Duke Albert himself " bitterly weeping " 
about him ; for it was none of Albert's doing. Probably his 
new allodial Bitter gentlemen were not the most submiss, 
when made hereditary ? We can only hope the Duke was 
a Hohenzollern, and not quite unequal to his task in this 
respect A man with high bald brow ; magnificent spade- 
beard ; air much-pondering, almost gaunt, gaunt kind of 
eyes especially, and a slight cast in them, which adds to his 
severity of aspect. He kept his possession well, every inch 
of it ; and left all safe at his decease in 1568. His age was 
then near eighty. It was the tenth year of our Elizabeth as 
Queen ; invincible Armada not yet built ; but Alba very busy, 
cutting off high heads in Brabant ; and stirring up the Dutch 
to such fury as was needful for exploding Spain and him. 

This Duke Albert was a profoundly religious man, as all 
thoughtful men then were. Much given to Theology, to Doc- 
tors of Divinity; being eager to know God's Laws in this 
Universe, and wholesomely certain of damnation if he should 
not follow them. Fond of the profane Sciences too, especially 
of Astronomy : Erasmus Eeinhold and his Tabulae Prutenica) 
were once very celebrated ; Erasmus Eeinhold proclaims grate- 
fully how these his elaborate Tables (done according to the 
latest discoveries, 1551 and onwards) were executed upon 
Duke Albert's high bounty ; for which reason they are dedi* 
cated to Duke Albert, and called " Prutenicce," meaning Prus- 
sian.* The University of Konigsberg was already founded 
several years before, in 1544. 

Albert had not failed to marry, as Luther counselled : by 
* 1525-1668. ' Bentsch, p. 855. 


his first Wife he had only daughters ; by his second, one son, 
Albert Friedrich, who, without opposition or difficulty, suc- 
ceeded his lather. Thus was Preussen acquired to the Hohen- 
zollern Family ; for, before long, the Electoral branch managed 
to get Mitbelehnung (Co-infeftment), that is to say, Event- 
ual Succession ; and Preussen became a Family Heritage, as 
Anspach and Baireuth were. 



ONE word must be spent on poor Albert, Casimir's son, 1 al- 
ready mentioned. This poor Albert, whom they call Aleibiades, 
made a great noise in that epoch ; being what some define as 
the " Failure of a Fritz ; " who has really features of him we 
are to call "Friedrich the Great," but who burnt away his 
splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able 
editors, and never came to anything. 

A high and gallant young fellow, left fatherless in child- 
hood ; perhaps he came too early into power : he came, at 
any rate, in very volcanic times, when Germany was all in 
convulsion; the Old Religion and the New having at length 
broken out into open battle, with huge results to be hoped 
and feared; and the largest game going on, in sight of an 
adventurous youth. How Albert staked in it ; how he played 
to immense heights of sudden gain, and finally to utter bank- 
ruptcy, I cannot explain here : some German delineator of 
human destinies, " Artist " worth the name, if there were any, 
might find in him a fine subject. 

He was ward of his Uncle George ; and the probable fact is, 
no guardian could have been more faithful. Nevertheless, on 
approaching the years of majority, of majority but not discre- 
tion, he saw good to quarrel with his Uncle ; claimed this and 
that, which was not granted : quarrel lasting for years. Nay 

1 1522-1557. 
VOL. r. 14 


matters ran so high at last, it was like to come to war between 
them, had not George been wiser. The young fellow actually 
sent a cartel to his Uncle ; challenged him to mortal combat, 
at which George only wagged his old beard, we suppose, 
ajid said nothing. Neighbors interposed, the Diet itself in- 
terposed ; and the matter was got quenched again. Leaving 
Albert, let us hope, a repentant young man. We said he was 
f ull of fire, too much of it wildfire. 

His profession was Arms; he shone much in war; went 
slashing and fighting through those Schmalkaldic broils, and 
others of his time ; a distinguished captain ; cutting his way 
towards something high, he saw not well what. He had 
great comradeship with Moritz of Saxony in the wars: two 
sworn brothers they, and comrades in arms : it is the same 
dexterous Moritz, who, himself a Protestant, managed to get 
his too Protestant Cousin's Electorate of Saxony into his 
hand, by luck of the game; the Moritz, too, from whom 
Albert by and by got his last defeat, giving Moritz his death 

He was by position originally on the Kaiser's side ; had 
attained great eminence, and done high feats of arms and 
generalship in his service. But being a Protestant by creed, 
he changed after that Schmalkaldic downfall (rout of Muni, 
berg, 24th April, 1547), which brought Moritz an Electorate, 
and nearly cost Moritz's too Protestant Cousin his life as 
well as kinds. 1 The victorious Kaiser growing now very 
high in his ways, there arose complaints against him from 
all sides, very loud from the Protestant side; and Moritz 
and Albert took to arms, with loud manifestos and the other 

This was early in 1652, five years after Muhlberg Rout 
or Battle. The there victorious Kaiser was now suddenly 
almost ruined; chased like a partridge into the Innspruck 
Mountains, could have been caught, only Moritz would not; 
"had no cage to hold so big a bird," he said. So the Treaty 

1 Account of it in Be Wette, Lebaugesdudite der Serzoge tm Sadaen (Wei- 
mar, 1770), pp. 32-35. 


of Passau was made, and the Kaiser came much down from 
his lofty ways. Famed Treaty of Passau (22d August, 1552), 
which was the finale of these broils, and hushed them up for 
a Fourscore years to come. That was a memorable year in 
German Reformation History. 

Albert, meanwhile, had been busy in the interior of the 
country; blazing aloft in Frankenland, his native quarter, 
with a success that astonished all men. For seven months 
he was virtually King of Germany; ransomed Bamberg, 
ransomed Wiirzburg, Nurnberg (places he had a grudge at) ; 
ransomed all manner of towns and places, especially rich 
Bishops and their towns, with Verbum Dialoli sticking in 
them, at enormous sums. King of the world for a brief 
season; must have had some strange thoughts to himself, 
had they been recorded for us. A pious man, too ; not in 
the least like "Alcibiades," except in the sudden changes of 
fortune he underwent. His Motto, or old rhymed Prayer, 
which he would repeat on getting into the saddle for mili- 
tary work, a rough rhyme of his own composing, is still 
preserved. Let us give it, with an English fac-simile, or 
roughest mechanical pencil-tracing, by way of glimpse into 
the heart of a vanished Time and its Man-at-arms : 1 
Das wait der Sen- Jesus Christ, Guide it the Lord Jeans Christ, 8 

Mil dem Voter, der fiftei- un, ist : And the Father, who over us is : 

Wer starker ist als dieser Mann, He that is stronger than that Man, 
Der komm md ihu' e!n Leid mir an. Let him do me a hurt when he can. 

He was at the Siege of Metz (end of that same 1552), and 
a principal figure there. Readers have heard of the Siege 
of Metz : How Henry II. of France fished up those " Three 
Bishoprics " (Metz, Toul, Verdun, constituent part of Lorraine, 
a covetable fraction of Teutschland) from the troubled sea 
of German things, by aid of Moritz now Kwr-Sachsen, and 
of Albert; and would not throw them in again, according to 
bargain, when Peace, the Peace of Passau came. How Kaiser 
Karl determined to have them back before the year ended, 

l Kentsch, p. 644. 

Bead " Chris " or " Chriz," for the rhyme's sake. 


cost what it might; and Henry H. to keep them, cost what 
it might. How Guise defended, with all the Chivalry of 
France ; and Kaiser Karl besieged, 1 with an Army of 100,000 
men, under Duke Alba for chief captain. Siege protracted 
into midwinter ; and the " sound of his cannon heard at Stras- 
burg," which is eighty miles off, " in the winter nights." * 

It had depended upon Albert, who hung in the distance 
with an army of his own, whether the Siege could even 
begin; but he joined the Kaiser, being reconciled again; 
and the trenches opened. By the valor of Guise and his 
Chivalry, still more perhaps by the iron frosts and by the 
sleety rains of Winter, and the hungers and the hardships 
of a hundred thousand men, digging vainly at the ice-bound 
earth, or trampling it when sleety into seas of mud, and 
themselves sinking in it, of dysentery, famine, toil and de- 
spair, as they cannonaded day and night, Metz could not 
be taken. " Impossible ! " said the Generals with one voice, 
after trying it for a couple of months. "Try it one other 
ten days," said the Kaiser with a gloomy fixity; "let us all 
die, or else do it!" They tried, with double desperation, 
another ten days; cannon booming through the winter mid- 
night far and wide, four score miles round : " Cannot be done, 
your Majesty! Cannot, the winter and the mud, and Guise 
and the walls; man's strength cannot do it in this season. 
We must march away!" Karl listened in silence; but the 
tears were seen to run down his proud face, now not so young 
as it once was : " Let us march, then ! " he said, in a low 
voice, after some pause. 

Alcibiades covered the retreat to Diedenhof (Thionville 
they now call it) : outmanoeuvred the French, retreated with 
success; he had already captured a grand Due d'Aumale, a 
Prince of the Guises, valuable ransom to be looked for 
there. It was thought he should have made Ms bargain 

l I9th October, 1552, and onwards. 

* Kohler, Reicht-Historie, p. 453; and more especially MtouAduaigungm 
(Niirnberg, 1729-1750), ix. 121-129. The Year of this Volume, and of the 
Number in question, is 1737; the Miinze or Medal "recreated upon" ia of 


better with the Kaiser, before starting; but he had neglected 
that. Albert's course was downward thenceforth; Kaiser 
Karl's too. The French keep these "Three Bishoprics (Trois 
Eveehes)," and Teutschland laments the loss of them, to this 
hour. Kaiser Karl, as some write, never smiled again ; 
abdicated, not long after; retired into the Monastery of St. 
Just, and there soon died. That is the siege of Mete, where 
Alcibiades was helpful. His own bargain with the Kaiser 
should have been better made beforehand. 

Dissatisfied with any bargain he could now get; dissatisfied 
with the Treaty of Passau, with such a finale and hushing-up 
of the Eeligious Controversy, and in general with himself 
and with the world, Albert again drew sword; went loose at 
a high rate upon his Bamberg-Wurzburg enemies, and, having 
raised supplies there, upon Moritz and those Passau-Treatiers. 
He was beaten at last by Moritz, "Sunday, 9th July, 1553," 
at a place called Sievershausen in the Hanover Country, where 
Moritz himself perished in the action. Albert fled thereupon 
to France. No hope in France. No luck in other small and 
desperate stakings of his : the game is done. Albert returns 
to a Sister he had, to her Husband's Court in Baden; a 
broken, bare and bankrupt man; soon dies there, childless, 
leaving the shadow of a name. 1 

His death brought huge troubles upon Baireuth and the 
Family Possessions. So many neighbors, Bamberg, Wtirz- 
burg and the rest, were eager for retaliation ; a new Kaiser 
greedy for confiscating. Plassenburg Castle was besieged, 
bombarded, taken by famine and burnt ; much was burnt and 

1 Here, chiefly from Kohler (MVnzbtltustigungcn, iii. 414-116), is the chro- 
nology of Albert's operations : 

Seizure of Nurnberg &c., llth May to 22d June, 1552; Innspruck (with 
Treaty of Passau) follows. Then Siege of Mete, October to December, 1552 ; 
Bamberg, Wiiizburg and Nurnberg ransomed again, April, 1553; Battle of 
Sievershausen, 9th July, 1553. Wiirzbnrg &c. explode against him; Ban 
of the Empire, 4th May, 1554. To France thereupon; returns, hoping .to 
negotiate, end of 1556; dies at Pforzheim, at his Sister's, 8th January, 1557. 
See Pauli, iii. 120-138. See also Dr. Kapp, Erinnenmgea an diejmigea 
Markgrafm frc. (a reprint from the ArcKvfSr Geichidae and MterOumulawit 
in Ober-Franhm, Tear 1841). 

torn to waste. Nay, had it not been for help from Berlin, 
the Family had gone to utter ruin in those parts. For this 
Aloibiades had, in his turn, been Guardian to Uncle George's 
Son, the George Friedrich we once spoke of, still a minor, but 
well known afterwards ; and it was attempted, by an eager 
Kaiser Ferdinand, to involve this poor youth in his Cousin's 
illegalities, as if Ward and G-uardian had been one person. 
Baireuth which had been Alcibiades's, Anspach which was 
the young man's own, nay Jagerndorf with its Appendages, 
were at one time all in the clutches of the hawk, had not 
help from Berlin been there. But in the end, the Law had to 
be allowed its course ; George Friedrich got his own Terri- 
tories back (all but some surreptitious nibblings in the Jagern- 
dorf quarter, to be noticed elsewhere), and also got Baireuth, 
his poor Cousin's Inheritance ; sole heir, he now, in Culm- 
bach, the Line of Casimir being out. 

One owns to a kind of love for poor Albert Alcibiades. In 
certain sordid times, even a " Failure of a Fritz " is better 
than some Successes that are going. A man of some real 
nobleness, this Albert ; though not with wisdom enough, not 
with good fortune enough. Could he have continued to " rule 
the situation " (as our French friends phrase it) ; to march the 
fanatical Papistries, and Kaiser Karl, clear out of it, home to 
Spain and San Justo a little earlier ; to wave the coming 
Jesuitries away, as with a naming sword; to forbid before- 
hand the doleful Thirty-Years War, and the still dolefuler 
spiritual atrophy (the flaccid Pedantry, ever rummaging and 
rearranging among learned marine-stores, which thinks itself 
Wisdom and Insight ; the vague maunderings, flutings ; indo- 
lent, impotent day-dreaming and tobacco-smoking, of poor 
Modern Germany) which has followed therefrom, Aoh Gott, 
he might have been a " Success of a Fritz " three times over ! 
He might have beeu a German Cromwell ; beckoning his Peo- 
ple to fly, eagle-like, straight towards the Sun ; instead of screw- 
ing about it in that sad, uncertain, and far too spiral manner I 
But it lay not in him ; not in his capabilities or opportuni- 
ties, after all : and we but waste time in such speculations. 




THE Culmbach Brothers, we observe, play a more important 
part in that era than their seniors and chiefs of Brandenburg. 
These Culmbachers, Margraf George and Albert of Preussen 
at the head of them, march valiantly forward in the Reforma- 
tion business; while Kur-Brandevburg, Joachim L, their senior 
Cousin, is talking loud at Diets, galloping to Innspruck and the 
like, zealous on. the Conservative side ; and Cardinal Albert, 
Kur-Mainz, his eloquent brother, is eager to make matters 
smooth and avoid violent methods. 

The Reformation was the great Event of that Sixteenth 
Century; according as a man did something in that, or did 
nothing and obstructed doing, has he much claim to memory, 
or no claim, in this age of ours. The more it becomes ap- 
parent that the Reformation was the Event then transacting 
itself, was the thing that Germany and Europe either did or 
refused to do, the more does the historical significance of men. 
attach itself to the phases of that transaction. Accordingly 
we notice henceforth that the memorable points of Branden- 
burg History, what of it sticks naturally to the memory of a 
reader or student, connect themselves of their own accord, 
almost all, with the History of the Reformation. That has 
proved to be the Law of Nature in regard to them, softly 
establishing itself; and it is ours to follow that law. 

Brandenburg, not at first unanimously, by no means too 
inconsiderately, but with overwhelming unanimity when the 
matter became clear, was lucky enough to adopt the Reforma- 
tion ; and stands by it ever since in its ever-widening scope, 
amid such difficulties as there might be. Brandenburg had 
felt somehow, that it could, do no other. And ever onwards 

through the times even of our little Fritz and farther, if we 
will understand the word " Beformation," Brandenburg so 
feels ; being, at this day, to an honorable degree, incapable of 
believing incredibilities, of adopting solemn shams, or pre- 
tending to live on spiritual moonshine. Which has been of 
uncountable advantage to Brandenburg : how could it fail ? 
This was what we must call obeying the audible voice of 
Heaven. To which same " voice," at that time, all that did 
not give ear, what has become of them since ; have they not 
signally had the penalties to pay ! 

" Penalties : " quarrel not with the old phraseology, good 
reader ; attend rather to the thing it means. The word was 
heard of old, with a right solemn meaning attached to it, from 
theological pulpits and such, places; and may still be heard 
there with a half-meaning, or with no meaning, though it has 
rather become obsolete to modern ears. But the thing should 
not have fallen obsolete; the thing is a grand and solemn 
truth, expressive of a silent Law of Heaven, which continues 
forever valid. The most untheological of men may still assert 
the thing ; and invite all men to notice it, as a silent monition 
and prophecy in this Universe ; to take it, with more of awe 
than they are wont, as a correct reading of the Will of the 
Eternal in respect of such matters ; and, in their modern 
sphere, to bear the same well in mind. For it is perfectly 
certain, and may be seen with eyes in any quarter of Europe 
at this day. 

Protestant or not Protestant ? The question meant every- 
where: "Is there anything of nobleness in you, Nation, 
or is there nothing? Are there, in this Nation, enough of 
heroic men to venture forward, and to battle for God's Truth 
versus the Devil's Falsehood, at the peril of life and more ? 
Men who prefer death, and all else, to living under Falsehood, 
who, once for all, will not live under Falsehood ; but having 
drawn the sword against it (the time being come for that rare 
and important step), throw away the scabbard, and can say, 
in pious clearness, with their whole soul : ' Come on, then ! 
Life under Falsehood is not good for me; and we will try it 
out now. Let it be to the death between us, then ! ' " 


Once risen into this divine white-heat of temper, -were 
it only for a season and not again, the Nation is thenceforth 
considerable through all its remaining history. What im- 
mensities of dross and crypto-poisonous matter mil it not 
burn out of itself in that high temperature, in the course of 
a few years ! Witness Cromwell and his Puritans, making 
England habitable even under the Charles-Second terms for 
a couple of centuries more. Nations are benefited, I believe, 
for ages, by being thrown once into divine white-heat in this 
manner. And no Nation that has not had such divine par- 
oxysms at any time is apt to come to much. 

That was now, in this epoch, the English of "adopting 
Protestantism;" and we need not wonder at the results 
which it has had, and which the want of it has had. For the 
want of it is literally the want of loyalty to the Maker of this 
Universe. He who wants that, what else has he, or can he 
have ? If you do not, you Man or you Nation, love the Truth 
enough, but try to make a chapman-bargain with Truth, instead 
of giving yourself wholly soul and body and life to her, Truth 
will not live with you, Truth will depart from you ; and only 
Logic, "Wit" (for example, "London Wit"), Sophistry, Virtu, 
the ^Esthetic Arts, and perhaps (for a short while) Book- 
keeping by Double Entry, will abide with you. You will fol- 
low falsity, and think it truth, you unfortunate man or nation. 
You will right surely, you for one, stumble to the Devil ; and 
are every day and hour, little as you imagine it, making prog- 
ress thither. 

Austria, Spain, Italy, France, Poland, the offer of the 
Keformation was made everywhere ; and it is curious to see 
what has become of the nations that would not hear it. In 
all countries were some that accepted; but in many there 
were not enough, and the rest, slowly or swiftly, with fatal 
difficult industry, contrived to burn them out Austria was 
once f ull of Protestants ; but the hide-bound Flemish-Spanish 
Kaiser-element presiding over it, obstinately, for two cen- 
turies, kept saying, "No; we, with our dull obstinate Cim- 
burgis under-lip and lazy eyes, with our ponderous Austrian 


depth of Habituality and indolence of Intellect, we prefer 
steady Darkness to uncertain new Light!" and all men 
may see where Austria now is. Spain still more; poor 
Spain, going about, at this time, making its " pronitnoiamir 
entos;" all the factious attorneys in its little towns assem- 
bling to pronounce virtually this, " The Old is a lie, then ; 
good Heavens, after we so long tried hard, harder than any 
nation, to think it a truth! and if it be not Eights of 
Man, Bed Republic and Progress of the Species, we know 
not what now to believe or to do ; and are as a people stum- 
bling on steep places, in the darkness of midnight ! " They 
refused Truth when she came ; and now Truth knows noth- 
ing of them. All stars, and heavenly lights, have become 
veiled to such men ; they must now follow terrestrial ignes 
fatui, and think them stars. That is the doom passed upon 

Italy too had its Protestants ; but Italy killed them ; man- 
aged to extinguish Protestantism. Italy put up silently with 
Practical Lies of all kinds; and, shrugging its shoulders, 
preferred going into Dilettantism and the Fine Arts. The 
Italians, instead of the sacred service of Fact and Perform- 
ance, did Music, Painting, and the like: till even that has 
become impossible for them ; and no noble Nation, sunk from 
virtue to virtu, ever offered such a spectacle before. He that 
will prefer Dilettantism in this world for his outfit, shall have 
it ; but all the gods will depart from him ; and manful ve- 
racity, earnestness of purpose, devout depth of soul, shall no 
more be his. He can if he like make himself a soprano, and 
sing for hire ; and probably that is the real goal for him. 

But the sharpest-cut example is France ; to which we con- 
stantly return for illustration. France, with its keen intel- 
lect, saw the truth and saw the falsity, in those Protestant 
times; and, with its ardor of generous impulse, was prone 
enough to adopt the former. France was within a hair's- 
. breadth of becoming actually Protestant. But France saw 
good to massacre Protestantism, and end it in the night o 
St. Bartholomew, 1572. The celestial Apparitor of Heaven's 
Chancery, so we may speak, the Genius of Fact and Veracity. 


had left his Writ of Summons ; Writ was read ; and replied 
to in this manner. The Genius of Fact and Veracity accord- 
ingly withdrew; was staved off, got kept away, for two 
hundred years. But the writ of Summons had been served ; 
Heaven's Messenger could not stay away forever. No; he 
returned duly ; with accounts run up, on compound interest, 
to the actual hour, in 1792; and then, at last, there had 
to be a " Protestantism ; " and we know of what kind that 

Nations did not so understand it, nor did Brandenburg 
more than the others ; but the question of questions for 
them at that time, decisive of their history for half a thou- 
sand years to come, was, Will you obey the heavenly voice, 
Dr will you not ? 


BRANDENBURG, in the matter of the Eeformation, was at 
first with Albert of Mainz, Tetzel's friend, on the one side, 
and Pious George of Anspach, " Nit Kop ab," on the other 
certainly a divided house. But, after the first act, it conspicu- 
ously ceased to be divided; nay Kur-Brandenburg and Kur- 
Mainz themselves had known tendencies to the Eeformation, 
and were well aware that the Church could not stand as it was. 
Nor did the cause want partisans hi Berlin, in Brandenburg, 
hardly to be repressed from breaking into flame, while Kurfiirst 
Joachim was so prudent and conservative. Of this loud Kur- 
f urst Joachim I., here and there mentioned already, let us now 
say a more express word. 1 

Joachim I., Big John's son, hesitated hither and thither for 

some time, trying if it would not do to follow the Kaiser Karl 

V.'s lead; and at length, crossed in his temper perhaps by the 

l 1484, 1499, 1535 : birth, accession, death of Joachim. 

speed his friends were going at, declared formally against any 
farther Eeformation ; and in his own family and country was 
strict upon the point. He is a man, as I judge, by no means 
without a temper of his own; very loud occasionally in the 
Diets and elsewhere ; reminds me a little of a certain King 
Friedrich Wilhelm, whom my readers shall know by and by. 
A big, surly, rather bottle-nosed man, with thick lips, abstruse 
wearied eyes, and no eyebrows to speak of: not a beautiful 
man, when you cross him overmuch. 

Qf Joachim's Wife and Brother-in-law. 

His wife was a Danish Princess, Sister of poor Christian II., 
King of that Country: dissolute Christian, who took up with 
a huckster-woman's daughter, " mother sold gingerbread," it 
would appear, "at Bergen in Norway," where Christian was 
Viceroy; Christian made acceptable love to the daughter, 
"Divike (Dovekin, Columbina)," as he called her. Nay he 
made the gingerbread mother a kind of prime-minister, said 
the angry public, justly scandalized at this of the " Dovekin." 
He was married, meanwhile, to Karl V.'s own Sister ; but con- 
tinued that other connection. 1 He had rash notions, now for 
the Eeformation, now against it, when he got to be King ; a 
very rash, unwise, explosive man. He made a "Stockholm 
Elutbad " still famed in History (kind of open, ordered or per- 
mitted, Massacre of eighty or a hundred of his chief enemies 
there), "Bloodbath," so they name it; in Stockholm, where 
indeed he was lawful King, and not without unlawful enemies, 
had a bloodbath been the way to deal with them. Gustavus 
Vasa was a young fellow there, who dexterously escaped this 
Bloodbath, and afterwards came to something. 

In Denmark and Sweden, rash Christian made ever more 
enemies; at length he was forced to run, and they chose 
another King or successive pair of Kings. Christian fled to 
Kaiser Karl at Brussels; complained to Kaiser Karl, his 

* Here are the dates of this poor Christian, in a lamp. Born, 1481 ; King, 
1513 (Dovekin before) ; married, 1515 ; turned off, 1523 ; invades, taken pris- 
oner, 1582 ; dies, 1559. Cousin, and then Cousin's Son, succeeded. 


Brother-in-law, whose Sister he had not used well. Kaiser 
Karl listened to his complaints, with hanging under-lip, with 
heavy, deep, undecipherable eyes; evidently no help from 

Christian, after that, wandered about with inexecutable 
speculations, and projects to recover his crown or crowns; 
sheltering often with Kurfiirst Joachim, who took a great deal 
of trouble about him, first and last; or with the Elector of 
Saxony, Friedrich the Wise, or after him, with Johann the 
Steadfast ("V.D.M.1.^." whom we saw at Augsburg), who 
were his Mother's Brothers, and beneficent men. He was in 
Saxony, on such terms, coming and going, when a certain other 
Flight thither took place, soon to be spoken of, which is the 
cause of our mentioning him here. In the end (A.D. 1532) he 
did get some force together, and made sail to Norway ; but 
could do no execution whatever there; on the contrary, was 
frozen in on the coast during winter ; seized, carried to Copen- 
hagen, and packed into the " Castle of Sonderburg," a grim 
sea-lodging on the shore of Schleswig, prisoner for the rest 
of his life, which lasted long enough. Six-and-twenty years 
of prison; the first seventeen years of it strict and hard, 
almost of the dungeon sort ; the remainder, on his fairly abdi- 
cating, was in another Castle, that of Callundborg in the Island 
of Zealand, "with, fine apartments and conveniences," and 
even " a good bouse of liquor now and then," at discretion of 
the old soul. That was the end of headlong Christian II. ; he 
lasted in this manner to the age of seventy-eight. 1 

His Sister Elizabeth at Brandenburg is perhaps, in regard 
to natural character, recognizably of the same kin as Chris- 
tian ; but her behavior is far different from his. She too is 
zealous for the Reformation ; but she has a right to be so, and 
her notions that way are steady ; and she has hitherto, though 
in a difficult position, done honor to her creed. Surly Joachim 
is difficult to deal with ; is very positive now that he has de- 
clared himself : " In my house at least shall be nothing farther 

l Kohler,J/wWu*^u W en ) xi.47,48; Holberg, DanemarckMe Stoats- md 
Reidu-Hittorie (Copenhagen, 1731, not the big Book by Holberg), p. 241 ; 
BnddiUB, AUgemeines Uistarisduu Lexicon (Leipzig, 1709), Chiistianns H. 


of that unblessed stuff." Poor Lady, I see domestic difficulties 
very thick upon her; nothing but division, the very children 
ranging themselves in parties. She can pray to Heaven ; she 
must do her wisest. 

She partook once, by some secret opportunity, of the "com- 
munion under both kinds ; " one of her Daughters noticed and 
knew; told Father of it. lather knits up his thick lips; rolls 
his abstruse dissatisfied eyes, in an ominous manner : the poor 
Lady, probably possessed of an excitable imagination too, 
trembles for herself. "It is thought, His Durcfdaucht will 
wall you up for life, my Serene Lady ; dark prison for life, 
which probably may nos be long ! " These surmises were of 
no credibility : but there and then the poor Lady, in a shiver 
of terror, decides that she must run; goes off actually, one 
night ("Monday after the Lcetare," which we find is 24th 
March) in the year 1628, 1 in a mean vehicle under cloud of 
darkness, with only one maid and groom, driving for life. 
That is very certain : she too is on flight towards Saxony, to 
shelter with her uncle Kurfurst Johann, unless for reasons 
of state he scruple ? On the dark road her vehicle broke 
down ; a spoke given way, " Not a bit of rope to splice it," 
said the improvident groom. " Take my lace-veil here," said 
the poor Princess ; and in this guise she got to Torgau (I could 
guess, her poor Brother's lodging), and thence, in short time, 
to the fine Schloss of Lichtenberg hard by ; Uncle Johann, to 

1 Panli (ii. 584) ; who cites Seckendorf, and this fraction of a Letter of 
Luther's, to one ' UncJaa " or Lincke, written on the Friday following (28th 
March, 1528): 

The Electress [Margravine he calls her] has fled from Berlin, by help 
of her Brother the King of Denmark [poor Christian II.] to our Prince 
[Johann the Steadfast], because her Elector had determined to wall her up, 
as is reported, on account of the Eucharist under both species. Pray for oar 
Prince; the pious man and affectionate soul gets a yreat deal of trouile with hi* 
kindred." Or thus in the Original : 

"Mardivmitm aufitgit a Berlin, auxilio Jratris, Retfti Danias, ad nostrum 
Prindpem, guodMarchio ttatuerat earn immuran (ut dicitur) propter Euduniaiam 
utriusque tprnd. Ora pro nostro Principe; der fromme Mann and herzliche 
Mensch ist doch jawohl geplaget" (Seckendorf, Historia Lutheranitm, ii 
S 62, No. 8, p. 123). 


whom she had zealously left an option of refusal, having as 
zealously permitted and invited her to continue there. Which 
she did for many years. 

Nor did she get the least molestation from Husband 
Joachim ; who I conjecture had intended, though a man of 
a certain temper, and strict in his own house, something 
short of walling up for life : poor Joachim withal ! "How- 
ever, since you are gone, Madam, go ! " Nor did he concern 
himself, with Christian II. farther, but let him lie in prison 
at his leisure. As for the Lady, he even let his children visit 
her at Lichtenberg ; Crypto-Protestants all ; and, among them, 
the repentant Daughter who had peached upon her. 

Poor Joachim, he makes a pious speech on his death-bed, 
solemnly warning his Son against these new-fangled heresies ; 
the Son being already possessed of them in his heart. 1 What 
could Father do more ? Both Father and Son, I suppose, 
were weeping. This was in 1535, this last scene ; things 
looking now more ominous than ever. Of Kurfiirst Joachim 
I will remember nothing farther, except that once, twenty- 
three years before, he "held a Tourney in Neu-Ruppin," year 
1512 ; Tourney on the most magnificent scale, and in New- 
Euppin, 3 a place we shall know by and by. 

As to the Lady, she lived eighteen years in that fine Schloss 
of Lichtenberg ; saw her children as we said ; and, silently or 
otherwise, rejoiced in the creed they were getting. She saw 
Luther's self sometimes ; " had him several times to dinner ; " 
he would call at her Mansion, when his journeys lay that way. 
She corresponded with him diligently ; nay once, for a three 
months, she herself went across and lodged with Dr. Luther 
and his Kate ; as a royal Lady might with a heroic Sage, 
though the Sage's income was only Twenty-four pounds ster- 
ling annually. There is no doubt about that visit of three 
months ; one thinks of it, as of something human, something 
homely, ingenuous and pretty. Nothing in surly Joachim's 
history is half so memorable to me, or indeed memorable at 
all in the stage we are now come to. 

The Lady survived Joachim twenty years; of these she 
l Speech given in Bentsch, pp. 434-439. * Pauli, ii. 466. 

spent eleven still at Lichtenberg, in no over-haste to return. 
However, her Son, the new Elector, declaring for Protestant- 
ism, she at length yielded to his invitations: came back 
(1546), and ended her days at Berlin in a peaceable and 
venerable manner. Luckless Brother Christian is lying under 
lock-and-key all this while ; smuggling out messages, and so 
on ; like a voice from the land of Dreams or of Nightmares, 



JOACHIM II., Sixth Elector, no doubt after painful study, 
and intricate silent consideration ever since his twelfth year 
when Luther was first heard of over the world, came grad- 
ually, and before his Father's death had already come, to the 
conclusion of adopting the Confession of Augsburg, as the true 
Interpretation of this Universe, so far as we had yet got ; and 
did so, publicly, in the year 1539. 1 To the great joy of Ber- 
lin and the Brandenburg populations generally, who had been 
of a Protestaut humor, hardly restrainable by Law, for some 
years past By this decision Joachim held fast, with a stout, 
weighty grasp; nothing spasmodic in his way of handling 
the matter, and yet a heartiness which is agreeable to see. 
He could not join in the Schmalkaldic War ; seeing, it is prob- 
able, small chance for such a War, of many chiefs and little 
counsel; nor was he willing yet to part from the Kaisevr 
Karl V., who was otherwise very good to him. 

He had fought personally for this Kaiser, twice over, 
against the Turks; first as Brandenburg Captain, learning 
his art; and afterwards as Kaiser's Generalissimo, in 1542. 
He did no good upon the Turks, on that latter occasion ; as 
indeed what good was to be done, in such a quagmire of futili- 
1 Eentech, p. 452. 


ties as Joachim's element there was? "Too sumptuous in 
his dinners, too much wine withal ! " hint some calumni- 
ously. 1 " Hector of Germany ! " say others. He tried some 
small prefatory Siege or scalade of Pesth ; could not do it ; 
and came his ways home again, as the best coarse. Pedant 
Chroniclers give him the name Hector, " Joachim Hector," 
to match that of Cicero and that of Achilles. A man of solid 
structure, this our Hector, in body and mind : extensive 
cheeks, very large heavy-laden face ; capable of terrible bursts 
of anger, as his kind generally were. 

The Schmalkaldic War went to water, as the Germans 
phrase it : Kur-Sachsen, that is, Johann Friedrich the Mag- 
nanimous, Son of Johann " V. D. M. I. JE.," and Nephew of 
Friedrich the Wise, had his sorrowfully valid reasons for 
the War ; large force too, plenty of zealous copartners, Philip 
of Hessen and others ; but no generalship, or not enough, for 
such a business. Big Army, as is apt enough to happen, fell 
short of food; Kaiser Karl hung on the outskirts, waiting 
confidently till it came to famine. Johann Friedrich would 
attempt nothing decisive while provender lasted ; and hav- 
ing in the end, strangely enough, and somewhat deaf to 
advice, divided his big Army into three separate parts, 
Johann Friedrich was himself, with one of those parts, 
surprised at Miihlberg, on a Sunday when at church (24th 
April, 1547) ; and was there beaten to sudden ruin, and even 
taken captive, like to have his head cut off, by the trium- 
phant angry Kaiser. Philip of Hessen, somewhat wiser, was 
home to Marburg, safe with his part, in the interim. Elec- 
tor Joachim II. of Brandenburg had good reason to rejoice 
in his own cautious reluctances on this occasion. However, 
he did now come valiantly up, hearing what severities were 
in the wind. 

He pleaded earnestly, passionately, he and Cousin or al- 
ready "Elector" Moritz, 2 who was just getting Johann 
Friedrich's Electorship fished away from him out of these 
troubles, 8 for Johann Friedrich of Saxony's life, first of alL 

For Johann's life first; this is a thing not to be dispensed 
with, your Majesty, on any terms whatever ; a sine qua non, 
this life to Protestant Germany at large. To which the 
Kaiser indicated, "He would see; not immediate death afc 
any rate ; we will see." A life that could not and must not be 
taken in this manner : this was the first point. Then, secondly, 
that Philip of Hessen, now home again at Marburg, not a 
bad or disloyal man, though headlong, and with two wives, 
might not be forfeited ; but that peace and pardon might be 
granted him, on his entire submission. To which second point 
the Kaiser answered, " Yes, then, on his submission." These 
were the two points. These pleadings went on at Halle, 
where the Kaiser now lies, in triumphantly victorious humor, 
in the early days of June, Year 1547. Johann Friedrich of 
Saxony had been, by some Imperial Court-Council or other, 
Spanish merely, I suppose, doomed to die. Sentence was 
signified to him while he sat at chess : " Can wait till we end 
the game," thought Johann ; " Pergamus" said he to his 
comrade, " Let us go on, then ! " Sentence not to be executed 
till one see. 

With Philip of Hessen things had a more conclusive aspect. 
Philip had accepted the terms procured for him ; which had 
been laboriously negotiated, brought to paper, and now wanted 
only the sign-manual to theia . " Ohne einigen Gefangniss (with- 
out any imprisonment)," one of the chief clauses. And so 
Philip now came over to Halle ; was met and welcomed by his 
two friends, Joachim and Moritz, at Naumburg, a stage before 
Halle ; clear now to make his submission, and beg pardon of 
the Kaiser, according to bargain. On the morrow, 19th June, 
1547, the Papers were got signed. And next day, 20th June, 
Philip did, according to bargain, openly beg pardon of the 
Kaiser, in his Majesty's Hall of Audience (Town House of 
Halle, I suppose) ; "knelt at the Kaiser's feet publicly on 
both knees, while his Kanzler read the submission and en- 
treaty, as agreed upon;" and, alas, then the Kaiser said 
nothing at all to him t Kaiser looked haughtily, with im- 
penetrable eyes and shelf-lip, over the head of him ; gave him 
no hand to kiss ; and left poor Philip kneeling there. An 


awkward position indeed; which any German Painter that 
there were, might make a Picture of, I have sometimes 
thought. Picture of some real meaning, more or less, if for 
symbolic Towers of Babel, mediaeval mythologies, and exten- 
sive smearings of that kind, he could find leisure ! Philip 
having knelt a reasonable time, and finding there was no help 
for it, rose in the dread silence (some say, with too sturdy an 
expression of countenance) ; and retired from the affair, hav- 
ing at least done his part of it. 

The next practical thing was now supper, or as we of this 
age should call it, dinner. Uncommonly select and high sup- 
per : host the Duke of Alba ; where Joachim, Elector Moritz, 
and another high Official, the Bishop of Arras, were to wel- 
come poor Philip after his troubles. How the grand supper 
went, I do not hear : possibly a little constrained ; the Kaiser's 
strange silence sitting on all men's thoughts ; not to be spoken 
of in the present company. At length the guests rose to go 
away. Philip's lodging is with Moritz (who is his son-in-law, 
as learned readers know) : " You Philip, your lodging is mine ; 
my lodging is yours, I should say! Cannot we ride to- 
gether ? " " Philip is not permitted to go," said Imperial 
Officially; "Philip is to continue here, and we fear go to, 
prison." " Prison ? " cried they all : " Ohne EIHIGEN Gefang- 
niss (without any imprisonment) ! " "As we read the words, 
it is 'Ohne KWIGEJT Gefangniss (without eternal imprison- 
ment),'" answer the others. And so, according to popular 
tradition, which lias little or no credibility, though printed in 
many Books, their false Secretary had actually modified it. 

"No intention of imprisoning his Durchlaucht of Hessen 
forever; not forever!" answered they. And Kurfiirst Joa- 
chim, in astonished indignation, after some remonstrating and 
arguing, louder and louder, which profited nothing, blazed out 
into a very whirlwind of rage ; drew his sword, it is whispered 
with a shudder, drew his sword, or was for drawing it, upon 
the Duke of Alba; and would have done, God knows what, 
had not friends flung themselves between, and got the Duke 
away, or him away. 1 Other accounts bear, that it was upon 

l Pauli, Hi. 103. 

the Bishop of Arras he drew his sword ; which is a somewhat 
different matter. Perhaps he drew it on both ; or on men and 
things in general; for his indignation knew no bounds. 
The heavy solid man ; yet with a human heart in him after 
all, and a Hohenzollern abhorrence of chicanery, capable of 
rising to the transcendent pitch ! His wars against the Turks, 
and his other Hectorships, I will forget ; but this, of a face so 
extensive kindled all into divine fire for poor Philip's sake, 
shall be memorable to me. 

Philip got out by and by, though with difficulty ; the Kaiser 
proving very stiff in the matter ; and only yielding to obsti- 
nate pressures, and the force of time and events. Philip got 
away ; and then how Johann Friedrich of Sachsen, after being 
led about for five years, in the Kaiser's train, a condemned 
man, liable to be executed any day, did likewise at last get 
away, with his head safe and Electorate gone: these are 
known Historical events, which we glanced at already, on 
another score. 

For, by and by, the Kaiser found tougher solicitation than 
this of Joachim's. The Kaiser, by his high carriage in this 
and other such matters, had at length kindled a new War 
round him ; and he then soon found himself reduced to ex- 
tremities again ; chased to the Tyrol Mountains, and obliged 
to comply with many things. New War, of quite other em- 
phasis and management than the Schmalkaldic one ; managed 
by Elector Moritz and our poor friend Albert Alcibiades as 
principals. A Kaiser chased into the mountains, capable of 
being seized by a little spurring; "Capture him?" said 
Albert. " I have no cage big enough for such a bird ! " an- 
swered Moritz; and the Kaiser was let run. How he ran 
then towards Treaty of Passau (1552), towards Siege of Metz 
and other sad conclusions, " Abdication " the finale of them : 
these also are known phases in the Reformation History, as 
hinted at above. 

Here at Halle, in the year 1547, the great Kaiser, with 
Protestantism manacled at his feet, and many things going 
prosperous, was at his culminating point. He published his 
Interim (1548, What you troublesome Protestants are to do, 


in the mean time, while the Council of Trent is sitting, and 
till it and I decide for you) ; and in short, drove and reined-in 
the Reich with a high hand and a sharp whip, for the time 
being. Troublesome Protestants mostly rejected the Interim ; 
Moritz and Alcibiades, with France ia the rear of them, took 
to arms in that way ; took to ransoming fat Bishoprics (" Ver- 
bum D-iaboli Manet," we know where!); took to chasing 
Kaisers into the mountains; and times came soon round 
again. In all these latter broils Kurfurst Joachim II., deeply 
interested, as we may fancy, strove to keep quiet ; and to pre- 
vail, by weight of influence and wise counsel, rather than by 
fighting with his Kaiser. 

One sad little anecdote I recollect of Joachim : an Accident, 
which happened in those Passau-Interim days, a year or two 
after that drawing of the sword on Alba. Kurf first Joachim 
unfortunately once fell through a staircase, in that time ; being, 
as I guess, a heavy man. It was in the Castle of Grimnitz, 
one of his many Castles, a spacious enough old Hunting-seat, 
the repairs of which had not been well attended to. The good 
Herr, weighty of foot, was leading down his Electress to din- 
ner one day in this Schloss of Grimnitz; broad stair climbs 
round a grand Hall, hung with stag-trophies, groups of weap- 
ons, and the like hall-furniture. An unlucky timber yielded ; 
yawning chasm in the staircase ; Joachim and his good Prin- 
cess sank by gravitation; Joachim to the floor with little 
hurt ; his poor Princess (horrible to think of), being next the 
wall, came upon the stag-horns and boar-spears down below ! 1 
The poor Lady's hurt was indescribable : she walked lame all 
the rest of her days ; and Joachim, I hope (hope, but not with 
confidence), 2 loved her all the better for it. This unfortunate 
old Schloss of Grimnitz, some thirty miles northward of Ber- 
lin, was by the Eighth Kurfurst, Joachim Friedrich, Grand- 
son of this one, with great renown to himself and to it 
converted into an Endowed High School : the famed Joachims- 
thai Gymnasium, still famed, though now under some change 
of circumstances, and removed to Berlin itself.* 

Joachim's first Wife, from whom descend the following 
Panli, iu. 119. * Ib. iii. 194. Nicolai, p. 725. 

Kurfiirsts, was a daughter of that Duke George of Saxony, 
Luther's celebrated friend, "If it rained Duke-Georges nine 
days running." 

Joachim gets Co-infeftment in Preussen. 

This second Wife, she of the accident at Grimnitz, was Hed- 
wig, King Sigismund of Poland's daughter ; which connection, 
it is thought, helped Joachim well in getting what they call 
the Mifbelehnung of Preussen (for it was he that achieved this 
point) from King Sigismund. 

Mifbelehnung (Co-inf ef tment) in Preussen ; whereby is sol- 
emnly acknowledged the right of Joachim and his Posterity 
to the reversion of Preussen, should the Culmbach Line of 
Duke Albert happen to fail. It was a thing Joachim long 
strove for ; till at length his Father-in-law did, some twenty 
years hence, concede it him. 1 Should Albert's Line fail, then, 
the other Culmbachers get Preussen ; should the Culmbachers 
all fail, the Berlin Brandenburgers get it. The Culmbachers are 
at this time rather scarce of heirs : poor Alcibiades died child- 
less, as we know, and Casimir's Line is extinct ; Duke Albert 
himself has left only one Son, who now succeeds in Preussen ; 
still young, and not of the best omens. Margraf George the 
Pious, he left only George Friedrich ; an excellent man, who 
is now prosperous in the world, and wedded long since, but has 
no children. So that, between Joachim's Line and Preussen 
there are only two intermediate heirs ; and it was a thing 
eminently worth looking after. Nor has it wanted that. And 
so Kurf first Joachim, almost at the end of his course, has now 
made sure of it. 

Joachim makes "Heritage-Brotherhood" with the Dvike of 


Another feat of like nature Joachim II. had long ago 
achieved; which likewise in the long-run proved important 
in his Family, and in the History of the world : an "Erbver- 

i Date, Lnblin, 19th July, 1568: Panli, iii. 177-179, 193; Eentsch,p. 457; 
Stenzel. i. 341. 342. 


tr&derung," so they term it, with the Duke of Liegnitz, 
date 1637. Erbverbriiderung (" Heritage-brotherhood," meaning 
Covenant to succeed reciprocally on Failure of Heirs to either) 
had in all times been a common paction among German Princes 
well affected to each other. Friedrich II., the then Duke of 
Liegnitz, we hare transiently seen, was related to the Family,- 
he had been extremely helpful in bringing his young friend 
Albert of Preussen's affairs to a good issue, whose Niece, 
withal, he had wedded : in fact, he was a close friend of this 
our Joachim's ; and there had long been a growing connection 
between the two Houses, by intermarriages and good offices. 

The Dukes of Liegnitz were Sovereign-Princes, come of the 
eld Piasts of Poland ; and had perfect right to enter into this 
transaction of an Erbverbruderung with whom they liked. True, 
they had, above two hundred years before, in the days of King 
Johann Ichrdien (A.D. 1329), voluntarily constituted them- 
selves Vassals of the Crown of Bohemia : l but the right to 
dispose of their Lands as they pleased had, all along, been 
carefully acknowledged, and saved entire. And, so late as 
1521, just sixteen years ago, the Bohemian King Vladislaus 
the Last, our good Margraf George's friend, had expressly, in 
a Deed still extant, confirmed to them, with all the emphasis 
and amplitude that Law-Phraseology could bring to bear upon 
it, the right to dispose of said Lands in any manner of way : 
"by written testament, or by verbal on their death-bed, they 
Can, as they see wisest, give away, sell, pawn, dispose of, and 
exchange (yergcjen, verkaufen, versetzen, versehaffen, verwechr 
seln) these said lands," to all lengths, and with all manner of 
freedom. Which privilege had likewise been confirmed, twice 
over (1522, 1524), by Ludwig the next King, Ludwig Ohne- 
Swat, who perished in the bogs of Mohacz, and ended the native 
Line of Bohemian-Hungarian Kings. Nay, Ferdinand, King 
of the Eomans, Karl V.'s Brother, afterwards Kaiser, who 
absorbed that Bohemian Crown among the others, had himself, 
by implication, sanctioned or admitted the privilege, in 1529, 
Only eight years ago.* The right to make the Erbverbriidermg 
Could not seem doubtful to anybody. 

Fanli, iii. 22. * Stenzel, i. 323. 

And made accordingly it was ; signed, sealed, drawn out on 
the proper parchments, 18th October, 1537 ; to the f ollowing 
clear effect : " That if Duke Friedrich's Line should die out, 
all his Liegnitz countries, Liegnitz, Brieg, Wohlau, should fall 
to the Hohenzollern Brandenburgers ; and that, if the Line of 
Hohenzollern Brandenburg should first fail, then all and singu- 
lar the Bohemian Fiefs of Brandenburg (as Crossen, Zullichau 
and seven others there enumerated) should fall to the House 
of Liegnitz." a It seemed a clear Faction, questionable by no 
mortal. Double-marriage between the two Houses (eldest Son, 
on each side, to suitable Princess on the other) was to follow ; 
and did follow, after some delays, 17th February, 1545. So 
that the matter seemed now complete ; secure on all points, 
and a matter of quiet satisfaction to both the Houses and to 
their Mends. 

But Ferdinand, King of the Romans, King of Bohemia and 
Hungary, and coming to be Emperor one day, was not of that 
sentiment. Ferdinand had once implicitly recognized the 
privilege, but Ferdinand, now when he saw the privilege 
turned to use, and such a territory as Liegnitz exposed to the 
possibility of falling into inconvenient hands, explicitly took 
other thoughts; and gradually determined to prohibit this 
ISrbverbruderung. The States of Bohemia, accordingly, in 
1544 (it is not doubtful, by Ferdinand's suggestion), were 
moved to make inquiries as to this Heritage-Fraternity of 
Liegnitz. 4 On which hint King Ferdinand straightway in- 
formed the Duke of Liegnitz that the act was not justifiable, 
and must be revoked. The Duke of Liegnitz, grieved to the 
heart, had no means of resisting. Ferdinand, King of the 
Romans, backed by Kaiser Karl, with the States of Bohemia 
barking at his wink, were too strong for poor Duke Friedrich 
of Liegnitz. Great corresponding between Berlin, Lieguitz, 
Prag ensued on this matter : but the end was a summons to 
Duke Friedrich, summons from King Ferdinand in March, 
1546, "To appear in the Imperial Hall (Kaiserhof) at Bres- 
lau," and to submit that Deed of Erbverbruderung to the ex- 
amination of the States there. The States, already up to the 
i Stenzd, L 320. > Ib. i. 322. 

tthlfe Z lMS KUBFtJKST JOACHIM H. 288 

affair, soon finished their examination of it (8th May, 1546). 
The deed was annihilated ; and Friedrich was ordered, further- 
more, to produce proofs within six months that his subjects 
too were absolved of all oaths or the like regarding it, and that 
in fact the Transaction was entirely abolished and reduced 
to zero. Friedrich complied, had to comply ; very much cha- 
grined, he returned home ; and died next year, it is sup- 
posed, of heartbreak from this business. He had yielded out- 
wardly ; but to force only. In a Codicil appended to his last 
Will, some months afterwards (which Will, written years ago, 
had treated the Erbverbriiderung as a Fact settled), he indi- 
cates, as with his last breath, that he considered the thing still 
valid, though overruled by the hand of power. Let the reader 
mark this matter; for it will assuredly become memorable, 
one day. 

The hand of power, namely, Ferdinand, King of the Romans, 
had applied in like manner to Joachim of Brandenburg to sur- 
render his portion of the Deed, and annihilate on his side too 
this Erbverbriiderung. But Joachim refused steadily, and all 
his successors steadily, to give up this Bit of Written Parch- 
ment ; kept the same, among their precious documents, against 
some day that might come (and I suppose it lies in the Ar- 
chives of Berlin even now) ; silently, or in words, asserting 
that the Deed of Heritage-Brothership was good, and that 
though some hands might have the power, no hand could have 
the right to abolish it on those terms. 

How King "Ferdinand permitted himself such a procedure ? 
Ferdinand, says one of his latest apologists in this matter, 
"considered the privileges granted by his Predecessors, in 
respect to rights of Sovereignty, as fallen extinct on their 
death." l Which if Eeality and Fact would but likewise be 
so kind as " consider " it so was no doubt convenient for 
Ferdinand ! 

Joachim was not so great with Ferdinand as he had been 
with Charles the Imperial Brother. Joachim and Ferdinand 
had many debates of this kind, some of them rather stift 
Jagerndorf, for instance, and the Baireuth-Anspach confisca- 

tions, in George Fridrich's minority. Ferdinand, now Kaiser, 
had snatched Jagerndorf from poor young George Friedrich, 
son of excellent Hargraf George whom we knew ; " Part of 
the spoils of Albert Alcibiades," thought Ferdinand, "and a 
good windfall," though young George Friedrich had merely 
been the Ward of Cousin Alcibiades, and totally without con- 
cern in those political explosions. "Excellent windfall," 
thought Ferdinand ; and held his grip. But Joachim, in his 
weighty steady way, intervened; Joachim, emphatic in the 
Diets and elsewhere, made Ferdinand quit grip, and produce 
Jagerndorf again. Jagerndorf and the rest had all to be 
restored ; and, except some filehings in the Jagerndorf Appen- 
dages (Batibor and Oppeln, " restored " only in semblance, and 
at length juggled away altogether), 1 everything came to its 
right owner again. Nor would Joachim rest till Alcibiades's 
Territories too were all punctually given back, to this same 
George Friedrich ; to whom, by law and justice, they belonged. 
In these points Joachim prevailed against a strong-handed 
Kaiser, apt to " consider one's rights fallen extinct " now and 
then. In this of Liegnitz all he could do was to keep the 
Deed, in steady protest silent or vocal. 

But enough now of Joachim Hector, Sixth Kurfurst, and of 
his workings and his strugglings. He walked through this 
world, treading as softly as might be, yet with a strong 
weighty step ; rending the jungle steadily asunder ; well see- 
ing whither he was bound. Rather an expensive Herr ; built 
a good deal, completion of the Schloss at Berlin one exam- 
ple; 2 and was not otherwise afraid of outlay, in the Reich's 
Politics, or in what seemed needful: If there is a harvest 
ahead, even a distant one, it is poor thrift to be stingy of 
your seed-corn ! 

Joachim was always a conspicuous Public Man, a busy Poli- 
tician in the Reich ; stanch to his kindred, and by no means 
blind to himself or his own interests. Stanch also, we must 
grant, and ever active, though generally in a cautious, weighty, 
never in a rash swift way, to the great Cause of Protestantism, 
BentBch, pp. 129, ISO. * Kicdai, p. 82. 


and to all good causes. He was himself a solemnly devout 
man ; deep awe-stricken reverence dwelling in his view of this 
Universe. Most serious, though with a jocose dialect com- 
monly, having a cheerful wit in speaking to men. Luther's 
Books he called Ms Seelensckats (Soul's-treasure) ; Luther and 
the Bible were his chief reading. Fond of profane learning 
too, and of the useful or ornamental Arts ; given to music, 
and "would himself sing aloud" when he had a melodious 
leisure-hour. Excellent old gentleman: he died, rather sud- 
denly, but with much nobleness, 3d January, 1571 ; age sixty- 
six. Old Eentsch's account of this event is still worth 
reading: 1 Joachim's death-scene has a mild pious beauty 
which does not depend on creed. 

He had a Brother too, not a little occupied with Politics, 
and always on the good side ; a wise pious man, whose fame 
was in all the churches: "Johann of Custrin," called also 
" Johann the Wise," who busied himself zealously in Protes- 
tant matters, second only in piety and zeal to his Cousin, 
Margraf George the Pious; and was not so held back by 
official considerations as his Brother the Elector now and 
then. Johann of Custrin is a very famous man in the old 
Books ; Johann was the first that fortified Custrin; built him- 
self an illustrious Schloss, and "roofed it with copper," in 
Custrin (which is a place we shall be well acquainted with by 
and by) ; and lived there, with the Neumark for apanage, a 
true man's life: mostly with a good deal of business, war- 
like and other, on his hands ; with good Books, good Deeds, 
and occasionally good Men, coming to enliven it, according 
to the terms then given. 




KAISEB KAEL, we said, was very good to Joachim; who 
always strove, sometimes with a stretch upon his very con- 
science, to keep well with the Raiser. The Kaiser took 
Joachim's young Prince along with him to those Schmalkal- 
dicWars (not the comfortable side for Joachim's conscience, 
but the safe side for an anxious Father); Kaiser made a 
Knight of this young Prince, on one occasion of distinction ; 
he wrote often to Papa about him, what a promising young 
hero he was, seems really to have liked the young man. 
It was Johann George, Elector afterwards, Seventh Elector. 
This little incident is known to me on evidence. 1 A small 
thing that certainly befell, at the siege of Wittenberg 
(A.D. 1547), during those Philip-of-Hessen Negotiations, three 
hundred and odd years ago. 

The Schmalkaldic War having come all to nothing, the 
Saxon Elector sitting captive with sword overhead in the 
way we saw, Saxon Wittenberg was besieged, and the Kaiser 
was in great hurry to get it. Kaiser in person, and young 
Johann George for sole attendant, rode round the place one 
day, to take a view of the works, and judge how soon, or 
whether ever, it could be compelled to give in. Gunners 
noticed them from the battlements ; gunners Saxon-Protes- 
tant most likely, and in just gloom at the perils and indigni- 
ties now lying on their pious Kurf tirst Jobann Friedrich the 
Magnanimous. "Lo, you! Kaiser's self riding yonder, and 
one of his silk Junkers. Suppose we gave the Kaiser's self 
a shot, then?" said the gunner, or thought: "It might help 
a better man from his life-perils, if such shot did ! " In 
fact the gun flashed off, with due outburst, and almost with 
due effect. The ball struck the ground among the very horses' 

feet of the two riders ; so that they were thrown, or nearly so, 
and covered from sight with a cloud of earth and sand ; and 
the gunners thought, for some instants, an unjust, obstinate 
Kaiser's life was gone ; and a pious Elector's saved. But it 
proved not so. Kaiser Karl and Johann George both emerged, 
in a minute or two, little the worse ; Kaiser Karl perhaps 

impenetrable eyes; and his Cimburgis lip closed for the mo- 
ment; and galloped out of shot-range. "I never forget 
this little incident," exclaims Smelfungus : " It is one of the 
few times I can -get, after all my reading about that surprising 
Karl V., I do not say the least understanding or practical con- 
ception of him and his character and his affairs, but the least 
ocular view or imagination of him, as a fact among facts ! " 
Which is unlucky for Smelfungus. Johann George, still 
more emphatically, never to the end of his life forgot this 
incident. And indeed it must be owned, had the shot taken 
effect as intended, the whole course of human things would 
have been surprisingly altered ; and for one thing, neither 
Friedrich the Great, nor the present History of Friedrich, had 
ever risen above ground, or troubled an enlightened public 

Of Johann George, this Seventh Elector, 1 who proved a good 
Governor, and carried on the Family Affairs in the old style 
of slow steady success, I will remember nothing more, except 
that he had the surprising number of Three-and-Twenty chil- 
dren ; one of them posthumous, though he died at the age of 

He is Founder of the New Culmbach line : two sons of 
these twenty-three children he settled, one in Baireuth, the 
other in Anspach ; from whom come all the subsequent Heads 
of that Principality, till the last of them died in Hammer- 
smith in 1806, as above said. 8 He was a prudent, thrifty 
Herr; no mistresses, no luxuries allowed; at the sight of a 

1 1525; 1571-1598. 

3 Rentsch, p. 475 ( Christian to Baireuth ; Joachim Ernst to Anspach) ; - 
see Genealogical Diagram, infra, p. 309a. 


new-fashioned coat, he -would fly out on an unhappy youth, 
and pack him from his presence. Very strict in point of jus- 
tice : a peasant once appealing to him, in one of his inspec- 
tion-journeys through the country, " Grant me justice, Durch- 
laucht, against So-and-so ; I am your highnesses born subject ! " 
" Thou shouldst have it, man, wert thou a born Turk ! " an- 
swered Johann George. There is something anxious, grave 
and, as it were, surprised in the look of this good Herr. He 
made the G&ra Bond above spoken of; founded the Younger 
Culmbach Line, with that important Law of Primogeniture 
strictly superadded. A conspicuous thrift, veracity, modest 
solidity, looks through the conduct of this Herr; a deter- 
mined Protestant he too, as indeed all the following were and 

Of Joachim Friedrich, his eldest Son, who at one time was 
Archbishop of Magdeburg, called home from the wars to 
fill that valuable Heirloom, which had suddenly fallen vacant 
by an Uncle's death, and keep it warm ; and who afterwards, 
in due course, carried on a lobliche Rer/ierung of the old style 
and physiognomy, as Eighth Kurfurst, from his fiftieth to his 
sixtieth year (1598-1608) : a of him we already noticed the fine 
" Joachims-thai Gymnasium," or Foundation for learned pur- 
poses, in the old Sehloss of Grimnitz, where his serene Grand- 
mother got lamed; and will notice nothing farther, in this 
place, except his very great anxiety to profit by the Prussian 
ffltbelehnimg, that Co-infeftment in Preussen, achieved by 
his Grandfather Joachim IL, which was now about coming to 
its full maturity. Joachim Friedrich had already married his 
eldest Prince to the daughter of Albert Friedrich, Second 
Duke of Preussen, who it was by this time evident would be 
the last Duke there of his Line. Joachim Friedrich, having 
himself fallen a widower, did next year, though now counting 
fifty-six But it will be better if we explain first, a little, 
how matters now stood with Preussen. 


* Born, 1647; Magdeburg, 1566-1598 (when his Third Son got it, way 
unlucky in the Thirty-Years War afterwards). 




DUKE ALBEBT died in 1568, laden with years, and in his 
latter time greatly broken down by other troubles. His 
Prussian Baths (Councillors) were disobedient, his Osianders 
and Lutheran-Calvinist Theologians were all in fire and 
flame against each other: the poor old man, with the best 
dispositions, but without power to realize them, had much 
to do and to suffer. Pious, just and honorable, intending 
the best ; but losing his memory, and incapable of business, 
as he now complained. In his sixtieth year he had married 
a second time, a young Brunswick Princess, with whose 
foolish Brother, Eric, he had much trouble ; and who at last 
herself took so ill with the insolence and violence of these 
intrusive Councillors and Theologians, that the household- 
life she led beside her old Husband and them became intoler- 
able to her ; and she withdrew to another residence, a 
little Hunting-seat at Neuhausen, half a dozen miles from 
Konigsberg ; and there, or at Labiau still farther off, lived 
mostly, in a separate condition, for the rest of her life. Sepa- 
rate for life : nevertheless they happened to die on the 
same day; 20th March, 1568, they were simultaneously de- 
livered from their troubles in this world. 1 

Albert left one Son; the second child of this last Wife: 
his one child by the former Wife, a daughter now of good 
years, was married to the Duke of Mecklenburg. Son's name 
was Albert Friedrich; age, at his Father's death, fifteen. 
A promising young Prince, but of sensitive abstruse temper ; 
held under heavy tutelage by hie Baths and Theologians ; 
and spurting up against them, in explosive rebellion, from 
time to time. He now (1568) was to be sovereign Duke of 
1 Hflhner. 1. 181 ; Stenzel. i 342. 


Preussen, and the one representative of the Culmbach Line 
in that fine Territory ; Margraf George Fricdrich of Anspach, 

We need not doubt, the Brandenburg House old Kur- 
fttrst Joachim II. still alive, and thrifty Johann George the 
Heir-Apparent kept a -watchful eye on those emergencies. 
But it was difficult to interfere directly ; the native Prussian 
Baths were very jealous, and Poland itself was a ticklish 
Sovereignty to deal with. Albert Friedrich being still a 
Minor, the Polish King, Sigismund, proposed to undertake 
the guardianship of him, as became a superior lord to a 
subject vassal on such an occasion. But the Prussian Baths 
assured' his Majesty, "Their young Prince was of such a 
lively intellect, he was perfectly fit to conduct the affairs 
of the Government," especially with such a Body of expert 
Councillors to help him, "and might be at once declared of 
age." Which was accordingly the course followed; Poland 
caring little for it; Brandenburg digesting the arrangement 
as it could. And thus it continued for some years, even 
under new difficulties that arose ; the official Clique of Baths 
being the real Government of the Country ; and poor young 
Albert Friedrich bursting out occasionally into tears against 
them, occasionally into futile humors of a fiery nature. 
Osiander-Theology, and the battle of the 'doxies, ran very 
high; nor was Prussian Officiality a beautiful thing. 

These Prussian Baths, and the Prussian Bltterschaft gen- 
erally (Knightage, Land-Aristocracy), which had its Stande 
(States, or meetings of Parliament after a sort), were all 
along of a mutinous, contumacious humor. The idea hail 
got into their minds, That they were by birth what tfv>. 
ancient Bitters by election had been; entitled, fit or not lit, 
to share the Government promotions among them: "Tho 
Duke is hereditary in his office; why not we ? All Offices, 
are they not, by nature, ours to share among us ? " The 
Duke's notion, again, was to have the work of his Offices 
effectually done; small matter by whom: the Bitters looked 
less to that side of the question ; regarded any " Foreigner " 
(German-Anspacher, or other Non-Prussian), whatever his 


merit, as an intruder, usurper, or kind of thief, when seen 
in office. Their contentions, contumacies and pretensions 
were accordingly manifold. They had dreams of an " Aris- 
tocratic Eepublic, with the Sovereign reduced to zero," like 
what their Polish neighbors grew to. They had various 
dreams; and individuals among them broke out, from time 
to time, into high acts of insolence and mutiny. It took a 
hundred and fifty years of Brandenburg horse-breaking, some- 
times with sharp manipulation and a potent curb-bit, to 
dispossess them of that notion, and make them go steadily in 
harness. Which also, however, was at last got done by the 

Of Duke Albert FriedricWs Marriage : who his Wife was, 
and what her possible Dowry. 

In a year or two, there came to be question of the marrying 
of young Duke Albert Friedrich. After due consultation, the 
Princess fixed upon was Maria Eleonora, eldest Daughter of 
the then Duke of Cleve : to him a proper Embassy was sent 
with that object; and came back with Yes for answer. 
Duke of Cleve, at that time, was WiJhelm, called "the Rich " 
in History-Books ; a Sovereign of some extent in those lower 
Rhine countries. Whom I can connect with the English 
reader's memory in no readier way than by the fact, That he 
was younger brother, one year younger, of a certain " Anne 
of Cleves ; " a large fat Lady, who was rather scurvily used 
in this country ; being called, by Henry VIII. and us, a " great 
Flanders mare," unsuitable for espousal with a King of deli- 
cate feelings ! This Anne of Cleves, who took matters quietly 
and lived on her pension, when rejected by King Henry, was 
Aunt of the young Lady now in question for Preussen. She 
was still alive here in England, pleasantly quiet, "at Burley 
on the Hill," till Maria Eleonora was seven years old; who 
possibly enough still reads in her memory some fading 
vestige of new black frocks or trimmings, and brief court- 
mourning, on the death of poor Aunt Anne over seas. 
Another Aunt is more honorably distinguished; Sibylla, Wife 
VOL. v. 18 

of our noble Saxon Elector, Johann Friedrich the Magnani- 
mous, who lost his Electorate and almost his Life for religion's 
sake, as we have seen ; by whom, in his perils and distresses, 
Sibylla stood always, like a very true and noble Wife. 

Duke Wilhelm himself was a mau of considerable mark 
in his day. His Duchy of Cleve included not only Cleve- 
Proper, but Jtllich (Juliera), Berg, which latter pair of Duchies 
were a better thing than Cleve-Proper : Julich, Berg and 
various other small Principalities, which, gradually agglomer- 
ating by marriage, heritage and the chance of events in succes- 
sive centuries, had at length come all into Wilhelm's hands; 
so that he got the name of Wilhelm the Bich among his con- 
temporaries. He seems to have been of a headlong, blustery, 
uncertain disposition ; much tossed about in the controversies 
of his day. At one time he was a Protestant declared ; not 
without reasons of various kinds. The Duchy of Geldern 
(what we call Gnelders) had fallen to him, by express be- 
quest of the last Owner, whose Line was out ; and Wilhelm 
took possession. But the Kaiser Karl V. quite refused to let 
him keep possession. Whereupon Wilhelm had joined with 
the French (it was in the Moritz-Alcibiades time) ; had de- 
clared war, and taken other high measures : but it came to 
nothing, or to less. The end was, Wilhelm had to "come 
upon his knees " before the Kaiser, and beg forgiveness ; quite 
renouncing Geldern, which accordingly has gone its own dif- 
ferent road ever since. Wilhelm was zealously Protestant in 
those days ; as his people are, and as he still is, at the period 
we treat of. But he went into Papistry, not long after; and 
made other sudden turns and mis ventures : to all appearance, 
rather an abrupt, blustery, uncertain Herr. It is to him that 
Albert Friedrich, the young Duke of Preussen, guided by his 
Council, now (Year 1572) sends an Embassy, demanding his 
eldest Daughter, Maria Eleonora, to wife. 

Duke Wilhelm answered Yea; "sent a Counter-Embassy," 
with whatever else was necessary ; and in due time the young 
Bride, with her Father, set out towards Preussen, such being 
the arrangement, there to complete the matter. They had 


got as far as Berlin, warmly welcomed by the Kurfiirst Jo- 
hann George; when, from Konigsberg, a sad message reached 
them : namely, that the young Puke had suddenly been seized 
with an invincible depression and overclouding of mind, not 
quite to be characterized by the name of madness, but still 
less by that of perfect sanity. His eagerness to see his Bride 
was the same as formerly ; but his spiritual health was in the 
questionable state described. The young Lady paused for a 
little, in such mood as we may fancy. She had already lost 
two offers, Bridegrooms snatched away by death, says Pauli ; * 
and thought it might be ominous to refuse the third. So she 
decided to go on ; dashed aside her father's doubts ; sent her 
unhealthy Bridegroom " a flower-garland as love-token," who 
duly responded ; and Father Wilhelm and she proceeded, as 
if nothing were wrong. The spiritual state of the Prince, she 
found, had not been exaggerated to her. His humors and 
ways were strange, questionable ; other than one could have 
wished. Such as he was, however, she wedded him on the 
appointed terms ; hoping probably for a recovery, which 
never came. 

The case of Albert's malady is to this day dim ; and 
strange tales are current as to the origin of it, which the 
curious in Physiology may consult ; they are not fit for re- 
porting here. 8 It seems to have consisted in an overclouding, 
rather than a total ruin of the mind. Incurable depression 
there was j gloomy torpor alternating with fits of vehement 
activity or suffering ; great discontinuity at all times : evi- 
dent unfitness for. business. It was long hoped he might 
recover. And Doctors in Divinity and in Medicine undertook 
him : Theologians, Exorcists, Physicians, Quacks ; but no 
cure came of it, nothing but mutual condemnations, violences 
and even execrations, from the said Doctors and their re- 
spective Official patrons, lay and clerical. Must have been 
such a scene for a young Wife as has seldom occurred, in ro- 
mance or reality! Children continued to be born; daughter 
after daughter; but no son that lived. 

iPaali.iT.512. > Ib. iv. 476. 

Margraf George Iriedrich comes to Preussen to 

After five years' space, in 1578, 1 cure being now hopeless, 
and the very Council admitting that the Duke was incapable 
of business, George Friedrich of Anspach-Baireuth came 
into the country to take charge of him ; having already, he 
and the other Brandenburgers, negotiated the matter with the 
King of Poland, in whose power it mostly lay. 

George Friedrich was by no means welcome to the Prussian 
Council, nor to the Wife, nor to the Landed Aristocracy ; 
other than welcome, for reasons we can guess. But he proved, 
in the judgment of all fair witnesses, an excellent Governor ; 
and, for six-and-twenty years, administered the country with 
great and lasting advantage to it. His Portraits represent to 
us a large ponderous figure of a man, very fat in his latter 
years ; with an air of honest sense, dignity, composed solid- 
ity ; ~- very fit for the task now on hand. 

He resolutely, though in mild form, smoothed down the 
flaming fires of his Clergy ; commanding now this controversy 
and then that other controversy (" de concrete et de inconcreto," 
or whatever they were) to fall strictly silent ; to carry them- 
selves on by thought and meditation merely, and without 
words. He tamed the mutinous Aristocracy, the mutinous 
Bilrgermeisters, Town-Council of Konigsberg, whatever mu- 
tiny there was. He drained bogs, says old Eentsch ; he f eUed 
woods, made roads, established inns. Prussia was well gov- 
erned till George's death, which happened in the year 1603. 2 
Anspach, in the mean while, Anspach, Baireuth and Jagern- 
dorf, which were latterly all his, he had governed by deputy ; 
no need of visiting those quiet countries, except for purposes 
of kindly recreation, or for a swift general supervision, now 
and then. By all accounts, an excellent, steadfast, wise and 
just man, this fat George Friedrich; worthy of the Father 
that produced him ("Nit Kop ab, lover Forst, nit Kop ah/"), 
and that is saying much. 

By his death without children much territory fell home to 
1 FlMli, IT. 476, 481, 482. * Bentech, pp. 666-88. 


the Elder House ; to be disposed of as was settled in the Gera 
JSond five years before. Anspach and Baireuth went to two 
Brothers of the now Elector, Kurftirst Joachim Friedrich, 
sons of Johann George of blessed memory : founders, they, of 
the " New Line," of whom we know. Jagerndorf the Elector 
himself got ; and he, not long after, settled it on one of his 
own sons, a new Johann George, who at that time was fallen 
rather landless and out of a career: "Johann George of 
Jagerndorf," so called thenceforth : whose history will con- 
cern us by and by. Preussen was to be incorporated with the 
Electorate, were possession of it once had. But that is a 
ticklish point ; still ticklish iu spite of rights, and liable to 
perverse accidents that may arise. 

Joachim Friedrich, as we intimated once, was not wanting 
to himself on this occasion. But the affair was full of intrica- 
cies ; a very wasps'-nest of angry humors ; and required to be 
handled with delicacy, though with force and decision. Joa- 
chim Friedrich's eldest Son, Johann Sigismund, Electoral 
Prince of Brandenburg, had already, in 1594, married one of 
Albert Friedrich the hypochondriac Duke of Preussen's daugh- 
ters ; and there was a promising family of children ; no lack 
of children. Nevertheless prudent Joachim Friedrich him- 
self, now a widower, age towards sixty, did farther, in the 
present emergency, marry another of these Princesses, a 
younger Sister of his Son's Wife, seven months after 
George Friedrich's death, to make assurance doubly sure. 
A man not to be balked, if he can help it. By virtue of ex- 
cellent management, Duchess, Prussian Stande (States), and 
Polish Crown, needing all to be contented, Joachim Fried- 
rich, with gentle strong pressure, did furthermore squeeze his 
way into the actual Guardianship of Preussen and the imbecile 
Duke, which was his by right. This latter feat he achieved 
in the course of another year (llth March, 1605) ; J and thereby 
fairly got hold of Preussen; which he grasped, "knuckles- 
white," as we may say ; and which his descendants have never 
quitted since. 

i Stenzel, i. 358. 


Good management was very necessary. The thing was 
difficult; and also was of more importance than we yet 
altogether see. Not Preussen only, but a still better country, 
the Duchy of Cleve, Cleve-Jttlich, Duke Wilhelm's Heritage 
down in the Rhineland, Heritage turning out now to be of 
right his eldest Daughter's here, and likely now to drop soon, 
is involved in the thing. This first crisis, of getting into 
the Prussian Administratorship, fallen vacant, our vigilant 
Kurfurst Joachim Friedrich has successfully managed; and 
he holds his grip, knuckles-white. Before long, a second crisis 
comes; where also he will have to grasp decisively in, he, 
or those that stand for him, and whose knuckles can still hold. 
But that may go to a new Chapter. 


IN the summer of 1608 (23d May, 1608) Johann Sigismund's 
(and his Father's) Mother-in-law, the poor Wife of the poor 
imbecile Duke of Preussen, died. 1 Upon which Johann Sigis- 
mund, Heir-Apparent of Brandenburg and its expectancies, 
was instantly despatched from Berlin, to gather up the threads 
cut loose by that event, and see that the matter took no 
damage. On the road thither news reached him that his own 
Father, old Joachim Friedrich, was dead (18th July, 1608) ; 
that he himself was now Kurfurst ; * and that numerous 
threads were loose at both ends of his affairs. 

The "young man" not now so young, being full thirty- 
five and of fair experience was in difficulty, under these 
overwhelming tidings ; and puzzled, for a little, whether to 
advance or to return. He decided to advance, and settle Prus- 

1 Maria Etoonora, Duke Wilhehn of Clove's eldest Daughter: 1550, 1578, 
1608 (Hfibner, t. 286). 


siau matters, where the peril and the risk were ; Brandenburg 
business he could do by rescripts. 

His difficulties in Preussen, and at the Polish Court, were 
in fact immense. But after a space of eight or nine months, 
he did, by excellent management, not sparing money judi- 
ciously laid out on individuals, arrive at some adjustment, 
better or worse, and got Preussen in hand ; 1 legal Administra- 
tor of the imbecile Duke, as his Fattier had been. After which 
he had to run for Brandenburg, without loss of time : great 
matters being there in the wind. Nothing wrong in Branden- 
burg, indeed; but the great Cleve Heritage is dropping, has 
dropped ; over in Cleve, an immense expectancy is now come 
to the point of deciding itself. 

Sow the Cleve Heritage dropped, and many sprang to pick 
it up. 

Wilhelm of Cleve, the explosive Duke, whom we saw at 
Berlin and Konigsberg at the wedding of this poor Lady now 
deceased, had in the marriage-contract, as he did in all subse- 
quent contracts and deeds of like nature, announced a Settle- 
ment of his Estates, which was now become of the highest mo- 
ment for Johann Sigismund, The Country at that time called 
Duchy of Cleve, consisted, as we said above, not only of Cleve- 
Proper, but of two other still better Duchies, Jtilich and Berg; 
then of the Grafschaft (County) of Kavensburg, County of 
Mark, Lordship of In fact it was a multifarious agglom- 
erate of many little countries, gathered by marriage, heritage 
and luck, in the course of centuries, and now united in the 
hand of this Duke Wilhelm. It amounted perhaps to two 
Yorkshires in extent.* A naturally opulent Country, of fertile 
meadows, shipping capabilities, metalliferous hills ; and, at this 
time, in consequence of the Dutch-Spanish War, and the mul- 
titude of Protestant refugees, it was getting filled with in- 
genious industries ; and rising to be, what it still is, the busiest 
quarter of Germany. A Country lowing with kine; the hum 

9th April, 1609. Stenzel, i. 870. 

* See Biisehing, Erdbetahreibmy, v. 642-734. 


of the flax-spindle heard in its cottages, in those old days, 
" much of the linen called Hollands is made in Jtilich, and only 
bleached, stamped and sold, by the Dutch," says Btisching. 
A Country, in our days, which is shrouded at short intervals 
with the due canopy of coal-smoke, and loud with sounds of 
the anvil and the loom. 

This Duchy of Cleve, all this fine agglomerate of Duchies, 
Duke Wilhelm settled, were to be inherited in a piece, by his 
eldest (or indeed, as it soon proved, his only) Son and the 
heirs of that Son, if there were any. Failing heirs of that 
only Son, then the entire Duchy of Cleve was to go to Maria 
Eleonora as eldest Daughter, now marrying to Friedrich Al- 
bert, Duke of Prussia, and to their heirs lawfully begotten : 
heirs female, if there happened to be no male. The other 
Sisters, of whom there were three, were none of them to have 
the least pretence to inherit Cleve or any part of it. On the 
contrary, they were, in such event, of the eldest Daughter or 
her heirs coming to inherit Cleve, to have each of them a sum 
of ready money paid 1 by the said inheritrix of Cleve or her 
heirs; and on receiving that, were to consider their claims 
entirely fulfilled, and to cease thinking of Cleve for the 

This Settlement, by express privilege of Kaiser Karl V., 
nay of Kaiser Maximilian before him, and the Laws of the 
Beich, Duke Wilhelm doubted not he was entitled to make ; 
and this Settlement he made ; his Lawyers writing down the 
terms, in their wearisome way, perhaps six times over ; and 
struggling by all methods to guard against the least misunder- 
standing. Cleve with all its appurtenances, Jijlich, Berg and 
the rest, goes to the eldest Sister and her heirs, male or female : 
If she have no heirs, male or female, then, but not till then, 
the next Sister steps into her shoes in that matter : but if she 
have, then, we repeat for the sixth and last time, no Sister or 
Sister's Representative has the least word to say to it, but 
takes her 100,000, and ceases thinking of Cleve. 

The other three Sisters were all gradually married; one 
l 200,000 gaUgalden," about 100,000: Pauli, vi. 542 ; iii. 504- 

of them to Pfalz-Neuburg, an eminent Prince, in the Bavarian 
region called the Ober-Pfalz (Upper Palatinate), who, or at 
least whose eldest Son, is much worth mentioning and remem- 
bering by us here ; and, in all these marriage-contracts, 
Wilhelm and his Lawyers expressed themselves to the like 
effect, and in the like elaborate sixfold manner : so that 
Wilhelm and they thought there could nowhere in the world 
be any doubt about it. 

Shortly after signing the last of these marriage-contracts, or 
perhaps it was in the course of signing them, Duke Wilhelm 
had a stroke of palsy. He had, before that, gone into Papistry 
again, poor man. The truth is, he had repeated strokes ; and 
being an abrupt, explosive Herr, he at last quite yielded to 
palsy ; and sank slowly out of the world, in a cloud of semi- 
insanity, which lasted almost twenty years. 1 Duke Wilhelm 
did leave a Son, Johann Wilhelm, who succeeded him as Duke. 
But this Son also proved explosive ; went half and at length 
wholly insane. Jesuit Priests, and their intrigues to bring back 
a Protestant country to the bosom of the Church, wrapped the 
poor man, all his days, as in a burning Nessus'-Shirt ; and he 
did little but mischief in the world. He married, had no chil- 
dren; he accused his innocent Wife, the Jesuits and he, of 
infidelity. Got her judged, not properly sentenced; and then 
strangled her, he and they, in her bed : " Jacobea of Baden 
(1597);" a thrice-tragic history. Then he married again; 
Jesuits being extremely anxious for an Orthodox heir: but 
again there came no heir ; there came only new blazings of the 
Nessus'-Shirt. In fine, the poor man died (Spring, 1609), and 
made the world rid of him. Died 25th March, 1609 ; that 
is the precise date ; about a month before our new Elector, 
Johann Sigismund, got his affairs winded up at the Polish 
Court, and came galloping home in such haste. There was 
pressing need of him in the Cleve regions. 

For the painful exactitude of Duke Wilhelm and his Law- 

yers has profited little ; and there are claimants on claimants 

rising for that valuable Cleve Country. As indeed Johann 

i Died 25th January, 1592, age 76. 


Sigiummid had anticipated, and been warned from all quarters 
to expect. For months past, he has had his faculties bent, 
-with lynx-eyed attention, on that scene of things ; doubly and 
trebly impatient to get Preussen soldered up, ever since this 
other matter came to the bursting-point. What could be done 
by the utmost vigilance of his Deputies, he had done. It 
was the 25th of March when the mad Duke died : on the 4th 
of April, Johann Sigismund's Deputy, attended by a Notary 
to record the act, " fixed up the Brandenburg Arms on the 
Government-House of Cleve ; " J on the 5th, they did the same 
at Duaseldorf ; on the following days, at Jtilich and the other 
Towns. But already on the 5th, they had hardly got done at 
Dusseldorf, when there appeared young Wolfgang Wilhelm, 
Heir-Apparent of that eminent Pfalz-Neuburg, he in person, 
to put up the Pfak-Neuburg Arms ! Pfalz-Neuburg, who 
married the Second Daughter, he is actually claiming, then ; 
the whole, or part ? Both are sensible that possession is nine 
points in law. 

Pfalz-Neuburg's claim was for the whole Duchy. " All my 
serene Mother's!" cried the young Heir of Pfalz-Neuburg: 
" Properly all mine ! " cried he. " Is not she nearest of kin ? 
Second Daughter, true; but the Daughter ; not Daughter of a 
Daughter, as you are (as your Serene Electress is), Durch- 
laveht of Brandenburg : consider, besides, you are female, 
I am male I " That was Pfalz-Neuburg's logic : none of the 
best, I think, in forensic genealogy. His tenth point was per 
haps rather weak; but he had possession, co-possession, and 
the nine points good. The other Two Sisters, by their Sons 
or Husbands, claimed likewise ; but not the whole : " Divide 
it," said they : " that surely is the real meaning of Karl Y.'s 
Deed of Privilege to make such a Testament. Divide it among 
the Four Daughters or their representatives, and let "us all 
have shares ! " 

Nor were these four claimants by any means all. The 

Saxon Princes next claimed ; two sets of Saxon Prinees. 

First the minor set, Gotha-Weimar and the rest, the Ernestine 

Line no called; representatives of Johann Friedrieh the Mag- 

i Pauli, Ti. see. 

nanimous, who lost the Electorate for religion's sake at Miihl- 
berg in the past century, and from major became minor in 
Saxon Genealogy. " Magnanimous Johann Friedrich," said 
they, " had to wife an Aunt of the now deceased Duke of 
Cleve ; Wife Sibylla (sister of the Flanders Mare), of famous 
memory, our lineal Ancestress. In favor of whom her Father, 
the then reigning Duke of Cleve, made a marriage-contract 
of precisely similar import to this your Prussian one : he, 
and barred all his descendants, if contracts are to be valid." 
This is the claim of the Ernestine Line of Saxon Princes ; 
not like to go for much, in their present disintegrated con- 

But the Albertine Line, the present Elector of Saxony, also 
claims : "Here is a Deed," said he, "executed by Kaiser Fried- 
rich III. in the year 1483, 1 generations before your Kaiser 
Karl ; Deed solemnly granting to Albert, junior of Sachsen, 
and to his heirs, the reversion of those same Duchies, should 
the Male Line happen to fail, as it was then likely to do. How 
could Kaiser Max revoke his Father's deed, or Kaiser Karl his 
Great-grandfather's ? Little Albert, the Albert of the Prm- 
Kenraub, he who grew big, and fought lion-like for his Kaiser 
in the Netherlands and Western Countries ; he and his have 
clearly the heirship of Cleve by right ; and we, now grown 
Electors, and Seniors of Saxony, demand it of a grateful House 
of Hapsburg, and will study to make ourselves convenient 
in return." 

" Nay, if that is your rule, that old Laws and Deeds are to 
come in bar of new, we," cry a multitude of persons, French 
Dukes of Nevers, and all manner of remote, exotic figures 
among them, "we are the real heirs ! Eavensburg, Mark, 
Berg, Eavenstein, this patch and the other of that large Duchy 
of yours, were they not from primeval time expressly limited 
to heirs-male ? Heirs-male ; and we now are the nearest heirs- 
male of said patches and portions ; and will prove it ! " In 
short, there never was such a Lawsuit, so f at aa affair for 
the attorney species, if that had been the way of managing 
it, as this of Cleve was likely to prove. 
i Pauli. ubi sm>A : Hubner. t 286. 

The Kaiser's Thoughts about it, and the World's. 

What greatly complicated the affair, too, was the interest 
the Kaiser took in it. The Kaiser could not well brook a 
powerful Protestant in that country ; still less could his 
Cousin the Spaniard. Spaniards, worn to the ground, coercing 
that world-famous Dutch Revolt, and astonished to find that 
they could not coerce it at all, had resolved at this time to 
take breath before trying farther. Spaniards and Dutch, after 
Fifty years of such fighting as we know, have made a Twelve- 
years' Truce (1609) : but the baffled Spaniard, panting, pale in 
his futile rage and sweat, has not given up the matter ; he is 
only taking breath, and will try it again. Now Cleve is hi 
road into Holland, in such adventure ; no success possible if 
Cleve be not in good hands. Brandenburg is Protestant, pow- 
erful ; Brandenburg will not do for a neighbor there. 

Nor will Pfalz-Neuburg. A Protestant of Protestants, this 
Palatine Neuburg too, junior branch, possible heir in time 
coming, of Kur-Pfdlz (Elector Palatine) himself, in the Rhine 
Countries ; of Kur-Pf alz, who is acknowledged Chief Protes- 
tant : official "President" of the "Evangelical Union" they 
have lately made among them in these menacing times ; 
Pfalz-Neuburg too, this young Wolfgang Wilhelm, if he do 
not break off kind, might be very awkward to the Kaiser in 
Cleve-Jiilich. Nay Saxony itself; for they are all Protes- 
tants : unless perhaps Saxony might become pliant, and try 
to make itself useful to a munificent Imperial House ? 

Evidently what would best suit the Kaiser and Spaniards, 
were this, That no strong Power whatever got footing in 
Cleve, to grow stronger by the possession of such a country : 
better than best it would suit, if he, the Kaiser, could him- 
self get it smuggled into his hands, and there holdnt fast! 
Which privately was the course resolved upon at headquar- 
ters. In this way the " Succession Controversy of the Cleve 
Duchies " is coming to be a very high matter ; mixing itself 
up with the grand Protestant-Papal Controversy, the general 
armed-lawsuit of mankind in that generation. Kaiser, Span- 
iard, Dutch, English, French Henri IV. and all mortals, are 
getting concerned in the decision of it. 




MEANWHILE Brandenburg and Neuburg both hold grip of 
Cleve in that manner, with a mutually menacing inquiring 
expression of countenance ; each grasps it (so to speak) con- 
sword by the hilt, ready to fly out. But to understand this 
Brandenburg-Neuburg phenomenon and the then significance 
of the Cleve-Jiilich Controversy, we must take the following 
bits of Chronology along with us. For the German Empire, 
with Protestant complaints, and Papist usurpations and se- 
verities, was at this time all a continent of sour thick smoke, 
already breaking out into dull-red flashes here and there, 
symptoms of the universal conflagration of a Thirty- Years 
War, which followed. Symptom First is that of Donauworth, 
and dates above a year back. 

First Symptom; Donauworth, 1608. 
Donauworth, a Protestant Imperial Free-town, in the Bava- 
rian regions, had been, for some fault on the part of the popu- 
lace against a flaring Mass-procession which had no business 
to be there, put under Ban of the Empire ; had been seized 
accordingly (December, 1607), and much cuffed, and shaken 
about, by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, as executor of the 
said Ban; 1 who, what was still worse, would by no means 
give up the Town when he had done with it; Town being 
handy to him, and the man being stout and violently Papist. 
Hence the " Evangelical Union " which we saw, which has 
not taken Donauworth yet. Nor ever will! Donauworth 
never was retaken ; but is Bavarian at this hour. A Town 
namable in History ever since. Not to say withal, that it 
i Michaelis, ii. 216 ; Bridal Lexicon, i. 853. 


is where Marlborough did " the Lines of Schellenberg " long 
after: Schellenberg ("Jingle-Hill," so to render it) looks down 
across the Danube or Donau River, upon Douauworth, its 
"Lines," and other histories, now much abolished, and quiet 
under grass. 

But now all Protestantism sounding everywhere, in angry 
mournful tone, " Donanwbrth ! Give up Donauworth ! " and 
an "Evangelical Union," with moneys, with theoretic contin- 
gents of force, being on foot for that and the like objects ; 
we can fancy what a scramble this of Cleve-Jiilich was like 
to be ; and especially what effect this duelling attitude of 
Brandenburg and Neuburg had on the Protestant mind. Prot- 
estant neighbors, Landgraf Moritz of Hessen-Cassel at their 
head, intervene in tremulous haste, in the Cleve-Jiilich affair : 
"Peace, friends! Some bargain; peaceable joint-posses- 
sion ; any temporary bargain, till we see ! Can two Protes- 
tants fall to slashing one another, in such an aspect of the 
Reich and its Jesuitries ? " And they did agree (Dortmund, 
10th May, 1609), the first of their innumerable "agreements," 
to some temporary joint-possession; the thrice-thankful 
Country doing homage to both, " with oath to the one that 
sfiall be found genuine." And they did endeavor to govern 
jointly, and to keep the peace on those terms, though it was 
not easy. 

For the Kaiser had already said (or his Aulic Council and 
Spanish Cousin, poor Kaiser Rodolf caring too little about 
these things, 1 had already said), Cleve must absolutely not 
go into wrong hands. For which what safe method is there, 

i Rodolf IL (Kepler's too insolvent "Patron"), 1576-1612; then Mat- 
thias, Rodolfs Brother, 1612-1619, rather tolerant to Protestants; then 
Ferdinand H. his Uncle's Son, 1619-1637, mnch the reverse of -tolerant, by 
Whom mainly came the Thirty-Years War, -were the Kaisers of this 

Ferdinand HI., Son of IL (1637-1657), who finished out the Thirty-Tears 
War, partly by fighting of his own in yonng days (Battle of Nordlingen his 
grandest feat), was Father of 

Kaiser Leopold (1658-1705), -whose Two Sons were 

Kaiser Joseph (1705-1711) and Kaiser Karl VI (1711-1740), Maria 
Theresa's Father. 


but that the Kaiser himself become proprietor ? A Letter is 
yet extant, from the Aulie Council to their Vice-Chancellor, 
who had been sent to negotiate this matter with the parties ; 
Letter to the effect, That such result was the only good one ; 
that it must be achieved; "that he must devise all manner of 
quirks (alle Spitzfindigkeiten auffordern sollte)," and achieve 
it. 1 This curious Letter of a sublime Aulic Council, or Im- 
perial Hof-liath, to its Yice-Kanzler, still exists. 

And accordingly quirks did not prove undevisable on behalf 
of the Kaiser. "Since you cannot agree," said the Kaiser, 
" and there are so many of you who claim (we having privately 
stirred up several of you to the feat), there will be nothing 
for it, but the Kaiser must put the Country under sequestra- 
tion, and take possession of it with his own troops, till a de- 
cision be arrived at, which probably will not be soon ! " 

Second Symptom; Seizure of Jillich ly the Kaiser, and 
Siege and Recapture of it ly the Protestant Parties, 
1610. Whereupon " Catholic League," to balance 
" Evangelical Union." 

And the Kaiser forthwith did as he had said; sent Arch- 
duke Leopold with troops, who forcibly took the Castle of 
Jiilich; commanding all other castles and places to surren- 
der and sequestrate themselves, in like fashion ; threatening 
Brandenburg and Neuburg, in a dreadful manner, with Beiehs- 
Aeht (Ban of the Empire), if they presumed to show con- 
tumacy. Upon which Brandenburg and Neuburg, ranking 
themselves together, showed decided contumacy ; " tore down 
the Kaiser's Proclamation," * having good help at their back. 

And accordingly, "on the 4th of September, 1610," after a 
two-months' siege, they, or the Dutch, French, and Evangelical 
Union Troops bombarding along with them, and " many Eng- 
lish volunteers " to help, retook Jttlich, and packed Leopold 
away again.* The Dutch and the French were especially 

lPanli,iii. 505. 

* Ib. iii. 524. Emperor's Proclamation, in Dflsseldorf, 83d July, 1609,- 
taken down solemnly, 1st August, 1609. 

anxious about this Cleve business, poor Henri IV. was just 
putting those French troops in motion towards Jttlich, when 
Bavaillac, the distracted Devil's-Jesuit, did his stroke upon 
him; so that another than Henri had to lead in that expedition. 
The actual Captain at the Siege was Prince Christian of 
Anhalt, by repute the first soldier of Germany at that period : 
he had a horse shot under him, the business being very hot 
and furious; he had still worse fortune in the course of 
years. There were " many English volunteers " at this Siege ; 
English nation hugely interested in it, though their King 
would not act except diplomatically. It was the talk of all the 
then world, the evening song and the morning prayer of 
Protestants especially, till it was got ended in this manner. 
It deserves to rank as Symptom Second in this business ; far 
bigger flare of dull red in the universal smoke-continent, than 
that of Donauworth had been. Are there no memorials left 
of those "English volunteers," then ? Alas, they might get 
edited as Bromley's Royal Letters are; and had better lie 
quiet ! 

" Evangelical Union," formed some two years before, with 
what cause we saw, has Kur-Pf alz a at the head of it : but its 
troops or operations were never of a very forcible character. 
Kur-Brandenburg now joined it formally, as did many more ; 
Kur-Sachsen, anxious to make himself convenient in other 
quarters, never would. Add to these phenomena, the now 
decisive appearance of a "Catholic Liga" (League of Catholic 
Princes), which, by way of counterpoise to the " Union," had 
been got up by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria several months 
ago ; and which now, under the same guidance, in these bad 
circumstances, took a great expansion of figure. Duke Maxi- 
milian, "Donauworth Max," finding the Evangelical Union go 
so very high, and his own Kaiser like to be good for little in 
such business (poor hypochondriac Kaiser Eodolf II., more 
taken up with turning-looms and blow-pipes than with matters 

lln Carlyle's MiueUama (vi. " Two Hundred and Fifty Yeats ago: 
a Fragment about Duels ") is one small scene belonging to them. 

'Winter-King's Father; died 9th September, 1610, few days after tbit 
reof Jiilich. 


political, who accordingly is swept out of Jfllieh in such sum- 
mary way), Donauworth Max has seen this a necessary in- 
stitution in the present aspect. Both Union " and " League " 
rapidly waxed under the sound of the Julich cannon, as was 

Kur-Sachsen, for standing so well aloof from the Union, 
got from the thankful Kaiser written Titles for these Duchies 
of Cleve and Julich; Imperial parchments and infeftments 
of due extent ; but never any Territory in those parts. He 
never offered fight for his pretensions; and Brandenburg 
and Neuburg Neuburg especially always answered him, 
"No!" with sword half-drawn. So Kur-Sachsen faded out 
again, and took only parchments by the adventure. Prac- 
tically there was no private Competitor of moment to Bran- 
denburg, except this Wolfgang Wilhelm of Pf alz-Neuburg ; 
he alone having clutched hold. But we hasten to Symptom 
Third, which particularly concerns us, and will be intelli- 
gible now at last. 

Symptom Third; a Dinner-scene at Dilsseldorf, 1613 : 
Spaniards and Dutch shoulder arms in Cleve. 

Brandenburg and Neuburg stood together against third 
parties; but their joint-government was apt to fall in two, 
when left to itself, and the pressure of danger withdrawn. 
" They governed by the Baths and Stande of the Country ; " 
old methods and old official men: each of the two had his 
own Vice-Regent (Statthalter) present on the ground, who 
jointly presided as they could. Jarrings were unavoidable; 
but how mend it? Settle the litigated Territory itself, and 
end their big lawsuit, they could not; often as they tried 
it, with the whole world encouraging and urging them. 1 

Old Sir Henry Wotton, Provost of Eton in his old days, remembers how 
he went Ambassador on this errand, as on many others equally bootless ; 
and writes himself Legatns," not only " thrice to Venice, twice to " Ac. &c., 
tat ako " once to Holland in the Juliers matter (semd in JuKaeam neqetla) : " 
see WMomtata (London, 1672), Preface. It was " in 1614,"' say the 
Biographies vaguely. His Despatches, we they in the Paper-Office Btffll 
His good old Book deserves new editing, his good old genially pious life a 
proper elucidation, by some faithful man. 



The meetings they had, and the treaties and temporary 
bargains they made, and kept, and could not keep, in these 
and in the following years and generations, pass our power 
of recording. 

In 1613 the Brandenburg Statthalter was Ernst, the Elec- 
tor's younger Brother ; Wolfgang Wilhelm in person, for his 
Father, or rather for himself as heir of his Mother, repre- 
sented Pfal^Neuburg. Ernst of Brandenburg had adopted 
Calvinism as his creed; a thing hateful and horrible to the 
Lutheran mind (of which sort was Wolfgang Wilhelm), to 
a degree now altogether inconceivable. Discord arose in 
consequence between the Statthalters, as to official appoint- 
ments, sacred and secular : " You are for promoting Calvin- 
ists ! " " And you, I see, are for promoting Lutherans ! " 
Johann Sigismund himself had to intervene : Wolfgang Wil- 
helm and he had their meetings, friendly colloquies : the 
final colloquy of which is still memorable; and issues in 
Symptom Third. 

We said, a strong flame of choler burnt in all these 
Hohenzollerns, though they held it well down. Johann 
Sigismund, an excellent man of business, knew how essen- 
tial a mild tone is : nevertheless he found, as this colloquy 
went on, that human patience might at length get too much. 
The scene, after some examination, is conceivable in this 
wise: Place Dusseldorf, Elector's apartment in the Schloss 
there; time late in the Year 1613, Day not discoverable by 
me. The two sat at dinner, after much colloquy all morning : 
Johann Sigismund, a middle-aged, big-headed, stern-faced, 
honest-looking man; hair cropped, I observe; and eyelids 
slightly contracted, as if for sharper vision into matters: 
Wolfgang Wilhelm, of features fallen dim to me; an airy 
gentleman, well out of his teens, hut, I doubt, not of wisdom 
sufficient; evidently very high and stiff in his ways. 

His proposal, by way of final settlement, and end to all 
these brabbles, was this, and he insisted on it: "Give me 
your eldest Princess to wife ; let her dowry be your whole 
claim on Cleve-Jiilich ; I will marry her on that condition, 


and we shall be friends!" Here evidently is a gentleman 
that does not want for conceit in himself: consider too, 
in Johann Sigismund's opinion, he had no right to a square 
inch of these Territories, though for peace' sake a joint 
share had been allowed him for the time! "On that con- 
dition, jackanapes ? " thought Johann Sigismund : " My girl 
is not a monster; nor at a loss for husbands fully better 
than you, I should hope ! " This he thought, and could not 
help thinking; but endeavored to say nothing of it. The 
young jackanapes went on, insisting. Nature at last pre- 
vailed; Johann Sigismund lifted his hand (princely eti- 
quettes melting all into smoke on the sudden), and gave 
the young jackanapes a slap over the face. Veritable slap ; 
which opened in a dreadful manner the eyes of young Pfalz- 
Neuburg to his real situation ; and sent him off high-flaming, 
vowing never-imagined vengeance. A remarkable slap; well 
testified to, though the old Histories, struck blank with 
terror, reverence and astonishment, can for most part only 
symbol it in dumb-show ; 1 a slap that had important conse- 
quences in this world. 

For now Wolfgang Wilhelm, flaming off in never-imagined 
vengeance, posted straight to Munchen, to Max of Bavaria 
there ; declared himself convinced, or nearly so, of the Koman- 
Catholic Eeligion; wooed, and in a few weeks (10th Novem- 
ber, 1613) wedded Max's younger Sister ; and soon after, at 
Dusseldorf, pompously professed such his blessed change of 

i Pnfendorf (fler. Brandenb. lib. iv. 16, p. 213), and many others, are in 
this case. Tobias Planner (Historia Pad* Watpltaliae, lib. i. 9, p. 26) is 
explicit : " Nfyue, ut infida regncwdi societal art, Bnmdeaburgio et Neobwgm diu 
conveniebat; eorumque jwy!a, cum matrimonii faden pacari posse propinqui 
ipsorum credidissent, acrius exarsere; inter epulas, gvabus Jiiturum geaerum Sep. 
temvir (the " Sevensman," or Elector, " One of The Seven ") excipiebat, hajus 
tnim fiia Wolfgtmgo sperabatur, ob nescio ? o> sermones eb inter utrumgue alter, 
cation* provecti, id Elector ira, impoteMior, nulld dignitatu, hospitii, cognations, 
affinitatism verecundid cohibitus, intenderit Neobtargio mama, et contra tendentit 
os verberaverit. Ita, owe apud roneordri vincula caritatis, indtameata irarun 
apvd infensos eraat." (Cited in Kohler, M&abebutiounaen, xxi. 841 ; who 
refers also to Levassor, Hutoire de Louis -XT//.)-Pauli (iii. 542) become* 


Belief, with immense flourish of trumpeting, and jubilant 
pamphleteering, from Holy Church. 1 His poor old Father, 
the devoutest of Protestants, wailed aloud his "IchabodI the 
glory is departed 1 " holding " weekly fast and humiliation " 
ever after, and died in few months of a broken heart. The 
Catholic League has now a new Member on those terms. 

And on the other hand, Johann Sigismund, nearly with the 
like haste (26th December, 1613), declared himself convinced 
of Calvinism, his younger Brother's creed ; a which continues 
ever since the Brandenburg Court-creed, that of the People 
being mostly Lutheran. Men said, it was to please the 
Dutch, to please the Julichers, most of whom are Calvinist. 
Apologetic Pauli is elaborate, but inconclusive. It was very 
ill taken at Berlin, where even popular riot arose on the 
matter. In Prussia too it had its drawbacks. 8 

And now, all being full of mutation, rearrangement and 
infinite rumor, there marched next year (1614), on slight 
pretext, resting on great suspicions, Spanish troops into the 
Julich-Cleve country, and, countenanced by Neuburg, began 
seizing garrisons there. Whereupon Dutch troops likewise 
marched, countenanced by Brandenburg, and occupied other 
fortresses and garrisons : and so, in every strong-place, there 
were either Papist-Spaniards or Calvinist-Dutch ; who stood 
there, fronting one another, and could not by treatying be 
got out again; like clouds positively electric versus clouds 
negatively. As indeed was getting to be the case of Germany 
in general ; case fatally visible in every Province, Principality 
and Parish there: till a thunder-storm, and succession of 
thunder-storms, of Thirty Years' continuance, broke out. Of 
which these huge rumors and mutations, and menacings 
of war, springing out of that final colloquy and slap in the 
face, are to be taken as the Third premonitory- Symptom. 
Spaniards and Dutch stand electrically fronting one another 
in Cleve for seven years, till their Truce is out, before they 
clash together ; Germany does not wait so long by a couple of 

ESUer, nbi supA. * Fanli, Hi. 646. 

* Ib. iii. 544 ; Michaelis, i. 349. 


Symptom Fourth, and Catastrophe upon the heels of it. 

Five years more (1618), and there will have come a 
Fourth Symptom, biggest of all, rapidly consummating the 
process; Symptom still famed, of the following external 
figure : Three Official Gentlemen descending from a window 
in the Castle of Prag: hurled out by impatient Bohemian 
Protestantism, a depth of seventy feet, happily only into 
dung, and without loss of life. From which follows a " King 
of Bohemia " elected there, King not unknown to us ; 

sour smoke " blazing all into a continent of thunderous fire : 
THIBTIT-YEABS WAB, as they now call it J Such a conflagra- 
tion as poor Germany never saw before or since. 

These were the Four preliminary Symptoms of that dismal 
business. " As to the primary causes of it," says one of my 
Authorities, " these lie deep, deep almost as those of Original 
Sin. But the proximate causes seem to ine to have been these 
two: First, That the Jesuit-Priests and Principalities had 
vowed and resolved to have, by God's help and by the Devil's 
(this was the peculiarity of it), Europe made Orthodox again : 
and then Secondly, The fact that a Max of Bavaria existed at 
that time, whose fiery character, cunning but rash head, and 
fanatically Papist heart disposed him to attempt that enter- 
prise, him with such resources and capacities, under their bad 

Johann Sigismund did many swift decisive strokes of 
business in his time, businesses of extensive and important 
nature; but this of the slap to Neuburg has stuck best in 
the idle memory of mankind. Diisseldorf, Tear 1613: it 
was precisely in the time when that same Friedrich, not yet 
by any means "King of Bohemia," but already Kur-Pfalz 
(Cousin of this Neuburg, and head man of the Protestants), 
was over here in England, on a fine errand; namely, had 
married the fair Elizabeth (14th February, 1613), James the 
First's Princess; "Goody Palsgrave," as her Mother flout- 
ingly called her, not liking the connection. What kind of 


a "King of Bohemia" this Friedrich made, five or six years 
after, and what sea of troubles he and his entered into, we 
know; the " Winter-KSnig" (Winter-King, fallen in times of 
frost, or built of mere frost, a mow-king altogether soluble 
again) is the name he gets in German Histories. But here 
is another hook to hang Chronology upon. 

This brief Bohemian Kingship had not yet exploded on 
the Weissenberg of Prag, 1 when old Sir Henry Wotton being 
sent as Ambassador "to lie abroad" (as he wittily called it, 
to .his cost) in that Business, saw, in the City of Lintz, in 
the picturesque green country by the shores of the Donau 
there, an ingenious person, who is now recognizable as one 
of the remarkablest of mankind, Mr. John Kepler, namely : 
Keplor as Wotton writes him ; addressing the great Lord 
Bacon (unhappily without strict date of any kind) on that 
among other subjects. Mr. John's now ever-memorable watch- 
ing of those Motions of the Star Mars, 1 with "calculations 
repeated seventy times," and also with Discovery of the Plane- 
tary Laws of this Universe, some ten years ago, appears to 
be unknown to Wotton and Bacon ; but there is something 
else of Mr. John's devising 8 which deserves attention from 
an Instaurator of Philosophy : 

"He hath a little black Tent (of what stuff is not much im- 
porting)," says the Ambassador, " which he can suddenly set 
up where he will in a Field; and it is convertible (like a 
windmill) to all quarters at pleasure; capable of not much 
more than one man, as I conceive, and perhaps at no great 
ease ; exactly close and dark, save at one hole, about an 
inch and a half in the diameter, to which he applies a long per- 
spective Trunk, with the convex glass fitted to the said hole, 
and the concave taken out at the other end, which extendeth 
to about the middle of this erected Tent : through" which the 
visible radiations of all the Objects without are intromitted, 

i Battle there, Sunday 8th November, 1620. 

1 De SfatOms Stella Mortis ; Prag, 1609. 

* It seems, BaptistaPorta (of Naples, dead some yean before) mnst hare 
given him the essential hint, of whom, or whose hint, Mr. John does not 
happen to inform his Excellency at present. 


falling upon a Paper, which is accommodated to receive them ; 
and so he traceth them with his pen in their natural appear- 
ance ; turning his little Tent round by degrees, till he hath 
designed the whole Aspect of the Field." * In fact he hath 
a Camera Obscura, and is exhibiting the same for the delec- 
tation of Imperial gentlemen lounging that way. Mr. John 
invents such toys, writes almanacs, practises medicine, for 
good reasons; his encouragement from the Holy Eoman 
Empire and mankind being only a pension of 18 a year, and 
that hardly ever paid. An ingenious person, truly, if there 
ever was one among Adam's Posterity. Just turned of fifty, 
and ill off for cash. This glimpse of him, in his little black 
tent with perspective glasses, while the Thirty-Years War 
blazes out, is welcome as a date. 

What became of the Cleve-Jiilich Heritage, and of the 
Preussen one. 

In the Cleve Duchies joint government had now become 
more difficult than ever: but it had to be persisted in, 
under mutual offences, suspicions and outbreaks hardly re- 
pressed; no final Bargain of Settlement proving by any 
method possible. Treaties enough, and conferences, and 
pleadings, manifestoings : Could not some painful German 
collector of Statistics try to give us the approximate quantity 
of impracticable treaties, futile conferences, manifestoes, cor- 
respondences ; in brief, some authentical cipher (say in round 
millions) of idle Words spoken by official human creatures, 
and approximately (in square miles) the extent of Law Sta- 
tionery and other Paper written, first and last, about this 
Controversy of the Cleve Duchies ? In that form it might 
have a momentary interest. 

When the Winter-King's explosion took place, 8 and his 
own unfortunate Pfalz (Palatinate) became the theatre of war 
(Tilly, Spinola, versus Pfalzers, English, Dutch), involving all 

1 Beliquias Wattanianas, (London 1672), p. 300. 

2 Crowned at Prag, 4th November N.S. 1619 ; beaten to ruin there, and 
obliged to gallop (almost before dinner done), Sunday, 8th November, 1620. 


the neighboring regions, Cleve-Jiilich did not escape its fate. 
The Spaniards and the Dutch, who had long sat in gloomy 
armed-truce, occupying with obstinate precaution the main 
Fortresses of these Jiilich-Cleve countries, did now straight- 
way, their Twelve-Years' truce being out (1621), 1 fall to fight- 
ing and besieging one another there ; the huge War, which 
proved of Thirty Years, being now all ablaze. What the 
country suffered in the interim may be imagined. 

In 1624, in pity to all parties, some attempt at practical 
Division of the Territory was again made : Neuburg to have 
Berg and Jiilich, Brandenburg to have Cleve, Mark, Havens- 
burg and the minor appurtenances : and Treaty to that effect 
was got signed (llth May, 1624). But it was not well kept, 
nor could be ; and the statistic cipher of new treaties, mani- 
festoes, conferences, and approximate written area of Law- 
Paper goes on increasing. 

It was not till forty-two years after, in 1666, as will be more 
minutely noticeable by and by, that an effective partition 
could be practically brought about. Nor in this state was the 
Lawsuit by any means ended, as we shall wearisomely see, 
in times long following that. In fact there never was, in the 
German Chanceries or out of them, such a Lawsuit, Armed 
or Wigged, as this of the Cleve Duchies first and last. And 
the sentence was not practically given, till the Congress of 
Vienna (1816) in our own day gave it; and the thing Jo- 
hann Sigismund had claimed legally in 1609 was actually 
handed over to Johann Sigismund's Descendant in the sev- 
enth generation, after two hundred and six years. Handed 
over to him then, and a liberal rate of interest allowed. 
These litigated Duchies are now the Prussian Province Jiilich- 
Berg-Cleve, and the nucleus of Prussia's possessions in the 
Ehine country. 

A year before Johann Sigismund's death, Albert Friedrich, 
the poor eclipsed Duke of Prussia, died (8th August, 1618) : 
upon which our swift Kurf tirst, not without need of his dexteri- 
ties there too, got peaceable possession of Prussia; nor has 
1 Pauli,Ti.578-i80. 


his Family lost hold of that, up to the present time. Next 
year (23d December, 1619), he himself closed a swift busy 
life (labor enough in it for him perhaps, though only an age of 
forty-nine) ; and sank to his long rest, his works following 
him, unalterable thenceforth, not unfruitful some of them. 



BY far the unluckiest of these Electors, whether the most 
unworthy of them or not, was George Wilhelm, Tenth Elec- 
tor, who now succeeded Johann Sigismund his Father. The 
Father's eyes had closed when this great flame was breaking 
out ; and the Son's days were all spent amid the hot ashes and 
fierce blazings of it. 

The position of Brandenburg during this sad Thirty-Years 
War was passive rather than active ; distinguished only in the 
former way, and as far as possible from being glorious or vic- 
torious. Never since the Hohenzollerns came to that Country 
had Brandenburg such a time. Difficult to have mended it ; 
impossible to have quite avoided it ; and Kurf iirst George 
Wilhelm was not a man so superior to all his neighbors, that 
he could clearly see his way in such an element. The perfect 
or ideal course was clear : To have frankly drawn sword for 
his Eeligion and his Eights, so soon as the battle fairly 
opened ; and to have fought for these same, till he got either 
them or died. Alas, that is easily said and written; but it 
is, for a George Wilhelm especially, difficult to do ! His capa- 
bility in all kinds was limited ; his connections, with this side 
and that, were very intricate. Gustavus and the Winter- 
King were his Brothers-in-law ; Gustavus wedded to his Sister, 
he to Winter-King's. His relations to Poland, feudal superior 
of Preussen, were delicate; and Gustavus was in deadly quar- 
rel with Poland. And then Gustavus's sudden laying-hold of 


Pommern, which had just escaped from "WallensteJn and the 
Kaiser ? It must be granted, poor George Wilhelm's case 
demanded circumspectness. 

One can forgive hi for declining the Bohemian-King specu- 
lation, though his Uncle of Jagerndorf and his Cousins of 
Liegnitz were so hearty and forward in it. Pardonable in him 
to decline the Bohemian speculation ; though surely it is 
very sad that he found himself so short of "butter and fire- 
wood" when the poor Ex-King, and his young Wife, then in 
a specially interesting state, came to take shelter with him ! 1 
But when Gustavus landed, and flung out upon the winds such 
a banner as that of his, truly it was required of a Protestant 
Governor of men to be able to read said banner in a certain 
degree. A Governor, not too imperfect, would have recognized 
this Gustavus, what his purposes and likelihoods were; the 
feeling would have been, checked by due circumspectness: 
" Up, my men, let us follow this man ; let us live and die in 
the Cause this man goes for! Live otherwise with honor, or 
die otherwise with honor, we cannot, in the pass things have 
come to ! " And thus, at the very worst, Brandenburg would 
have had only one class of enemies to ravage it ; and might 
have escaped with, arithmetically speaking, half the harrying 
it got in that long Business. 

But Protestant Germany sad shame to it, which proved 
lasting sorrow as well was all alike torpid; Brandenburg 
not an exceptional case. No Prince stood up as beseemed : 
or only one, and he not a great one ; Landgraf Wilhelm of 
Hessen, who, and his brave Widow after him, seemed always 
to know what hour it was. Wilhelm of Hessen all along ; 
and a few wild hands, Christian of Brunswick, Christian of 
Anhalt, Johann George of Jagerndorf, who stormed out tumul- 
tuously at first, but were soon blown away by the Tilly-Wal- 
lenstein trade-winds and regulated armaments : the rest sat 

1 S5IM (GeKhidaedesDreMsJShrigen Krieg*,-* trivial modem Book) 
gives a notable memorial from the Brandenburg Baths, concerning these their 
difficulties of housekeeping. Their real object, we perceive, was to get rid of 
a Guest so dangerous as the Ex-King, under Ban of the Empire, had now 

CtaAp. xvi. THIBTY-YEABS WAK. 267 

still, and tried all they could to keep out of harm's way. The 
" Evangelical Union " did a great deal of manif estoing, pa- 
thetic, indignant and other; held solemn Meetings at Heil- 
bronn, old Sir Henry Wotton going as Ambassador to them ; 
but never got any redress. Had the Evangelical Union shut 
up its inkhorns sooner; girt on its fighting-tools when the 
time came, and done some little execution with them then, 
instead of none at all, we may fancy the Evangelical Union 
would have better discharged its function. It might have 
saved immense wretchedness to Germany. But its course 
went not that way. 

In fact, had there been no better Protestantism than that of 
Germany, all was over with Protestantism ; and Max of Bava- 
ria, with fanatical Ferdinand II. as Kaiser over him, and 
Father Lammerlein at his right hand and Father Hyacinth at 
his left, had got their own sweet way in this world. But 
Protestant Grermany was not Protestant Europe, after alL 
Over seas there dwelt and reigned a certain King in Sweden ; 
there farmed, and walked musing by the shores of the Ouse in 
Huntingdonshire, a certain man ; there was a Gustav Adolf 
over seas, an Oliver Cromwell over seas ; and " a company of 
poor men " were found capable of taking Lucifer by the beard, 
who accordingly, with his Lammerleins, Hyacinths, Habern- 
feldts and others, was forced to withdraw, after a tough 



THE enormous Thirty-Years War, most intricate of modern 
Occurrences in the domain of Dryasdust, divides itself, after 
some unravelling, into Three principal Acts or Epochs ; in 
all of which, one after the other, our Kurftirst had an inter- 
est mounting progressively, but continuing to be a passive 

Act First goes from 1620 to 1624; and might be entitled 


"The Bohemian King Made and Demolished." Personally 
the Bohemian King was soon demolished. His Kingship may 
be said to have gone off by explosion ; by one Fight, namely, 
done on the Weissenberg near Piag (Sunday, 8th November, 
1620), while he sat at dinner in the City, the boom of the 
cannon coming in with interest upon his high guests and him. 
He had to run, in hot haste, that night, leaving many of Ms 
important papers, and becomes a Winter-King. Winter- 
King's account was soon settled. But the extirpating of his 
Adherents, and capturing of his Hereditary Lands, Palatinate 
and Upper-Palatinate, took three years more. Hard fighting 
for the Palatinate ; Tilly and Company against the " Evangeli- 
cal-Union Troops, and the English under Sir Horace Vere." 
Evangelical-Union Troops, though marching about there, under 
an Uncle of our Kurfurst (Margraf Joachim Ernst, that lucky 
Anspach Uncle, founder of " the Line "), who professed some 
skill in soldiering, were a mere Picture of an Army ; would 
only " observe," and would not fight at all. So that the whole 
fighting fell to Sir Horace and his poor handful of English ; 
of whose grim posture " in Frankendale " * and other Strong- 
holds, for months long, there is talk enough in the old English 

Then there were certain stern War-Captains, who rallied 
from the Weissenberg Defeat : Christian of Brunswick, the 
chief of them, titular Bishop of Halberstadt, a high-flown, fiery 
young fellow, of terrible fighting gifts ; he flamed up consider- 
ably, with " the Queen of Bohemia's glove stuck in his Hat : " 
''Bright Lady, it shall stick there, till I get you your own 
again, or die!" 2 Christian of Brunswick, George of Jagern- 
dorf (our Kurf iirsf s Uncle), Count Mansfeldt and others, made 
stormy fight once and again, hanging upon this central " Frank- 

i Frankenthal, a little Town in the Palatinate, N.W. from Mannheim a 
abort way. 

1621-1623, age not yet twenty-five; died (by poison), 1626, having again 
become supremely important just then. " Gotten Framd, der Pfaffen Feind 
(God's Friend, Priests' Foe) ; " " AUet fir Rulun. itnrf Mr (All for Glory and 
Her," the bright Elizabeth, become Ex-Queen), were mottoes of his. Bud- 
d&ns M eou li. 649) ; Michaelu, i. 110. 


endale " Business, till they and it became hopeless. For the 
Kaiser and his Jesuits were not in doubt ; a Kaiser very proud, 
unscrupulous ; now clearly superior in force, and all along of 
great superiority in fraud. 

Christian of Brunswick, Johann George and Mansfeldt were 
got rid of : Christian by poison ; Johann George and Mansfeldt 
by other methods, chiefly by playing upon poor King James 
of England, and leading him by the long nose he was found to 
have. The Palatinate became the Kaiser's for the time being ; 
Upper Palatinate (Ober-Pfalz) Duke Max of Bavaria, lying 
contiguous to it, had easily taken. "Incorporate the Ober- 
Pfalz with your Bavaria," said the Kaiser, "you, illustrious, 
thrice-serviceable Max ! And let Lammerlein and Hyacinth, 
with their Gospel of Ignatius, loose upon it. Nay, as a still 
richer reward, be yours the forfeited Kur (Electorship) of this 
mad Kur-Pf alz, or Winter-King. I will hold his Rhine-Lands, 
his Unter-Pfal: his Electorship and Ober-Pfalz, I say, are 
yours, Duke, henceforth Kurflirst Maximilian I " l Which was 
a hard saying in the ears of Brandenburg, Saxony and the 
other Five, and of the Eeich in general ; but they had all to 
comply, after wincing. For the Kaiser proceeded with a high 

(never asking "the Empire" about it) ; put his Three principal 
Adherents, Johann George of Jagerndorf one of them, Prince 
Christian of Anhalt (once captain at the Siege of Juliers) 
another, likewise under Ban of the Empire; a and in short had 
flung about, and was flinging, his thunder-bolts in a very Olym- 
pian manner. Under all which, what could Brandenburg and 
the others do; but whimper some trembling protest, "Clear 
against Law ! " and sit obedient ? The Evangelical Union 
did not now any more than formerly draw out its fighting- 
tools. In fact, the Evangelical Union now fairly dissolved 
itself; melted into a deliquium of terror under these thun- 
der-bolts that were flying, and was no more heard of in the 

* Eihler, Beicht-Bittarie, p. 520, * 22d Jan. 1621 (ibid. p. 518). 


Second Act, or Epoch, 1624-1629. A second Uncle put to 

the Han, and Pommern snatched away. 
Except in the "Nether-Saxon Circle" (distant Northwest 
region, with its Hanover, Mecklenburg, with its rich Ham- 
burgs, Liibecks, Magdeburgs, all Protestant, and abutting on 
the Protestant North), trembling Germany lay ridden over as 
the Kaiser willed. Foreign League got up by France, King 
James, Christian IV. of Denmark (James's Brother-in-law, with 
whom he had such "drinking" in Somerset House, long ago, 
on Christian's visit hither *), went to water, or worse. Only 
the " Nether-Saxon Circle " showed some life ; was levying an 
army ; and had appointed Christian of Brunswick its Captain, 
till he was got poisoned; upon which the drinking King of 
Denmark took the command. 

Act Second goes from 1624 to 1627 or even 1629; and con- 
tains drunken Christian's Exploits. "Which were unfortunate, 
almost to the ruin of Denmark itself, as well as of the Nether- 
Saxon Circle ; till in the latter of these years he slightly 
rallied, and got a supportable Peace granted him (Peace of 
Liibeck, 1629) ; after which he sits quiet, contemplative, with 
an evil eye upon Sweden now and then. The beatings he 
got, in quite regular succession, from Tilly and Consorts, are 
not worth mentioning : the only thing one now remembers of 
him is his alarming accident on the ramparts of Hameln, just 
at the opening of these Campaigns. At Hameln, which was 
to be a strong post, drunken Christian rode out once, on a 
summer afternoon (1624), to see that the ramparts were all 
right, or getting all right ; and tumbled, horse and self (self 
in liquor, it is thought), in an ominous alarming manner. 
Taken up for dead; nay some of the vague Histories seem 
to think he was really dead : but he lived to be often beaten 
after that, and had many moist years more. 

Our Kurfiirst had another Uncle put to the Ban in this 

Second Act, Christian Wilhelm Archbishop of Magdeburg, 

" for assisting the Danish King ; " nor was Ban all the ruin 

Old Historie. of James I. (Wilson, Ac.) 


that fell on this poor Archbishop. What could an unfortunate 
Kurf iirst do, but tremble and obey ? There was still a worse 
smart got by our poor Kurftirst out of Act Second; the glar- 
ing injustice done him in Pommern. 

Does the reader remember that scene in the High Church 
of Stettin a hundred and fifty years ago ? How the Biirger- 
meister threw sword and helmet into the grave of the last 
Duke of Pommern-Stettin there ; and a forward Citizen picked 
them out again in favor of a Collateral Branch ? Never since, 
any more than then, could Brandenburg get Ppmmern accord- 
ing to chum. Collateral Branch, in spite of Friedrich Iron- 
teeth, in spite even of Albert Achilles and some fighting of 
his, contrived, by pleading at the Diets and stirring up noise, 
to maintain its pretensions : and Treaties without end ensued, 
as usual ; Treaties refreshed and new-signed by every Successor 
of Albert, to a wearisome degree. The sum of which always 
was : "Pommern does actual homage to Brandenburg; vassal 
of Brandenburg; and falls home to it, if the now Extant 
Line go extinct." Nay there is an Erbverbriiderung (Heritage- 
Fraternity) over and above, established this long time, and 
wearisomely renewed at every new Accession. Hundreds of 
Treaties, oppressive to think of : and now the last Duke, 
old Bogislaus, is here, without hope of children ; and the fruit 
of all that haggling, actual Pommern to wit, will at last fall 
home ? Alas, no ; far otherwise. 

For the Kaiser having so triumphantly swept off the Winter- 
Zing, and Christian IV. in the rear of him, and got Germany 
ready for converting to Orthodoxy, wished now to have 
some hold of the Seaboard, thereby to punish Denmark; nay 
thereby, as is hoped, to extend the blessings of Orthodoxy 
into England, Sweden, Holland, and the other Heretic States, 
in due time. For our plans go far ! This is the Kaiser's fixed 
wish, rising to the rank of hope now and then : all Europe 
shall become Papist again by the help of God and the Devil. 
So the Kaiser, on hardly any pretext, seized Mecklenburg 
from the Proprietors, " Traitors, how durst you join Danish 
Christian?" and made Wallenstein Duke of it Duke of 
Mecklenburg, "Admiral of the East Sea (Baltic);" and set 


to "building ships of war in Bpstock," his plans going 
far. 1 This done, he seized Pommern, which also is a fine Sea- 
country, stirring up Max of Bavaria to make some idle 
pretence to Pommern, that so the Kaiser might seize it in 
sequestration till decided on." "Under which hard treatment, 
George Wilhelm had to sit sad and silent, though the Stral- 
sunders would not. Hence the world-famous Siege of Stral- 
sund (1628); fierce Wallenstein declaring, "I will have the 
Town, if it hung by a chain from Heaven ; " but finding he 
could not get it; owing to the. Swedish succor, to the stubborn 
temper prevalent among the Townsfolk, and also greatly to 
the rains and peat-bogs. 

A second Uncle of George Wilhelm's, that unlucky Arch- 
bishop of Magdeburg above mentioned, the Kaiser, once more 
by his own arbitrary will, put under Ban of the Empire, in 
this Second Act: "Traitor, how durst you join with the 
Danes ? " The result of which was Tilly's Sack of Magdeburg 
(10-12th May, 1631), a transaction never forgettable by man- 
kind. As for Pommern, Gustav Adolf, on his intervening in 
these matters, landed there: Pommern was now seized by 
Gustav Adolf, as a landing-place and place-of-arms, indispen- 
sable for Sweden in the present emergency ; and was so held 
thenceforth. Pommern will not fall to George Wilhelm at 
this time. 

Third Act, and what the Kttrfiirst suffered in it. 

And now we are at Act Third .-Landing of Gustav Adolf 
"in the Isle of Usedom, 24th June, 1630," and onward for 
Eighteen Years till the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648; on 
which, as probably better known to the reader, we will not 
here go into details. In this Third Act too, George Wilhelm 
followed his old scheme, peace at any price; as shy of 
Gustav as he had been of other Champions of the Cause ; and 
except complaining, petitioning and manifestoing, studiously 
did nothing. 

Poor man, it was his fate to stand in the range of these huge 

collisions, -Bridge of Dessau, Siege of Stralsund, Sack of 

i Kohler, Reidu-HiOerie, pp. 524, 525. 


Magdeburg, Battle of Leipzig, where the Titans were bowl- 
ing rocks at one another ; and he hoped, by dexterous skip- 
ping, to escape share of the game. To keep well with his 
Kaiser, and such a Kaiser to Germany and to him, this, 
for George Wilhelm, was always the first commandment. If 
the Kaiser confiscate your Uncles, against law; seize your 
Pommern; rob you on the public highways, George Wil- 
helm, even in such case, is full of dubitations. Nay his Prime- 
Minister, one Schwartzenberg, a Catholic, an Austrian Official 
at one time, Progenitor of the Austrian Schwartzenbergs 
that now are, was secretly in the Kaiser's interest, and is 
even thought to have been in the Kaiser's pay, all along. 

Gustav, at his first landing, had seized Pommern, and swept 
it clear of Austrians, for himself and for his own wants ; not 
too regardful of George Wilhelm's claims on it. He cleared 
out Frankfurt-on-Oder, Custrin and other Brandenburg Towns, 
in a similar manner, by cannon and storm, when needful ; 
drove the Imperialists and Tilly forth of these countries. 
Advancing, next year, to save Magdeburg, now shrieking 
under Tilly's bombardment, Gustav insisted on having, if not 
some bond of union from his Brother-in-law of Brandenburg, 
at least the temporary cession of two Places of War for 
himself, Spandau and Custrin, indispensable in any farther 
operation. Which cession Kurfurst George Wilhelm, though 
giving all his prayers to the Good Cause, could by no means 
grant. Gustav had to insist, with more and more emphasis ; 
advancing at last, with military menace, upon Berlin itself. 
He was met by George Wilhelm and his Council, " in the 
woods of Copenick," short way to the east of that City : there 
George Wilhelm and his Council wandered about, sending 
messages, hopelessly consulting; saying among each other, 
" QUB faire; Us ont des canons, What can one do; they have 
got cannon ? " * For many hours so ; round the inflexible 
Gustav, who was there like a fixed milestone, and to all 

i (Euvres de Frtdfric le Grand (Berlin, 1846-1856 et seqq. : Memoins de 
Brandebourg), i. 38. For the rest, Friedrich's Account of the Transaction J 
very loose and scanty : Bee Pauli (iv. 568) and his minute details. 


questions and comers had only one answer ! " Que faire ; Us 
ont des canons ? " This was the 3d May, 1631. This probably 
is about the nadir-point of the Brandenburg-Hohenzollern 
History. The little TYiedrich, who became Frederick the 
Great, in writing of it, has a certain grim banter in his tone ; 
and looks rather with mockery on the perplexities of his poor 
Ancestor, so fatally ignorant of the time of day it had now 

On the whole, George Wilhelm did what is to be called 
nothing, in the Thirty-Years War; his function was only 
that of suffering. He followed always the bad lead of Johann 
George, Elector of Saxony ; a man of no strength, devoutness 
or adequate human worth; who proved, on these negative 
grounds, and without flagrancy of positive badness, an un- 
speakable curse to Germany. Not till the Kaiser fulminated 
forth his Eestitution-Edict, and showed he was in earnest 
about it (1629-1631), "Restore to our Holy Church what you 
have taken from her since the Peace of Passau!" could 
this Johann George prevail upon himself to join Sweden, or 
even to do other than hate it for reasons he saw. Seized by 
the throat in this manner, and ordered to deliver, Kur-Sachsen 
did, and Brandenburg along with Mm, make Treaty with the 
Swede. 1 In consequence of which they two, some months 
after, by way of co-operating with Gustav on his great march 
Vienna-ward, sent an invading force into Bohemia, Branden- 
burg contributing some poor 3,000 to it ; who took Prag, and 
some other open Towns ; but " did almost nothing there," say 
the Histories, "except dine and drink." It is clear enough 
they were instantly scattered home a at the first glimpse of 
Wallenstein dawning on the horizon again in- those parts. 

Gustav having vanished (Field of Ltitzen, 6th November, 
1632 s ), Oxenstiern, with his high attitude, and "Presidency" 
of the " Union of Heilbronn," was rather an offence to Kur- 
Sachsen, who used to be foremost man on such occasions. 
Kur-Sachsen broke away again; made his Peace of Prag, 4 

8th February, 1631 (Kohler, Reichs-Historie, pp. 526-531). 

October, 1633 (Stenzel, i. 503). 

Pauli, w. 576. * 1635, 20th May (Stenzel. i. 513). 


whom Brandenburg again followed; Brandenburg and grad- 
ually all the others, except the noble Wilhelm of Hessen- 
Cassel alone. Miserable Peace ; bit of Chaos clouted up, and 
done over with Official varnish; which proved to be the 
signal for continuing the War beyond visible limits, and ren- 
dering peace impossible. 

After this, George Wilhelm retires from the scene; lives 
in Ciistrin mainly ; mere miserable days, which shall be in- 
visible to us. He died in 1640; and, except producing an 
active brave Son very unlike himself, did nothing consider- 
able in the world. "Quefaire; Us ont des canons!" 

are counted Three great Battles, Leipzig, Liitzen, Nbrdlingen. 
Under one great Captain, Swedish Gustav, and the two or 
three other considerable Captains, who appeared in it, high 
passages of furious valor, of fine strategy and tactic, are on 
record. But on the whole, the grand weapon in it, and 
towards the latter times the exclusive one, was Hunger. 
The opposing Armies tried to starve one another ; at lowest, 
tried each not to starve. Each trying to eat the country, or 
at any rate to leave nothing eatable in it: what that will 
mean for the country, we may consider. As the Armies too 
frequently, and the Kaiser's Armies habitually, lived without 
commissariat, often enough without pay, all horrors of war 
and of being a seat of war, that have been since heard of, are 
poor to those then practised. The detail of which is still 
horrible to read. Germany, in all eatable quarters of it, had 
to undergo the process; tortured, torn to pieces, wrecked, 
and brayed as in a mortar under the iron mace of war. 1 Bran- 
denburg saw its towns sieged and sacked, its country popu- 
lations driven to despair, by the one party and the other. 
Three times, first in the WaUenstein Mecklenburg period, 
while fire and sword were the weapons, and again, twice over, 

i Curious incidental details of the state it was reduced to, in the Rhine 
and Danube Countries, tan Bp in the Earl of Arundel and Surrey's Travel* 
( " Arondal of the Marble* " ) as Ambatuador Extraordinary to the Emperor Fa> 
dmando II. in 1636 (a small Volume, or Pamphlet, London, 1637). 


in tke ultimate stages of the struggle, when starvation had 
become the method Brandenburg fell to be the principal 
theatre of conflict, where all forms of the dismal were at their 
height. In 1638, three years after that precious "Peace of 
Prag," the Swedes (Banier versus Gallas) starving out the 
Imperialists in those Northwestern parts, the ravages of the 
starving Gallas and his Imperialists excelled all precedent; 
and the "famine about Tangermiinde had risen so high that 
men ate human flesh, nay human creatures ate their own chil- 
dren. " * Quefaire ; Us out des canons / " 



THIS unfortunate George Wilhelm failed in getting Pom- 
mern when due; Pommern, firmly held by the Swedes, was 
far from him. But that was not the only loss of territory 
he had. Jagerndorf, we have heard of Johann George of 
Jagerndorf, Uncle of this George Wilhelm, how old Joachim 
Priedrich put him into Jagerndorf, long since, when it fell 
home to the Electoral House. Jagerndorf is now lost; Jo- 
hann George is under Beichs-Acht (Ban of Empire), ever 
since the Winter-King's explosion, and the thunder-bolts that 
followed; and wanders landless; nay he is long since dead, 
and has six feet of earth for a territory, far away in Tran- 
sylvania, or the Biesen-Gebirge (Giant Mountains) somewhere. 
Concerning whom a word now. 

Duke qfJagemdorf, Elector's Uncle, is put under Ban. 

Johann George, a frank-hearted valiant man, concerning 

whom only good actions, and no bad one, are on record, 

tad notable troubles in the world; bad troubles to begin 

1888 :Panli,iv. 604. 


with, and -worse to end in. He was second Son of Kurfurst 
Joachim Friedrich, who had meant him for the Church. 1 
The young fellow was Coadjutor of Strasburg, almost from 
the time of getting into short-clothes. He was then, still 
very young, elected Bishop there (1592); Bishop of Stras- 
burg, but only by the Protestant part of the Canons; the 
Catholic part, unable to submit longer, and thinking it a 
good time for revolt against a Protestant population and 
obstinately heterodox majority, elected another Bishop, 
one "Karl of the House of Lorraine;" and there came to be 
dispute, and came even to be fighting needed. Fighting; 
which prudent Papa would not enter into, except faintly 
at second-hand, through the Anspach Cousins, or others that 
were in the humor. Troublesome times for the young man ; 
Which lasted a dozen years or more. At last a Bargain was 
made (1604); Protestant and Catholic Canons splitting the 
difference in some way; and the House of Lorraine paying 
Johann George a great deal of money to go home again. 1 
Poor Johann George came out of it in that way ; not second- 
best, think several. 

He was then (1606) put into Jagerndorf, which had just 
fallen vacant; our excellent fat friend, George Friedrich of 
Anspach, Administrator of Preussen, having lately died, and 
left it vacant, as we saw. George Friedrich's death yielded 
fine apanages, three of them in all: first Anspach, second, 
Baireuth, and this third of Jagerndorf for a still younger 
Brother. There was still a fourth younger Brother, Uncle 
of George Wilhelm; Archbishop of Magdeburg this one; 
who also, as we have seen, got into Beichs-Acht, into deep 
trouble in the Thirty-Years War. He was in Tilly's thrice- 
murderous Storm of Magdeburg (10th May, 1631) ; was cap- 
tured, tumbled about by the wild soldiery, and nearly killed 
there. Poor man, with his mitre and rochets left in such a 
state! In the end he even became Catholic, from convic- 
tion, as was evident, and bewilderment of mind ; and lived 

l 1577-1624: Hentsch, p. 486. 

CEuvre, compete de Voltaire, 97 vofc. {PariB, 1825-1882), radii. 284.- 
Sohter (Reida-Hutone, p. 487) gfws the authentic particulars. 


pamphlets. 1 

As to Johann George, he much repaired and beautified the 
Castle of Jagerndorf, says Eentsch : but he unfortunately went 
ahead into the "Winter-King's adventure; which, in that sad 
battle of the Weissenberg, made total shipwreck of itself, 
drawing Johann George and much else along with it. Johann 
George was straightway tyrannously put to the Ban, forfeited 
of life and lands : 2 Johann George disowned the said Ban 5 
stood out fiercely for self and Winter-King; and did good 
fighting in the Silesian strongholds and mountain-passes: 
but was forced to seek temporary shelter in Siebenbiiryen 
(Transylvania) ; and died far away, in a year or two (1624), 
while returning to try it again. Sleeps, I think, in the 
Jablunka Pass ; " the dumb Giant-Mountains (MiesenrGebirge) 
shrouding up his sad shipwreck and him. 

Jagerndorf was thus seized by Ferdinand II. of the House 
of Hapsburg ; and though it was contrary to all law that the 
Kaiser should keep it, poor Johann George having left Sons 
very innocent of treason, and Brothers, and an Electoral 
Nephew, very innocent ; to whom, by old compacts and new, 
the Heritage in defect of Mm was to fall, neither Kaiser 
Ferdinand II. nor Kaiser Ferdinand III. nor any Kaiser 
would let go the hold; but kept Jagerndorf fast clenched, 
deaf to all pleadings, and monitions of gods or men. Till 
at length, in the fourth generation afterwards, one "Friedrich 
the Second," not unknown to us, a sharp little man, little 
in stature, but huge in faculty and renown, who is now called 
"Frederick the Great," clutched hold of the Imperial fist 
(so to speak), seizing his opportunity in 1740 ; and so wrenched 
and twisted said close fist, that not only Jagerndorf dropped 
out of it, but the whole of Silesia along with Jagerndorf, 
there being other claims withal. And the account was at 
last settled, with compound interest, as in fact such ac- 
counts are sure to be, one way or other. And so we leave 
Johann George among the dumb Giant-Mountains again. 

1587; 1628; 1665 (Kentsch, pp. 905-910). 

* 22d January, 1681 {Kohler, Radu-Bittarie, p. 518: and rectify Httbner, 
t 178). 




BBASTDENBUBG had again sunk very low under the Tenth 
Elector, in the unutterable troubles of the times. But it was 
gloriously raised up again by his Son Friedrich Wilhelm, who 
succeeded in 1640. This is he whom they call the "Great 
Elector (Grosse Kurfurst);" of whom there is much writing 
and celebrating in Prussian Books. As for the epithet, it is 
not uncommon among petty German populations, and many 
times does not mean too much: thus Max of Bavaria, with 
his Jesuit Lambkins and Hyacinths, is, by Bavarians, called 
"Maximilian the Great." Friedrich Wilhelm, both by his 
intrinsic qualities and the success he met with, deserves it 
better than most. His success, if we look where he started 
and where he ended, was beyond that of any other man in 
his day. He found Brandenburg annihilated, and he left 
Brandenburg sound and flourishing ; a great country, or already 
on the way towards greatness. Undoubtedly a most rapid, 
clear-eyed, active man. There was a stroke in him swift as 
lightning, well-aimed mostly, and of a respectable weight 
withal; which shattered asunder a. whole world of impedi- 
ments for him, by assiduous repetition of it for fifty years. 1 

There hardly ever came to sovereign power a young man of 
twenty under more distressing, hopeless-looking circumstances. 
Political significance Brandenburg had none ; a mere Protes- 
tant appendage dragged about by a Papist Kaiser. His 
Father's Prime-Minister, as we have seen, was in the interest 
of his enemies; not Brandenburg's servant, but Austria's. 
The very Commandants of his Fortresses, Commandant of 
1620; 16*0; 1688. 


Spandau more especially, refused to obey Friedricli WiJhelm, 
on his accession; "were bound to obey the Kaiser in the 
first place." He had to proceed softly as -well as swiftly ; 
with the most delicate hand to get him of Spandau by the 
collar, and put him under lock-and-key, him as a warning 
to others. 

For twenty years past, Brandenburg had been scoured by 
hostile armies, which, especially the Kaiser's part of which, 
committed outrages new in human history. In a year or two 
hence, Brandenburg became again the theatre of business; 
Austrian Gallas advancing thither again (1644), with intent 
"to shut up Torstenson and his Swedes in Jutland," where 
they had been chastising old Christian IV., now meddlesome 
again, for the last time, and never a good neighbor to Sweden. 
Gallas could by no means do what he intended ; on the con- 
trary, he had to run from Torstenson, what feet could do; 
was hunted, he and his Merode-Briider (beautiful inventors 
of the "Marauding" Art), "till they pretty much all died 
(crqrirteri)," says Kohler. 1 No great loss to society, the death 
of these Artists; but we can fancy what their life, and 
especially what the process of their dying, may have cost 
poor Brandenburg again! 

Friedrich Wilhelm's aim, in this as in other emergencies, 
was sun-clear to himself, but for most part dim to everybody 
else. He had to walk very warily, Sweden on one hand of 
him, suspicious Kaiser on the other; he had to wear sem- 
blances, to be ready with evasive words ; and advance noise- 
lessly by many circuits. More delicate operation could not 
be imagined. But advance he did ; advance and arrive. With 
extraordinary talent, diligence and felicity the young man 
wound himself out of this first fatal position; got those 
foreign Armies pushed out of his Country, and kept them 
out. His first concern had been to find some vestige of 
revenue, to put that upon a clear footing; and by loans or 
otherwise to scrape a little ready money together. On the 
strength of which a small body of soldiers could be collected 
about him, and drilled into real ability to fight and obey. 
i Reicht-Hittorit, p. 556 ; Fanli, v. 24. 

This as abasia; on this followed all manner of things; free- 
dom from Swedish-Austrian invasions, as the first thing. 

He was himself, as appeared by and by, a fighter of the 
first quality, when it came to that ; but never was willing to 
fight if he could help it. Preferred rather to shift, manoeuvre 
and negotiate; which he did in a most vigilant, adroit and 
masterly manner. But by degrees he had grown to have, and 
could maintain it, an Army of 24,000 men ; among the best 
troops then in being. With or without his will, he was in all 
the great Wars of his time, the time of Louis XIV., who 
kindled Europe four times over, thrice in our Kurfiirst's day. 
The Kurffirst's Dominions, a long straggling country, reach- 
ing from Memel to Wesel, could hardly keep out of the way 
of any war that might rise. He made himself available, 
never against the good cause of Protestantism and German 
Freedom, yet always in the place and way where his own best 
advantage was to be had. Louis XIV. had often much need 
of him ; still of tener, and more pressingly, had Kaiser Leo- 
pold, the little Gentleman "in scarlet stockings, with a red 
feather in his hat," whom Mr. Savage used to see majestically 
walking about, with Austrian lip that said nothing at all. 1 
His 24,000 excellent fighting-men, thrown in at the right time, 
were often a thing that could turn the balance in great ques- 
tions. They required to be allowed for at a high rate, 
which he well knew how to adjust himself for exacting and 
securing always. 

i A Compleat History of Germany, by Mr. Savage (8vo, London, 1702), 
p. 553. Who this Mr. Savage was, we have no trace. Prefixed to the vol- 
ume is the Portrait of a solid Gentleman of forty ; gloomily polite, with ample 
wig and cravat, in all likelihood gome studious subaltern Diplomatist in the 
Succession War. His little Book is very lean and barren ; but faithfully com- 
piled, and might have some illumination in it, where utter darkness is so 
prevalent. Most likely, Addison picked his story of the Siege of Weaaberg 
("Women carrying out their Husbands on their back," one of his best 
Spectators) out of this poor Book. 

What became of Pommern at the Peace ; final Glance 
into Gleve-Jiilich. 

When the Peace of Westphalia (1648) concluded that 
Thirty-Years Conflagration, and swept the ashes of it into 
order again, Friedrich Wilhelm's right to Pommern was admit- 
ted by everybody 5 and well insisted on by himself : but right 
had to yield to reason of state, and he could not get it. The 
Swedes insisted on their expenses ; the Swedes held Pommern, 
had all along held it, in pawn, they said, for their expenses. 
Nothing for it but to give the Swedes the better half of Pom- 
mern. Jbre-Pommern (so they call it, " Swedish Pomerania " 
thenceforth), which lies next the Sea ; this, with some Towns 
and cuttings over and above, was Sweden's share : Friedrich 
Wilhelm had to put up with ffinder-PommeTn, docked further- 
more of the Town of Stettin, and of other valuable cuttings, 
in favor of Sweden. Much to Friedrich Wilhelm's grief and 
just anger, could he have helped it. 

They gave him Three secularized Bishoprics, Magdeburg, 
Halberstadt, Minden, with other small remnants, for compen- 
sation ; and he had to be content with these for the present. 
But he never gave up the idea of Pommern ; much of the 
effort of his life was spent upon recovering Fore-Pommern ; 
thrice-eager upon that, whenever lawful opportunity offered. 
To no purpose then; he never could recover Swedish Pom- 
mem ; only his late descendants, and that by slowish degrees, 
could recover it all. Readers remember that Burgermeister of 
Stettin, with the helmet and sword flung into the grave and 
picked out again; and can judge whether Brandenburg got 
its good luck quite by lying in bed ! 

Once, and once only, he had a voluntary purpose towards 
"War, and it remained a purpose only. Soon after the Peace 
of Westphalia, old Pfalz-Neuburg, the same who got the 
slap on the face, went into tyrannous proceedings against the 
Protestant part of his subjects in Julich-Cleve ; who called 
to Friedrich Wilhelm for help. Friedrich Wilhelm, a zealous 
Protestant, made remonstrances, retaliations: ere long the 
thought struck him, " Suppose, backed by the Dutch, we threw 


out this fantastic old gentleman, his Papistries, and pretended 
claims and self, clear out of it?" This was Friedrich Wil- 
helm's thought; and he suddenly marched troops into the Ter- 
ritory, with that view. But Europe was in alarm, the Dutch 
grew faint: Friedrich Wilhelm saw it would not do. He 
had a conference with old Pfalz-Neuburg : "Young gentle- 
man, we remember how your Grandfather made free with us 
and our august countenance! Nevertheless we " In fine, 
the "statistic of Treaties" was increased by One; and there 
the matter rested till calmer times. 

In 1666, as already said, an effective Partition of these liti- 
gated Territories was accomplished: Prussia to have the 
Duchy of Cleve-Proper, the Counties of Mark and Kavens- 
burg, with other Patches and Pertinents ; Neuburg, what was 
the better share, to have Jiilich Duchy and Berg Duchy. 
Furthermore, if either of the Lines failed, in no sort was 
a collateral to be admitted ; but Brandenburg was to inherit 
Neuburg, or Neuburg Brandenburg, as the case might be. 1 A 
clear Bargain this at last ; and in the times that had come, it 
proved executable so far. But if the reader fancies the Law- 
suit was at last out in this way, he will be a simple reader ! 
In the days of our little Fritz, the Line of Pfalz-Neuburg was 
evidently ending; but that Brandenburg and not a coUateral 
should succeed it, there lay the quarrel, open still, as if it 
had never been shut ; and we shall hear enough about it ! 

The Great Kurfursfs Wars : what he achieved in War 
and Peace. 

Friedricb. Wilhelm's first actual appearance in War, Polish- 
Swedish War (1655-1660), was involuntary in the highest 
degree ; forced upon him for the sake of his Preussen, which 
bade fair to be lost or ruined, without blame of his or its. 
Nevertheless, here too he made his benefit of the affair. The 
big King of Sweden had a standing quarrel with his big 
Cousin of Poland, which broke out into hot War ; little Preus- 
sen lay between them, and was like to be crushed in the col- 
i Panli, v. 120-129. 

lision. Swedish King was Karl Gustav, Christina's Cousin, 
Charles Twelfth's Grandfather ; a great and mighty man, lion 
of the North in his time : Polish King was one John Casimir ; 
chivalrous enough, and with clouds of forward Polish chivalry 
about him, glittering with barbaric gold. Frederick III., 
Danish King for the time being, he also was much involved 
in the thing. Tain would IWedrich Wilhelm have kept out 
of it, but he could not. Karl Gustav as good as forced him 
to join : he joined ; fought along with Karl Gustav an illus- 
trious Battle; "Battle of Warsaw," three days long (28-30th 
July, 1666), on the skirts of Warsaw, crowds " looking from 
the upper windows" there; Polish chivalry, broken at last, 
going like chaff upon the winds, and John Casimir nearly 

Shortly after which, Friedrich Wilhelm, who had shone 
much in the Battle, changed sides. An inconsistent, treacher- 
ous man ? Perhaps not, reader ; perhaps a man advancing 
"in circuits," the only way he has; spirally, face now to east, 
now to west, with his own reasonable private aim sun-clear to 
him all the while ? 

John Casimir agreed to give up the " Homage of Preussen " 
for this service ; a grand prize for Friedrich Wilhelm. 1 What 
the Teutsch Bitters strove for in vain, and lost their existence 
in striving for, the shifty Kurfurst has now got : Ducal Prussia, 
which is also called East Prussia, is now a free sovereignty, 
and will become as Eoyal " as the other Polish part. Or per- 
haps even more so, in the course of time ! Karl Gustav, in 
a high frame of mind, informs the Kurfiirst, that he has him 
on his books, and will pay the debt one day ! 

A dangerous debtor in such matters, this Karl Gustav. In 
these same months, busy with the Danish part of the Contro- 
versy, he was doing a feat of war, which set all Europe in as- 
tonishment. In January, 1668, Karl Gustav marches his Army, 
horse, foot and artillery, to the extent of twenty thousand, 
across the Baltic ice, and takes an Island without shipping, 
Island of Funen, across the Little Belt; three miles of ice; 

i Treaty of Labian, 10th November, 1656 (Panli, v. 73-75) ; 20th November 
(Stenzel, iv. 128, - who alwayi uses New Style). 


and a part of the sea open, which has to be crossed on planks. 
Nay, forward from Fttnen, when once there, he achieves ten 

whole miles more of ice; and takes Zealand itself, 1 to the 

wonder of all mankind. An imperious, stern-browed, swift- 
striking man ; who had dreamed of a new Goth Empire : The 
mean Hypocrites and Fribbles of the South to be coerced again 
by noble Norse valor, and taught a new lesson. Has been 
known to lay his hand on his sword while apprising an Am- 
bassador (Dutch High-Mightiness) what his royal intentions 
were : " Not the sale or purchase of groceries, observe you, 
Sir ! My aims go higher ! " Charles Twelfth's Grandfather, 

But Karl Gustav died, short while after ; 2 left his big wide- 
raging Northern Controversy to collapse in what way it could. 
Sweden and the fighting-parties made their "Peace of Oliva" 
(Abbey of Oliva, near Dantzig, 1st May, 1660); and this of 
Preussen was ratified, in all form, among the other points. 
No homage more ; nothing now above Ducal Prussia but the 
Heavens ; and great times coming for it. This was one of the 
successfulest strokes of business ever done by Friedrieh Wil- 
helm ; who had been forced, by sheer compulsion, to embark 
in that big game. " Royal Prussia," the Western or Polish 
Prussia : this too, as all Newspapers know, has, in our times, 
gone the same road as the other. Which probably, after all, 
it may have had, in Nature, some tendency to do ? Cut away, 
for reasons, by the Polish sword, in that Battle of Tannenberg, 
long since ; and then, also for reasons, cut back again ! That 
is the fact; not unexampled in human History. 

Old Johann Casimir, not long after that Peace of Oliva, 
getting tired of his unruly Polish chivalry and their ways, 
abdicated; retired to Paris; and "lived much with Ninon 
de 1'Enclos and her circle," for the rest of his life. He used to 
complain of his Polish chivalry, that there was no solidity in 
them ; nothing but outside glitter, with tumult and anarchic 
noise; fatal want of one essential talent, the talent of Obey- 
ing ; and has been heard to prophesy that a glorious Republic, 

1 Holberg's DSnemarkische Retda-Historie, pp. 406-409. 

* 13th February, 1660, age 38. 


persisting in such courses, would arrive at results which would 
surprise it 

Onward from this time, Friedrich Wilhelm figures in the 
world; public men watching his procedure; Kings anxious to 
secure him, Dutch printsellers sticking up his Portraits for 
a hero-worshipping Public. Fighting hero, had the Public 
known it, was not his essential character, though he had to 
fight a great deal He was essentially an Industrial man; 
great in organizing, regulating, in constraining chaotic heaps 
to become cosmic for him. He drains bogs, settles colonies in 
the waste-places of his Dominions, cuts canals ; unweariedly 
encourages trade and work. The FriedncJi-WUlielm's Canal, 
which still carries tonnage from the Oder to the Spree, 1 is a 
monument of his zeal in this way ; creditable, with the means 
he had. To the poor French Protestants, in the Edict-ofVNantes 
Affair, he was like an express Benefit of Heaven : one Helper 
appointed, to whom the help itself was profitable. He munifi- 
cently welcomed them to Brandenburg; showed really a noble 
piety and human pity, as well as judgment ; nor did Branden- 
burg and he want their reward. Some 20,000 nimble French 
souls, evidently of the best French quality, found a home 
there; made "waste sands about Berlin into potherb gar- 
dens ; " and in the spiritual Brandenburg, too, did something of 
horticulture, which is still noticeable. 2 

Certainly this Elector was one of the shiftiest of men. Not 
an unjust man either. A pious, God-fearing man rather, stanch 
to his Protestantism and his Bible ; not unjust by any means, 
nor, on the other hand, by any means thick-skinned in his 
interpreting of justice : Fair-play to myself always ; or occa- 
sionally even the Height of Fair-play ! On the whole, by con- 
stant energy, vigilance, adroit activity, by an ever-ready insight 
and audacity to seize the passing fact by its right handle, he 

i Executed, 1662-1668; fifteen English miles long (Biisching, Erdbeschrei- 
foS ( Yi.2193). 

* Erman (weak Biographer of Queen Sophie-Charlotte, already cited), Ut- 
moires pour lermr a I'Hittoire dot RefugiA Frangaa dans let Etati da Km de 
Prvue (Berlin, 1783-1 794), 8 tt. 8vo. 


fought his way well in the world; left Brandenburg a flourish- 
ing and greatly increased Country, and his own name famous 

A thick-set stalwart figure ; with brisk eyes, and high 
strong irregularly Roman nose. Good bronze Statue of him, 
fay Schliiter, once a famed man, still rides on the Lang&-Brucke 
(Long-Bridge) at Berlin; and his Portrait, in huge frizzled 
Louis-Quatorze wig, is frequently met with in German Gal- 
leries. Collectors of Dutch Prints, too, know him : here a 
gallant, eagle-featured little gentleman, brisk in the smiles of 
youth, with plumes, with truncheon, caprioling on his war- 
charger, view of tents in the distance ; there a sedate, pon- 
derous, wrinkly old man, eyes slightly puckered (eyes busier 
than mouth) ; a face well-ploughed by Time, and not found 
unfruitful ; one of the largest, most laborious, potent faces (in 
an ocean of circumambient periwig) to be met with in that 
Century. 1 There are many Histories about him, too; but they 
are not comfortable to read. 3 He also has wanted a sacred 
Poet; and found only a bewildering Dryasdust. 

His Two grand Teats that dwell in the Prussian memory 
are perhaps none of his greatest, but were of a kind to strike 
the imagination. They both relate to what was the central 
problem of his life, the recovery of Pommern from the 
Swedes. Exploit First is the famed "Battle of Fehrlettin 
(Ferry of Belleew)," fought on the 18th June, 1675. Fehrbellin 
is an inconstf arable Town still standing in those peaty regions, 
some five-and-thirty miles northwest of Berlin; and had for 
ages plied its poor Ferry over the oily-looking, brown, sluggish 
stream called Rhin, or Ehein in those parts, without the least 

1 Both Prints are Dutch ; the Younger, my copy of the Younger, has lost 
the Engraver's Name (Kurftiist's age is twenty-seven) ; the Elder is by Masson, 
1683, when Friedrich Wilhelm was sixty-three. 

2 6. D. wd Thaten Friedrich WiUtelms des Graaen (Frankfort 
and Leipzig, 1703), folio. Franz Horn, Das Lebea Friedrich Willielmt des 
Grwwn (Berlin, 1814). PauK. Staats-GeMchte, Band v. (Halle, 1764). Pufen- 
dorf, De rebus ffestuFriderid WiUielmi Mayni EleOorii Brandenburgensis Com- 
nentaria (Lips, et Berol. 1733, fol.). 


notice from mankind, till this fell out. It is a place of pil- 
grimage to patriotic Prussians, ever since Friedrich Wilhelm's 
exploit there. The matter went thus : 

Friedrich Wilhelm was fighting, far south in Alsace, on 
Kaiser Leopold's side, in the Louis-Fourteenth War; that 
second one, which ended in the treaty of Nimwegen. Doing 
his best there, when the Swedes, egged on by Louis XIV., 
made war upon him ; crossed the Pomeranian marches, troop 
after troop, and invaded his Brandenburg Territory with a 
force which at length amounted to some 16,000 men. No help 
for the moment : Friedrich Wilhelm could not be spared from 
his post The Swedes, who had at first professed well, gradu- 
ally went into plunder, roving, harrying, at their own will ; 
and a melancholy time they made of it for Friedrich Wilhelm 
and his People. Lucky if temporary harm were all the ill they 
were likely to do ; lucky if 1 He stood steady, however ; in 

was feasible. He then even retired into winter-quarters, to 
rest his men; and seemed to have left the Swedish 16,000 
autocrats of the situation; who accordingly went storming 
about at a great rate. 

Not so, however; very far indeed from so. Having rested 
his men for certain months, Friedrich Wilhelm silently in 
the first days of June (1675) gets them under march again ; 
marches, his Cavalry and he as first instalment, with best 
speed from Schweinf urt, 1 which is on the river Main, to Mag- 
deburg; a distance of two hundred miles. At Magdeburg, 
where he rests three days, waiting for the first handful of foot 
and a field-piece or two, he learns that the Swedes are in three 
parties wide asunder ; the middle party of them within forty 
miles of him. Probably stronger, even this middle one, than 
his small body (of " six thousand Horse, twelve hundred Foot 
and three guns ") ; stronger, but capable perhaps of being 
surprised, of being cut in pieces, before the others can come 
up? Bathenau is the nearest skirt of this middle party: 
thither goes the Kurfurst, softly, swiftly, in the June night 
(16-17th June, 1675) ; gets into Kathenau, by brisk stratagem ; 
i Stenzd, ii. 347. 


tumbles out the Swedish. Horse-regiment there, drives it back 
towards Fehrbellin. 

He himself follows hard; swift riding enough, in the 
summer night, through those damp Havel lands, in the old 
Hohenzollern fashion : and indeed old Freisack Castle, as it 
chances, Freisack, scene of Dietrich von Quitzow and Lay 
Peg long since, is close by ! Follows hard, we say : strikes 
in upon this midmost party (nearly twice his number, but In- 
fantry for the most part) ; and after fierce fight, done with 
good talent on both sides, cuts it into utter ruin, as proposed. 
Thereby he has left the Swedish Army as a mere head and tail 
without body; has entirely demolished the Swedish Army. 1 
Same feat intrinsically as that done by Cromwell, on Hamilton 
and the Scots, in 1648. It was, so to speak, the last visit 
Sweden paid to Brandenburg, or the last of any consequence ; 
and ended the domination of the Swedes in those quarters. A 
thing justly to be forever remembered by Brandenburg ; on 
a smallish modern scale, the Bannockburn, Sempach, Marathon, 
of Brandenburg. 2 

Exploit Second was four years later ; in some sort a corol- 
lary to this ; and a winding-up of the Swedish business. The 
Swedes, in farther prosecution of their Louis-Fourteenth specu- 
lation, had invaded Preussen this time, and were doing sad 
havoc there. It was in the dead of winter, Christmas, 1678, 
more than four hundred miles off; and the Swedes, to say 
nothing of their other havoc, were in a case to take Konigsberg, 
and ruin Prussia altogether, if not prevented. Friedrich Wil- 
helm starts from Berlin, with the opening Year, on his long 
march; the Horse-troops first, Foot to follow at their swiftest; 
he himself (his Wife, his ever-true " Louisa," accompanying, 
as her wont was) travels, towards the end, at the rate of " sixty 
miles a day." He gets in still in time, finds Konigsberg 
unscathed. Nay it is even said, the Swedes are extensively 

* Stenzel, ii. 350-357. 

* See Pauli, v. 161-169 ; Stenzel, ii. 335, 340-347, 354 ; Kansler, Atia det 
pirn BKfmomMes Batailks, Combati <* Sieges, or Atlas dec merkwilrdigite, 
Schlachten, Treffm and Bdagerungm (German and French, Carisrnhe auc 
Freiburg, 1831), p. 417, Blatt 63. 

VOL. v. 19 

falling sick; having, after a long famine, found infinite "pigs, 
near Insterburg," in those remote regions, and indulged in the 

I will not describe the subsequent manoeuvres, which would 
interest nobody : enough if I say that on the 16th of January, 
1679, it had become of the highest moment for Friedrich Wil- 
helm to get from Carwe (Village near Elbing) on the shore of 
the Frisehe Haf, where he was, through Konigsberg, to Gilge 
on the Cwrische Haf, where the Swedes are, in a minimum 
of time. Distance, as the crow flies, is about a hundred miles ; 
road, which skirts the two Hafs 1 (wide shallow Washes, as 
we should name them), is of rough quality, and naturally 
circuitous. It is ringing frost to-day, and for days back : 
Friedrich Wilhelm hastily gathers all the sledges, all the horses 
of the district ; mounts some four thousand men in sledges ; 
starts, with the speed of light, in that fashion. Scours along 
all day, and after the intervening bit of land, again along; 
awakening the ice-bound silences. Gloomy Frisehe Haf, wrapt 
in its Winter cloud-coverlids, with its wastes of tumbled sand, 
its poor frost-bound fishing-hamlets, pine-hillocks, desolate- 
looking, stern as Greenland or more so, says Bttsching, who 
travelled there in winter-time, 8 hears unexpected human 
noises, and huge grinding and trampling ; the four thousand, 
in long fleet of sledges, scouring across it, in that manner. All 
day they rush along, out of the rimy hazes of morning into 
the olive-colored clouds of evening again, with huge loud- 
grinding rumble ; and do arrive in time at Gilge. A notable 
streak of things, shooting across those frozen solitudes, in the 
New-Year, 1679; little short of Karl Gustav's feat, which 
we heard of, in the other or Danish end of the Baltic, twenty 
years ago, when he took Islands without ships. 

This Second Exploit suggested or not by that prior one 
of Karl Gustav on the ice is still a thing to be remembered 
by Hohenzollerns and Prussians. The Swedes were beaten 
here, on Friedrieh Wilhelm's rapid arrival ; were driven into 
disastrous rapid retreat Northward; which they executed in 

1 Panli.v. 215-222; Stenzel, ii. 392-397. 

* Biisching's Batriige (Halle, 1789), ri. 160. 


hunger and cold ; fighting continually, like Northern bears, 
under the grim sky; Friedrich Wilhelm sticking to their 
skirts, holding by their tail, like an angry bear-ward with 
steel whip in his hand. A thing which, on the small scale, 
reminds one of Napoleon's experiences. Not till Napoleon's 
huge fighting-flight, a hundred and thirty-four years after, 
did I read of such a transaction in those parts. The Swedish 
invasion of Preussen has gone utterly to ruin. 

And this, then, is the end of Sweden, and its bad neighbor- 
hood on these shores, where it has tyrannously sat on our 
skirts so long ? Swedish Pommern the Elector already had : 
last year, coming towards it ever since the Exploit of Fehr- 
bellin, he had invaded Swedish Pommern ; had besieged and 
taken Stettin, nay Stralsund too, where Wallenstein had 
failed ; cleared Pommern altogether of its Swedish guests. 
Who had tried next in Preussen, with what luck we see. Of 
Swedish Pommern the Elector might now say : " Surely it is 
mine ; again mine, as it long was ; well won a second time, 
since the first would not do I " But no : Louis XTV. proved 
a gentleman to his Swedes. Louis, now that the Peace of 
Nimwegen had come, and only the Elector of Brandenburg 
was still in harness, said steadily, though anxious enough to 
keep well with the Elector: "They are my allies, these 
Swedes ; it was on my bidding they invaded you : can I leave 
them in such a pass ? It must not be ! " So Pommern had 
to be given back. A miss which was infinitely grievous to 
Friedrich Wilhelm. The most victorious Elector cannot hit 
always, were his right never so good. 

Another miss which he had to put up with, in spite of his 
rights, and his good services, was that of the Silesian Duchies. 
The Heritage-Fraternity with Liegnitz had at length, in 1675, 
come to fruit. The last Duke of Liegnitz was dead : Duchies 
of Liegnitz, of Brieg, Wohlau, are Brandenburg's, if there were 
right done ! But Kaiser Leopold in the scarlet stockings will 
not hear of Heritage-Fraternity. Nonsense ! " answers Kai- 
ser Leopold : "A thing suppressed at once, ages ago ; by Im- 
perial power : flat zero of a thing at this time ; and you, I 
again bid you, return me your Papers upon it ! " This latter 


act of duty Friedrich Wilhelm would not do ; but continued 
insisting. 1 " Jagerndorf at least, Kaiser of the world," said 
he ; " Jagerndorf, there is no color for your keeping that ! " 
To which the Kaiser again answers, "Nonsense ! " and even 
falls upon astonishing schemes about it, as we shall see ; but 
gives nothing. Ducal Preussen is sovereign, Cleve is at Peace, 
Hinter-Pommern ours; this Elector has conquered much: 
but the Silesian Heritages and Vor-Pommera, and some other 
things, he will have to do without. Louis XIV., it is thought, 
once offered to get him made King ; * but that he declined for 
the present. 

His married and domestic life is very fine and human ; espe- 
cially with that Oranien-Nassau Princess, who was his first 
Wife (1646-1667) ; Princess Louisa of Nassau-Orange; Aunt 
to our own Dutch William, King William III., in time coming. 
An excellent wise Princess; from whom came the Orange 
Heritages, which afterwards proved difficult to settle : 
Orange was at last exchanged for the small Principality of 
Neufchatel in Switzerland, which is Prussia's ever since. 
"Oranienburg (Orange-Burg)," a Koyal Country-house, still 
standing, some twenty miles northwards from Berlin, was 
this Louisa's place : she had trimmed it up into a little jewel, 
of the Dutch type, potherb gardens, training-schools for 
young girls, and the like ; a favorite abode of hers, when 
she was at liberty for recreation. But her life was busy and 
earnest : she was helpmate, not in name only, to an ever-busy 
man. They were married young ; a marriage of love withal. 
Young IMedrich Wilhelm's courtship, wedding in Holland; 
the honest trustful walk and conversation of the two Sover- 
eign Spouses, their journeyings together, their mutual hopes, 
fears and manifold vicissitudes ; till Death, with stern beauty, 
shut it in : all is human, true and wholesome in it ; inter- 
esting to look upon, and rare among sovereign persons. 

Not but that he had his troubles with his womankind. Even 

with this his first Wife, whom he loved truly, and who truly 

loved him, there were scenes ; the Lady having a judgment 

of her own about everything that passed, and the Man being 

Pauli,T.321. iIb.viL21S. 

choleric withaL Sometimes, I have heard, "he would dash 
his hat at her feet," saying symbolically, " Govern you, then, 
Madam ! Not the Kurf first-Hat ; a Coif is my wear, it seems ! " l 
Yet her judgment was good ; and he liked to have it on the 
weightiest things, though her powers of silence might halt 
now and then. He has been known, on occasion, to run from 
his Privy-Council to her apartment, while a complex matter 
was debating, to ask her opinion, hers too, before it was de- 
cided. Excellent Louisa; Princess full of beautiful piety, 
good-sense and affection; a touch of the Nassau-Heroic in 
her. At the moment of her death, it is said, when speech 
had fled, he felt, from her hand which lay in his, three slight, 
slight pressures : " Farewell ! " thrice mutely spoken in that 
manner, not easy to forget in this world. 2 

His second Wife, Dorothea, who planted the Lindens in 
Berlin, and did other husbandries, of whom we have heard, 
fell far short of Louisa in many things ; but not in tendency 
to advise, to remonstrate, and plaintively reflect on the finished 
and unalterable. Dreadfully thrifty lady, moreover ; did much 
in dairy produce, farming of town-rates, provision-taxes : not 
to speak again of that Tavern she was thought to have in 
Berlin, and to draw custom to in an oblique manner ! What 
scenes she had with Priedrich her stepson, we have seen. 
" Ah, I have not my Louisa now ; to whom now shall I run 
for advice or help ! " would the poor Kurfurst at times 

He had some trouble, considerable trouble now and then, 
with mutinous spirits in Preussen ; men standing on antique 
Prussian franchises and parchments ; refusing to see that the 
same were now antiquated, incompatible, not to say impossi- 
ble, as the new Sovereign alleged; and carrying themselves 
very stiffly at times. But the Hohenzollerns had been used to 
such things; a Hohenzollern like this one would evidently 
take his measures, soft but strong, and ever stronger to the 
needful pitch, with mutinous spirits. One Btirgermeister of 
Konigsberg, after much stroking on the back, was at length 

1 FSrster, Friedrich Wilhdm 1. KSnig von Preus** (Potsdam, 1834), i. 177. 

Wegfuhrer, Lebea der KurfirMn Luise (Leipzig, 1838), p. 175. 

seized in open Hall, by Electoral writ, soldiers having first 
gently barricaded the principal streets, and brought cannon 
to bear upon them. This Bui-germeister, seized in such brief 
way, lay prisoner for life 5 refusing to ask his liberty, though 
it was thought he might have had it on asking. 1 

Another gentleman, a Baron von Kalkstein, of old Teutsch- 
Bitter kin, of very high ways, in the Provincial Estates 
(Stande) and elsewhere, got into lofty almost solitary oppo- 
sition, and at length into mutiny proper, against the new 
"Non-Polish Sovereign," and flatly refused to do homage at 
his accession in that new capacity." Eefused, Kalkstein did, 
for his share ; fled to Warsaw ; and very fiercely, in a loud 
manner, carried on his mutinies in the Diets and Court-Con- 
claves there; his plea being, or plea for the time, "Poland 
is our liege lord [which it was not always], and we cannot 
be transferred to you, except by our consent asked and 
given," which too had been a little neglected on the former 
occasion of transfer. So that the Great Elector knew not 
what to do with Kalkstein; and at length (as the case was 
pressing) had him kidnapped by his Ambassador at Warsaw ; 
had him " rolled into a carpet " there, and carried swiftly 
in the Ambassador's coach, in the form of luggage, over the 
frontier, into his native Province, there to be judged, and, in 
the end (since nothing else would serve him), to have the 
sentence executed, and his head cut off. For the case was 
pressing ! These things, especially this of Kalkstein, with 
a boisterous Polish Diet and parliamentary eloquence in the 
rear of him, gave rise to criticism; and required manage- 
ment on the part of the Great Elector. 

Of all his Ancestors, our little Fritz, when he grew big, 
admired this one. A man made like himself in many points. 
He seems really to have loved and honored this one. In the 
year 1750 there had been a new Cathedral got finished at Ber- 
lin ; the ancestral bones had to be shifted over from the vaults 
of the old one, the burying-place ever since Joachim II., that 

1 Horn, Da Leben Fnedrich Wilhelmt da Groom (Berlin, 1814), p. 68. 

Joachim who drew his sword on Alba. "Zing Friedrich, 
with some attendants, witnessed the operation, January, 1750. 
When the Great Kurfiirst's coffin came, he made them open 
it; gazed in silence on the features for some time, which 
were perfectly recognizable ; laid his hand on the hand long 
dead, and said, 'Messieurs, celuird a fait de grandes chases 
(This one did a great work)!'" 1 

He died 29th April, 1688; looking with intense interest 
upon Dutch William's preparations to produce a Glorious 
Eevolution in this Island ; being always of an ardent Prot- 
estant feeling, and a sincerely religious man. Friedrieh, 
Crown-Prince, age then thirty-one, and already married a 
second time, was of course left Chief Heir; who, as we 
see, has not declined the Kingship, when a chance for it 
offered. There were four Half-brothers of Friedrich, too, 
who got apanages, appointments. They had at one time con- 
fidently looked for much more, their Mother being busy; but 
were obliged to be content, and conform to the Gera Bond 
and fundamental Laws of the Country. They are entitled 
Margraves; two of whom left children, Margraves of Bran- 
denburg-SchwedV He&rmeisters (Head of the Malta-Knight- 
hood) at Sonnenburg, Statthalters in Magdeburg, or I know 
not what ; whose names turn up confusedly in the Prussian 
Books; and, except as temporary genealogical puzzles, are 
not of much moment to the Foreign reader. Happily there 
is nothing else in the way of Princes of the Blood, in our 
little Friedrich's time ; and happily what concern he had 
with these, or how he was related to them, will not be ab- 
struse to us, if occasion rise. 

1 See Preuss, i. 270. 




WE said the Great Elector never could -work his Silesian 
Duchies out of Kaiser Leopold's grip : to all his urgencies the 
little Kaiser in red stockings answered only in evasions, refu- 
sals ; and would quit nothing. We noticed also what quarrels 
the young Electoral Prince, Friedrich, afterwards King, had 
got into with his Stepmother ; suddenly feeling poisoned after 
dinner, running to his Aunt at Cassel, coming back on treaty, 
and the like. These are two facts which the reader knows : 
and out of these two grew a third, which it is fit he should 

In his last years, the Great Elector, worn out with labor, 
and harassed with such domestic troubles over and above, 
had evidently fallen much under his Wife's management; 
cutting out large apanages (clear against the Gera Bond} for 
her children ; longing probably for quiet in his family at 
any price. As to the poor young Prince, negotiated back from 
Gassel, he lived remote, and had fallen into open disfavor, 
with a very ill effect upon his funds, for one thing. His 
father kept him somewhat tight on the money-side, it is 
alleged; and he had rather a turn for spending money hand- 
somely. He was also in some alarm about the proposed apa- 
nages to his Half-brothers, the Margraves above mentioned, 
of which there were rumors going. 

How Austria settled the Site nan Claims. 

Now in these circumstances the Austrian Court, who at this 
time (1685) greatly needed the Elector's help against Turks 
and others, and found him very urgent about these Silesian 
Duchies of bis, fell upon what I must call a very extraordinary 


shift for getting rid of the Silesian question. Serene High- 
ness," said they, by their Ambassador at Berlin, "to end these 
troublesome talks, and to liquidate all claims, admissible and 
inadmissible, about Silesia, the Imperial Majesty will give you 
an actual bit of Territory, valuable, though not so large as you 
expected!" The Elector listens -with both ears: What Ter- 
ritory, then ? The " Circle of Schwiebus," hanging on the 
northwestern edge of Silesia, contiguous to the Elector's own 
Dominions in these Frankfurt-on-Oder regions: this the gener- 
ous Imperial Majesty proposes to give in fee-simple to Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, and so to end the matter. Truly a most small 
patch of Territory in comparison ; not bigger than an English 
Rutlandshire, to say nothing of soil and climate ! But then 
again it was an actual patch of territory ; not a mere parch- 
ment shadow of one : this last was a tempting point to the old 
harassed Elector. Such friendly offer they made him, I think, 
in 1685, at the time they were getting 8,000 of his troops to 
march against the Turks for them ; a very needful service at 
the moment. "By the bye, do not march through Silesia, 
you ! Or march faster ! " said the cautious Austrians on this 
occasion : " Other roads will answer better than Silesia ! " 
said they. 1 Baron Freytag, their Ambassador at Berlin, had 
negotiated the affair so far : " Circle of Schwiebus," said Frey- 
tag, " and let us have done with these thorny talks ! " 

But Baron Freytag had been busy, in the mean while, with 
the young Prince ; secretly offering sympathy, counsel, help ; 
of all which the poor Prince stood in need enough. " We will 
help you in that dangerous matter of the Apanages," said 
Freytag; "Help you in all things," I suppose he would 
say, " necessary pocket-money is not a thing your Highness 
need want ! " And thus Baron Freytag, what is very curious, 
had managed to bargain beforehand with the young Prince, 
That directly on coming to power, he would give up Schwiebus 
again, should the offer of Schwiebus be accepted by Papa. To 
which effect Baron Freytag held a signed Bond, duly executed 
by the young man, before Papa had concluded at alL Which 
is very curious indeed ! 

l Panli, v. 327, 332. 


Poor old Papa, worn out with troubles, accepted Schwiebus 
in liquidation of all claims (8th April, 1686), and a few days 
after set his men on march against the Turks : and, exactly 
two months beforehand, on the 8th of February last, the 
Prince had signed his secret engagement, That Schwiebus 
should be a mere phantasm to Papa ; that he, the Prince, 
would restore it on his accession. Both these singular Parch- 
ments, signed, sealed and done in the due legal form, lay 
simultaneously in Freytag's hand ; and probably enough they 
exist yet, in some dusty corner, among the solemn sheepskins 
of the world. This is literally the plan hit upon by an Im- 
perial Court, to assist a young Prince in his pecuniary and 
other difficulties, and get rid of Silesian claims. Plan actually 
not unlike that of swindling money-lenders to a young gentle- 
man in difficulties, and of manageable turn, who has got into 
their hands. 

The Great Elector died two years after ; Schwiebus then in 
his hand. The new Elector, once instructed as to the nature 
of the affair, refused to give up Schwiebus ; x declared the 
transaction a swindle: and in fact, for seven years more, 
retained possession of Schwiebus. But the Austrian Court 
insisted, with emphasis, at length with threats (no insuperable 
pressure from Louis, or the Turks, at this time) ; the poor 
cheated Elector had, at last, to give up Schwiebus, in terms of 
his promise. 8 He took act that it had been a surreptitious 
transaction, palmed upon him while ignorant, and while with- 
out the least authority or power to make such a promise; 
that he was not bound by it, nor would be, except on com- 
pulsion thus far: and as to binding Brandenburg by it, 
how could he, at that period of his history, bind Branden- 
burg ? Brandenburg was not then his to bind, any more than 
China was. 

His Baths had advised Friedrich against giving up Schwie- 
bus in that manner. But his answer is on record : " I must, 
I will and shall keep my own word. But my rights on Silesia, 
which I could not, and do not in these unjust circumstances, 
compromise, I leave intact for my posterity to prosecute. If 

1 19th September, 1689 (Panli, vii. 74). * 31st December, 1694. 


God and the course of events order it no otherwise than now, 
we must be content. But if God shall one day send the 
opportunity, those that come after me will know what they 
have to do in such case." 1 And so Schwiebus was given up, 
the Austrians paying back what Brandenburg had laid out in 
improving it, "250,000 gulden (25,000) ;" and the Hand 
of Power had in this way, finally as it hoped, settled an old 
troublesome account of Brandenburg's. Settled the Silesian- 
Duchies Claim, by the temporary Phantasm of a Gift of Schwie- 
bus. That is literally the Liegnitz-Jagerndorf case ; and the 
reader is to note it and remember it. For it will turn up again 
in History. The Hand of Power is very strong : but a stronger 
may perhaps get hold of its knuckles one day, at an advan- 
tageous time, and do a feat upon it. 

The eventual succession to East Friesland," which had 
been promised by the Reich; some ten years ago, to the Great 
Elector, "for what he had done against the Turks, and what 
he had suffered from those Swedish Invasions, in the Common 
Cause : " this shadow of Succession, the Kaiser now said, 
should not be haggled with any more ; but be actually real- 
ized, and the Imperial sanction to it now given, effect to 
follow if the Friesland Line died out. Let this be some con- 
solation for the loss of Schwiebus and your Silesian Duchies. 
Here in Friecland is the ghost of a coming possession ; there 
in Schwiebus was the ghost of a going one : phantasms you 
shall not want for ; but the Hand of Power parts not with its 
realities, however come by. 

His real Character. 

Poor Friedrich led a conspicuous life as Elector and King ; 
but no public feat he did now concerns us like this private 
one of Schwiebus. Historically important, this, and requiring 
to be remembered, while so much else demands mere oblivion 
from us. He was a spirited man; did soldierings, fine Siege 
of Bonn (July-October, 1689), sieges and campaignings, in per- 
son, valiant in action, royal especially in patience there, 
i Pauli, vii. 150. 


during that Third War of Lotus-Fourteenth's, the Treaty-of- 
Eyswick one. All through the Fourth, or Spanish Succession- 
War, his Prussian Ten-Thousand, led by fit generals, showed 
eminently what stuff they were made of. Witness Leopold of 
Anhalt-Dessau (still a young Dessauer) on the field of Blen- 
heim ; Leopold had the right wing there, and saved Prince 
Eugene who was otherwise blown to pieces, while Marlborough 
stormed and conquered on the left. Witness the same Des- 
sauer on the field of Hochstadt the year before, 1 how he 
managed the retreat there. Or see him at the Bridge of Cas- 
sano (1705) ; in the Lines of Turin (1706) ; a wherever hot 
service was on hand. At Malplaquet, in those murderous 
inexpugnable French Lines, bloodiest of obstinate Fights (up- 
wards of thirty thousand left on the ground), the Prussians 
brag that it was they who picked their way through a certain 
peat-bog, reckoned impassable ; and got fairly in upon the 
French wing, to the huge comfort of Marlborough, and little 
Eugene his brisk comrade on that occasion. Marlborough 
knew well the worth of these Prussian troops, and also how to 
stroke his Majesty into continuing them in the field. 

He was an expensive 'King, surrounded by cabals, by 
Wartenbergs male and female, by whirlpools of intrigues, 
which, now that the game is over, become very forgettable. 
But one finds he was a strictly honorable man; with a cer- 
tain height and generosity of mind, capable of other nobleness 
than the upholstery kind. He had what we may call a hard 
life of it ; did and suffered a good deal in his day and genera- 
tion, not at all in a dishonest or unmanful manner. In fact, 
he is quite recognizably a Hohenzollern, with his back half 
broken. Readers recollect that sad accident : how the Nurse, 
in one of those headlong journeys which his Father and 
Mother were always making, let the poor child fall or jerk 
backward ; and spoiled him much, and indeed was thought to 
have killed him, by that piece of inattention. He was not 
yet Hereditary Prince, he was only second son : but the elder 

1 Vamhagen von Ense, KogmpMicl* Denkntatt (Berlin. 1845), ii. 155. 
* Dei wdtberiUinaen FUrstens Leopold! von Anhalt-Deuau Leben uad That* 
(Leipzig, 1748, anonymon*, by one Michael Ranffl), pp. 58, 61. 


died; and lie became Elector, King; and had to go with his 
spine distorted, distortion not glaringly conspicuous, though 
undeniable; and to act the Hohenzollern so. Nay who 
knows but it was this very jerk, and the half-ruin of his 
nervous system, this doubled wish to be beautiful, and this 
crooked back capable of being hid or decorated into straight- 
ness, that first set the poor man on thinking of expensive 
ornamentalities, and Kingships in particular? History will 
forgive the Nurse in that case. 

Perhaps History has dwelt too much on the blind side of 
this expensive King. Toland, on entering his country, was 
struck rather with the signs of good administration every- 
where. No sooner have you crossed the Prussian Border, out 
of Westphalia, says Toland, than smooth highways, well- 
tilled fields, and a general air of industry and regularity, are 
evident : solid milestones, brass-bound, and with brass inscrip- 
tion, tell the traveller where he is ; who finds due guidance 
of finger-posts, too, and the blessing of habitable inns. The 
people seem all to be busy, diligently occupied ; villages rea- 
sonably swept and whitewashed ; never was a better set of 
Parish Churches ; whether new-built or old, they are all in 
brand-new repair. The contrast with Westphalia is immediate 
and great ; but indeed that was a sad country, to anybody but 
a patient Toland, who knows the causes of phenomena. No 
inns there, except of the naturally savage sort. " A man is 
very happy if he finds clean straw to sleep on, without 
expecting sheets or coverings ; let him readily dispense with 
plates, forks and napkins, if he can get anything to eat. . . . 
He must be content to have the cows, swine and poultry for 
his fellow-lodgers, and to go in at the same passage that the 
smoke comes out at, for there's no other vent for it but 
the door; which makes foreigners commonly say that the 
people of Westphalia enter their houses by the chimney." 
And observe withal : "This is the reason why their beef and 
hams are so finely prepared and ripened ; for the fireplace 
being backwards, the smoke must spread over all the house 
before it gets to the door; which makes everything within 
of a russet or sable color, not excepting the hands and facea 

of the meaner sort" * If Prussia yield to Westphalia in ham, 
in all else she is strikingly superior. 

He founded Universities, this poor King; University of 
Halle; Royal Academy of Berlin, Leibnitz presiding: he 
fought for Protestantism ; did what he could for the cause 
of Cosmos versus Chaos, after his fashion. The magnificences 
of his Charlottenburgs, Oranienburgs and numerous Coun- 
try-houses make Toland almost poetic. An affable kindly 
man withal, though quick of temper ; his word sacred to him. 
A man of many troubles, and acquainted with "the infinitely 
" as his Queen termed it 



OLD King Friedrich I. had not much more to do in the 
world, after witnessing the christening of his Grandson of 
like name. His leading forth or sending forth of troops, 
his multiplex negotiations, solemn ceremonials, sad changes 
of ministry, sometimes transacted "with tears," are mostly 
ended; the ever-whirling dust-vortex of intrigues, of which 
he has been the centre for a five-and-twenty years, is settling 
down finally towards everlasting rest No more will Marl- 
borough come and dexterously talk him over, proud to 
"serve as cupbearer," on occasion, to so high a King for 
new bodies of men to help in the next campaign : we have 
ceased to be a King worthy of such a cupbearer, and Marl- 
borough's campaigns too are all ended. 

Much is ended. They are doing the sorrowful Treaty of 
Utrecht; Louis XIV. himself is ending; mournfully shrunk 
into the corner, with his Missal and his Maintenon; looking 
back with just horror on Europe four times set ablaze for the 
sake of one poor mortal in big periwig, to no purpose. Lucky 

i An Account of the Court, of Pnana and Hammer, by Mr. Toland (cited 


if perhaps Missal-work, orthodox litanies, and even Protes- 
tant Dragonnades, can have virtue to wipe out such a score 
against a man I "Unhappy Louis: the sun-bright gold has 
become dim as copper; we rose in storms, and we are setting 
in watery clouds. The Kaiser himself (Karl VI., Leopold's 
Son, Joseph L's younger Brother) will have to conform to 
this Treaty of Utrecht: what other possibility for him? 

The English, always a wonderful Nation, fought and suh- 
sidied from side to side of Europe for this Spanish-Succession 
business ; fought ten years, such fighting as they never did 
before or since, under "John Duke of Marlbomgh," who, 
as is well known, " beat the French thorough and thorough." 
French entirely beaten at last, not without heroic difficulty 
and as noble talent as was ever shown in diplomacy and war, 
are ready to do your will in all things ; in this of giving up 
Spain, among others: whereupon the English turn round, 
with a sudden new thought, " No, we will not have our will 
done ; it shall be the other way, the way it was, now that 
we bethink ourselves, after all this fighting for our will!" 
And make Peace on those terms, as if no war had been ; and 
accuse the great Marlborough of many things, of theft for one. 
A wonderful People ; and in their Continental Politics (which 
indeed consist chiefly of Subsidies) thrice wonderful. So the 
Treaty of Utrecht is transacting itself ; which that of Bastadt, 
on the part of Kaiser and Empire, unable to get on without 
Subsidies, will have to follow : and after such quantities of 
powder burnt, and courageous lives wasted, general As-you- 
were is the result arrived at. 

Old Friedrich's Ambassadors are present at Utrecht, jan- 
gling and pleading among the rest; at Berlin too the despatch 
of business goes lumbering on ; but what thing, in the shape 
of business, at Utrecht or at Berlin, is of much importance to 
the old man? Seems as if Europe itself were waxing dim, 
and sinking to stupid sleep, as we, in our poor royal person, 
full surely are. A Crown has been achieved, and diamond but- 
tons worth 1,500 apiece ; but what is a Crown, and what are 
buttons, after all ? I suppose the tattle and singeries of little 
Wilhelmina, whom he would spend whole days with; this and 

occasional visits to a young Fritzchen's cradle, who is thriving 
moderately, and will speak and do aperies one day, are his 
main solacements in the days that are passing. Much of this 
Friedrich's life has gone off like the smoke of fire-works, has 
faded sorrowfully, and proved phantasmal. Here is an old 
Autograph Note, written by him at the side of that Cradle, 
and touching on a slight event there ; which, as it connects 
two venerable Correspondents and their Seventeenth Century 
with a grand Phenomenon of the Eighteenth, we will insert 
here. The old King addresses his older Mother-in-law, famed 
Electress Sophie of Hanover, in these terms (spelling cor- 

"CHAELOTTENBUEG, den 30 August, 1718. 

"Ew. Churf. Durchlaucht werden sich zweifelsohne mit uns 
erfreuen, dass der kleine Printz (Prims') Fritz nuhnmero (nun- 
mehr) 6 Zehne (Zahne) hat und ohne die geringste incom- 
moditet (-tat). Daraus kann man auch die predestination 
sehen, dass alle seine Bruder haben daran sterben mUssen, 
dieser aber bekommt sie ohne Mtihe wie seine Schwester. 
Gott erhalte ihn uns noch lange zum trohst (Trosi), in dessen 
Schutz ich dieselbe ergebe und lebenslang verbleibe, 

"Ew. Churf. DurchL gehorsamster Diener und treuer Sohn, 

Of which this is the literal English : 

"Tour Electoral Serenity will doubtless rejoice with us 
that the little Prince Fritz has now got his sixth tooth with- 
out the least incommodite. And therein we may trace a pre- 
destination, inasmuch as his Brothers died of teething [Not 
of cannon-sound and weight of head-gear, then, your Majesty 
thinks? That were a painful thought!]; and this one, as 
his Sister [Wilhelmina] did, gets them [the teetK] without 
trouble. God preserve him long for a comfort to us: to 
whose protection I commit Dieselbe [Your Electoral Highness, 
in the third person], and remain lifelong, 

"Your Electoral Highness's most obedient Servant and 

true Son, 


1 Prenss, Friedrich der Grome (ffiitorische Skizze. Berlin, 1838), p. 380. 



One of Friedrich Bex's worst adventures was his latest; 
commenced some five or six years ago (1708), and now not 
far from terminating. He was a Widower, of weakly con- 
stitution, towards fifty: Ms beautiful ingenious "Serena," 
with all her Theologies, pinch-of-snuff Coronations and other 
earthly troubles, was dead; and the task of continuing the 
Hohenzollern progeny, given over to Friedrieh Wilhelm the 
Prince Royal, was thought to be in good hands. Majesty 
Friedrieh with the weak back had retired, in 1708, to Karls- 
bad, to rest from his cares ; to take the salutary waters, and 
recruit his weak nerves a little. Here, in the course of con- 
fidential promenadings, it was hinted, it was represented to 
Mm by some pickthank of a courtier, That the task of continu- 
ing the Hohenzollern progeny did not seem to prosper in the 
present good hands ; that Sophie Dorothea, Princess Eoyal, 
had already borne two royal infants which had speedily died : 
that in fact it was to be gathered from the medical men, if not 
from their words, then from their looks and cautious innu- 
endoes, that Sophie Dorothee, Princess Eoyal, would never 
produce a Prince or even Princess that would live; which 
task, therefore, did now again seem to devolve upon his Maj- 
esty, if his Majesty had not insuperable objections ? Majesty 
had no insuperable objections ; old Majesty listened to the 
flattering tale ; and, sure enough, he smarted for it in a sig- 
nal manner. 

By due industry, a Princess was fixed upon for Bride, 
Princess Sophie Louisa of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, age now 
twenty-four : she was got as Wife, and came home to Berlin 
in all pomp ; but good came not with her to anybody there. 
Not only did she bring the poor old man no children, which 
was a fault to be overlooked, considering Sophie Dorothee's 
success ; but she brought a querulous, weak and self-sufficient 
female humor; found his religion heterodox, he being Cal- 
vinist, and perhaps even lax-Calvinist, she Lutheran as the 
Prussian Nation is, and strict to the bone : heterodox wholly, 
to the length of no salvation possible ; and times rose on the 
Berlin Court such as had never been seen before I "No 
salvation possible, says my Dearest ? Hah ! And an inno- 
VOL. v. 20 

cent Court-Mask or Dancing Soiree is criminal in the sight 
of God and of the Queen? And we are children of wrath 
wholly, and a frivolous generation ; and the Queen will see us 

The end was, his Majesty, through sad solitary days and 
nights, repented bitterly that he had wedded such a She- 
Dominio; grew quite estranged from her; the poor She- 
Dominic giving him due return in her way, namely, living 
altogether in her own apartments, upon orthodoxy, jealousy 
and other bad nourishment. Till at length she went quite 
mad; and, except the due medical and other attendants, 
nobody saw her, or spoke of her, at Berlin. Was this a 
cheering issue of such an adventure to the poor old expen- 
sive Gentleman? He endeavored to digest in silence the 
bitter morsel he had cooked for himself ; but reflected often, 
as an old King might, What dirt have I eaten ! 

In this way stands that matter in the Schloss of Berlin, 
when little Friedrich, who will one day be called the Great, 
is born. Habits of the expensive King, hours of rising, 
modes of dressing, and so forth, are to be found in Pollnitz ; * 
but we charitably omit them all. Even from foolish Pollnitz 
a good eye will gather, what was above intimated, that this 
feeble-backed, heavy-laden old King was of humane and just 
disposition; had dignity in his demeanor; had reticence, 
patience; and, though hot-tempered like all the Hohenzol- 
lerns, that he bore himself like a perfect gentleman for one 
thing ; and tottered along his high-lying lonesome road not in 
an unmanful manner at all. Had not his nerves been dam- 
aged by that fall in infancy, who knows but we might have 
had something else to read of him than that he was regardless 
of expense in this world ! 

His last scene, of date February, 1713, is the tragical ultima- 
tum of that fine Karlsbad adventure of the Second marriage, 

i Pollnitz, Memmren atr Lebei,*- vnd Regienmgi-GadiifMe der Tier letzten 
Begenten da Preussinchen Staati (Berlin, 1791). A vague, inexact, bat not 
quite nninstrnctive or uninteresting Book : Printed also in French, which was 
the Original, same place and time. 

gj****^ DEATH OF KING PKtEDBlCH I. 807 

Third marriage, in fact, though the First, anterior to " Serena," 
is apt to be forgotten, having lasted short while, and produced 
only a Daughter, not memorable except by accident. This 
Third marriage, which had brought so many sorrows to him, 
proved at length the death of the old man. For he sat one 
morning, in the chill February days of the Year 1713, in his 
Apartment, as usual ; weak of nerves, but thinking no special 
evil ; when, suddenly with huge jingle, the glass door of his 
room went to sherds; and there rushed in bleeding and 
dishevelled, the fatal "White Lady" (Weisse Frau), who is 
understood to walk that Schloss at Berlin, and announce Death 
to the Eoyal inhabitants. Majesty had fainted, or was faint- 
ing. " Weisse Frau ? Oh no, your Majesty ! " not that ; but 
indeed something almost worse. Mad Queen, in her Apart- 
ments, had been seized, that day, when half or quarter dressed, 
with unusual orthodoxy or unusual jealousy. Watching her 
opportunity, she had whisked into the corridor, in extreme 
deshabille; and gone, like the wild roe, towards Majesty's 
Suite of Booms ; through Majesty's glass door, like a catapult ; 
and emerged as we saw, in petticoat and shift, with hair 
streaming, eyes glittering, arms cut, and the other sad trim- 
mings. Heaven, who could laugh ? There are tears due to 
Kings and to all men. It was deep misery ; deep enough "sin 
and misery," as Calvin well says, on the one side and the 
other! The poor old King was carried to bed; and never rose 
again, but died in a few days. The date of the Weisse Frau's 
death, one might have hoped, was not distant either; but she 
lasted, in her sad state, for above twenty years coming. 

Old King Friedrich's death-day was 25th February, 1713; 
the unconscious little Grandson being then in his Fourteenth 
month. To whom, after this long voyage round the world, we 
now gladly return. 

% * By way of reinforcement to any recollection the reader may have of 
these Twelve Hohenzollern Kurf wests, I will append a continuous list of them, 
with here and there an indication. 

The Twelve Hohenstottern Electors. 

1. FMEDBICH I. (as Burggraf, was Friedrich VI.) : born, it is in- 
ferred, 1372 (Rentsch, p. 350) ; accession, 18th April, 1417 ; died 31st 
September, 1440. Had come to Brandenburg, 1412, aa Statthalter. 
The Quitzows and Heavy Peg. 

2. FEIEDKICH II.: 19th November, 1413; 21st September, 1440; 
10th February, 1472. Friedrich Ironteeth ; tames the Berlin Burghers. 
Spoke Polish, was to have been Polish King. Cannon-shot upon his 
dinner-table shatters his nerves so, that be abdicates, and soon dies. 
Johannes Akhymista his elder Brother; Albert Achilles his younger. 

3. AmERT (Achilles) : 24th November, 1414; 10th February, 1471 ; 
llth March, 1486. Third son of Friedrich I. ; is lineal Progenitor of 
all the rest. 

Eldest Son, Johann deem, follows as Kurf urst ; a Younger Son, Friedrich 
(by a different Mother), got Culmbach, and produced the Elder Line 
there. (See Genealogical Diagram, p. 309a.) 

4. JOHANH (Cicero): 2d August, 1455; llth March, 1486; 9th 
January, 1499. Big John. Friedrich of Culmbach's elder (Half-) 

5. JOACHIM I.: 21st February, 1484; 9th January, 1499; llth 
July, 1535. Loud in the Reformation times ; finally declares peremp- 
torily for the Conservative side. Wife (Sister of Christian II. of Den- 
mark) runs away. 

Younger Brother Albert Kur-Mainz, whom Hutten celebrated ; born 1490; 
Archbishop of Magdeburg and Halberstadt 1513, of Mainz 1514; died 
1545 : get Tetzel, and the Indulgence, on foot. 

6. JOACHIM II. (Hector): 9th January, 1505; llth Jnly, 1535; 
3d January, 1571. Sword drawn on Alba once. Erbverbriiderung with 
Liegnitz. Staircase at Grimnitz. A weighty industrious Kurffirst. 
Declared himself Protestant, 1539. First Wife (mother of his Successor) 
was Daughter to Duke George of Saxony, Luther's " If it rained Duke 
Georges." Johann of Custrin was a younger Brother of his : died ten 
Hrv. nfter Joachim : left no Son. 

By way of reinforcement to any recollection the reader may have of 
these Twelve Hohenzollern Kurfiirste,! will append a continuous list of them, 
with here and there on indication. 

1. FMEDBICH I. (as Burggraf, was Friedrich VI.) : bom, it is in- 
ferred, 1372 (Rentsch, p. 350) ; accession, 18th April, 1417; died 21st 
September, 1440. Had come to Brandenburg, 1412, as Statthalter. 
The Qoitzows and Heavy Peg. 

2. FMEDRICH II. : 19th November, 1413; 21st September, 1440; 
10th February, 1472. Friedrich Ironteefh ; tames the Berlin Burghers. 
Spoke Polish, was to have been Polish King. Cannon-shot upon his 
dinner-table shatters his nerves so, that he abdicates, and soon dies. 
Johannes Alchymista his elder Brother; Albert Achilles his younger. 

3. AUJEBT (Achilles) : S4th November, 1414; 10th February, 1471 ; 
llth March, 1486. Third sou of Friedrich I. ; is lineal Progenitor of 
all the rest. 

Eldest Son, Johann Cicero, follows as Knrf first ; a Younger Son, Friedrich 
(by a different Mother), got Cnlmbach, and produced the Elder Line 
there. (See Genealogical Diagram, p. 309a.) 

4. JOHANN (Cicero): 2d August, 1455; llth March, 1486; 9th 
January, 1499. Big John. Friedrich of Culmbach's elder (Half-) 

5. JOACHM I.: 21st February, 1484; 9th January, 1499; llth 
July, 1535. Loud in the Reformation times ; finally declares peremp- 
torily for the Conservative side. Wife (Sister of Christian II. of Den- 
mark) runs away. 

Younger Brother Albert Knr-Mainz, whom Hutten celebrated ; born 1490 ; 
Archbishop of Magdehnrg and Halberstadt 1513, of Mainz 1514; died 
1545 : set Tetzel, and the Indulgence, on foot. 

6. JOACHIM H. (Hector): 9th January, 1505; llth July, 1535; 
3d January, 1571. Sword drawn on Alba once. Ertm&rbriidenmg with 
Liegnitz. Staircase at Grimnitz. A weighty industrious Kurffirat. 
Declared himself Protestant, 1539. First Wife (mother of his Successor) 
was Daughter to Duke George of Saxony, Luther's " If it rained Duke 
Georges." Johann of Custrin was a younger Brother of his : died ten 
*.<** ifter Joachim : left no Son. 

Genealogical Di 

3d Kurfiirst (1471-1486), 

t (1471-148 


FmEimiCH, second son of Kurfiirst Albert Achilles, yor 
a younger Brother. Born 1460 ; got Anspach 1486 ; Bair 
a Polish Wife ; from whom came interests in Hungary as ^ 

1. CASIMIB., who got Bairewt,h 2. GEORGE THE Pic 

(1515): born 1481; died 1527. got Jagerndorf, by pi 

Very truculent in the Peasants' 1524. Protestant d< 

War. Histories thenceforth 

One Son, 

ALBERT Alcibiades .- a man of GEOKGE FKIEDEICJ 

Cousin became incom] 
and Jagerndorf '; also 
left a minor (boy of 4 
a little while: from w 
have come, had not ] 
his behalf. George F 
hand: Anspach and 
Ratibor and Oppeln ' 
in that quarter. Bit 
ritories all reverted t 
George Seventh Kurfi 
Bond; and the "Eld 

Kurfiirst Johann George settled Bairenth and Anspach c 
ndorf the new Kurfurs 
e indication of their " 

Pair of Lines). Jagerndorf the new Kurfurst, Joachim Fr 
ir " Lines," so fai 

(1.) CHRISTIAN-, second son of Knrfurat Johann Gfeorg 
1581 ; got Baireuth 1603 ; died 1655. A distinguished 
in his sphere. Had two sons ; the elder died before him 

First, That he, George Albert, Hargraf of CWmbach, i 
scrntable "Marquis de JJulenbajak." of Bromley's Letter 
p. 184, let the Commentators take comfort !) : 

Sectmd and better. That from him came our little Will 
Husband, as will be - ' r . - - 

(4. ) that succeeded in E 

1735); Father of Wilhelmina's 1 

Friedrieh (1711, 1786, 1768), -Wuneimmas uusoana ; wu 
{1768) nothing but a daughter, Baireuth fell to Anspach, 1 
an old Uncle (6.), childless, had also died. 

Six Baireuth Margraves of this Line ; Jive generations ; 

The Two Culmbach Lines. 

nspafh (1515): bom 1484; died 1543; 8. ALBERT; born 1490 ; Hoehmeister of 

lis Mother's Hungarian connection, the Teutaoh Bitten, 1511; declares him- 

and makes honorable figure in the self Protestant, and Duke of Prussia, 1525; 

B of Kaiser Karl's " int-Kip-ali." died 1568. 

went to administer Prenssen when 
503. Heir to his Father in Anspach 
Alcibiades in Baireuth. Had been 
- sees); Alcibiades hU Guardian for 
it difficulties, and unjust ruin would 
lim I. been helpful and rigorous in 
; length most of his Territories into 
.paired, Jagerndorf too, eicept that 
Jn into by the Imperial chicaneries 
rat children; upon which hia Ter- 
randenburg line, namely, to Johann 
presentatives, according to the Gera 
,ine " had ended in this manner. 

OneSon, ALBEKTFBIEDBICH: bornl553; 
follows as Duke 1568, declared melancholic 
1573 ; died 1618. His Cousin George Fried- 
rich administered for him till 1603; after 
which Joachim Friedrich; and then, lastly, 
Joachim Friedrich's Son, Johann Sigis- 
mund, the Ninth Kurfurst. Had married 
the Heiress of Cleve (whence came a cele- 
brated Cleve Controversy in after-times). 
No son; a good many daughters ; eldest of 
whom was married to Kurfurst Johann Sig- 
ismund; from her came the controverted 

(1.) JOACHIM ERNST, third son of Kurfurst Johann George : bom 1588 ; got Ana- 
nch 1803 ; died 1635. Had military tendencies, experiences ; did not thrive as Cap- 
ain of the Evangelical Union (1619-1620) when Wilder-King came up and Thirty- 
rears War along with him. Left two sons ; elder of whom, (2. ) Friedrich, nominally 
lovereign, age still only eighteen, fell in the Battle of Nordlingen (worst battle of 

, , , 
o little points notable here also, and no 

, That one of the grand-tfeuffAfero, full-sister of the last of these three parallel 
Igures, half-sister of the two former, was -Queen Caroline, George II. 's wife, who 

, That the youn ' 

n then minor, wh 

raa's, of whom 

ntous Margraf ot. , . - 

ich Karl Alexander (1738, 1757, 1806), who inherited Baireuth, inherited Actress 
31airo% Lady Craven, and at Hammersmith (House once Bubb Doddington's, if that 
tag any charm) ended the affair. 



7. JOHANN GEOKGE: llth September, 1525; 3d January, 1571; 
8th January, 1598. Cannon-shot, at Siege of Wittenberg, upon Kaiser 
Karl and him. Gera Bond. 

Married a Sileaian Duke of Liegnitz's Daughter (remit of the ErbwrbrSder- 
Bujthere, Antea, p. 231). Had twenty-three children. Itwastohim 
that Baireuth and Anspach fell home : he settled them on his second 
and his third sons, Christian and Joachim Ernst ; founders of the New 
Line of Baireuth and Anspach. (See Genealogical Diagram, p. 309a.) 

8. JOACHIM FEIEDHICH : 27th January, 1546 ; 8th January, 1598 ; 
18th July, 1608. Archbishop of Magdeburg first of all, -to keep the 
place filled. Joacbimathal School at old Castle of Grimnitz. Very 
vigilant for Preussen; which was near falling due. 

Two of his Younger Sons, Johann George (1577-1624) to whom he gave 
Jiiqendorf, and that Archbishop of Magdeburg, who was present in 
Tilly's storm, got both wrecked in the Thirty-Years War; not with- 
out results, in the JSgerndorf case. 

9. JOHANS SIGISMUND: 8th November, 1572; 18th July, 1608; 
23d December, 1619. Preussen : Cleve; Slap on the face to Neuburg. 

10. GEOBGE WILHELM: 3d November, 1595; 22d November, 
1619; 21st November, 1640. The unfortunate of the Thirty-Years 
War. " Que faire ; fls ont des canons ! " 

11. FMEDRICH WILHELM: 6th February, 1620; 21st November, 
1640 ; 29th April, 1688. The Great Elector. 

12. FEIEDEICH III.: 1st July, 1657; 29th April, 1688; 25th 
Febroary, 1713. Firat King (18th January, 1701). 




OP Friedrich's childhood, there is not, after all our reading, 
much that it would interest the English public to hear tell of. 
Perhaps not much of knowable that deserves anywhere to be 
known. Books on it, expressly handling it, and Books on 
Friedrich Wilhelm's Court and History, of which it is always 
a main element, are not wanting : but they are mainly of the 
sad sort which, with pain and difficulty, teach us nothing. 
Books done by pedants and tenebrific persons, under the name 
of men ; dwelling not on things, but, at endless length, on the 
outer husks of things : of unparalleled confusion, too ; not 
so much as au Index granted yon; to the poor half-peck of 
cinders, hidden in these wagon-loads of ashes, no sieve al- 
lowed ! Books tending really to fill the mind with mere dust- 
whirlwinds, if the mind did not straightway blow them out 
again ; which it does. Of these let us say nothing. Seldom 
had so curious a Phenomenon worse treatment from the Dry- 
asdust species. 

Among these Books, touching on Friedrich's childhood, and 
treating of his Father's Court, there is hardly above one that 
we can characterize as fairly human : the Book written by his 
little Sister Wilhelmina, when she grew to size and knowledge 

of good and evil ; 1 and this, of what flighty uncertain na- 
ture it is, the world partly knows. A human Book, however, 
not a pedant one : there is a most shrill female soul busy with 
intense earnestness here ; looking, and teaching us to look. 
We find it a veracious Book, done with heart, and from eye- 
sight and insight ; of a veracity deeper than the superficial 
sort. It is full of mistakes, indeed ; and exaggerates dread- 
fully, in its shrill female way ; but is above intending to de- 
ceive : deduct the due subtrahend, say perhaps twenty-five 
per cent, or in extreme cases as high as seventy-five, you 
will get some human image of credible actualities from Wil- 
helmina. Practically she is our one resource on this matter. 
Of the strange King Friedrich Wilhelm and his strange Court, 
with such an Heir- Apparent growing up in it, there is no real 
light to be had, except what Wilhelmina gives, or kindles 
dark Books of others into giving. For that, too, on long 
study, is the result of her, here and there. With so flickery 
a wax-taper held over Friedrich's childhood, and the other 
dirty tallow-dips all going out in intolerable odor, judge if 
our success can be very triumphant ! 

We perceive the little creature has got much from Nature ; 
not the big arena only, but fine inward gifts, for he is well- 
born in more senses than one ; and that in the breeding of 
him there are two elements noticeable, widely diverse: the 
French and the German. This is perhaps the chief peculiar- 
ity ; best worth laying hold of, with the due comprehension, if 
our means allow. 

First Educational Element, the French one. 

His nurses, governesses, simultaneous and successive, mostly 
of French breed, are duly set down in the Prussian Books, and 
held in mind as a point of duty by Prussian men; but, in 
foreign parts, cannot be considered otherwise than as a group, 
and merely with generic features. He had a Frau von Ka- 

i Mtmoiresde FnOtngue Sophie Wilhdmine de Prtase, Margrave de BarM 
(Bnmswiek, Paris et Londres, 1812), 2 vols. 8vo. 


mecke for Head Governess, the lady whom Wilhelmina, in 
her famed Me-moires, always writes Kamken; and of whom, 
except the floating gossip found in that Book, there is noth- 
ing to be remembered. Under her, as practical superintend- 
ent, Sous-gouvemante and quasi-mother, was the Dame de 
ixoucoulles, a more important person for us here. Dame de 
lloucoulles, once de Montbail, the same respectable Edict-of- 
Nantes French lady who, five-and-twenty years ago, had taken 
similar charge of Friedrich Wilhelm ; a fact that speaks well 
lor the character of her performance in that office. She had 
done her first edition of a Prussian Prince in a satisfactory 
manner ; and not without difficult accidents and singularities, 
as we have heard : the like of which were spared her in this 
her second edition (so we may call it) ; a second and, in all 
manner of ways, an improved one. The young Fritz swal- 
lowed no shoe-buckles ; did not leap out of window, hanging on 
by the hands ; nor achieve anything of turbulent, or otherwise 
memorable, in his infantine history j the course of which was 
in general smooth, and runs, happily for it, below the ken of 
rumor. The Boy, it is said, and is easily credible, was of ex- 
traordinary vivacity ; quick in apprehending all things, and 
gracefully relating himself to them. One of the prettiest, 
vividest little boys ; with eyes, with mind and ways, of un- 
common brilliancy; only he takes less to soldiering than 
the paternal heart could wish; and appears to find other 
things in the world fully as notable as loud drums, and 
stiff men drawn up in rows. Moreover, he is apt to be a 
little unhealthy now and then, and requires care from his 
nurses, over whom the judicious Roucoulles has to be very 

Of this respectable Madame de Eoucoulles I have read, at 
least seven times, what the Prussian Books say of her by way 
of Biography ; but it is always given in their dull tombstone 
style ; it has moreover next to no importance ; and I, alas, 
I do not yet too well remember it ! She was from Normandy ; 
of gentle blood, never very rich ; Protestant, in the Edict-of- 
Nantes time ; and had to fly her country, a young widow, with 
daughter and mother-in-law hanging on her; the whole of 

them almost penniless. However, she was kindly received at 
the Court of Berlin, as usual in that sad case ; and got some 
practical help towards living in her new country. Queen 
Sophie Charlotte had liked her society; and finding her of 
prudent intelligent turn, and with the style of manners suita- 
ble, had given her Friedrich Wilhelm to take charge of. She 
was at that time Madame de Montbail ; widow, as we said : 
she afterwards wedded Eoucoulles, a refugee gentleman of her 
own Nation, who had gone into the Prussian Army, as was 
common for the like of him. She had again become a widow, 
Madame de Eoucoulles this time, with her daughter Montbail 
still about her, when, by the grateful good sense of Friedrich 
Wilhelm, she was again intrusted as we see ; and so had the 
honor of governessing Frederick the Great for the first seven 
years of his life. Eespectable lady, she oversaw his nurses, 
pap-boats, " beer-soup and bread," he himself tells us once, 
was his main diet in boyhood, beer-soups, dress-frocks, first 
attempts at walking ; and then also his little bits of intellec- 
tualities, moralities ; his incipiencies of speech, demeanor, and 
spiritual development; and did her function very honestly, 
there is no doubt. 

Wilhelmina mentions her, at a subsequent period; and we 
have a glimpse of this same Eoucoulles, gliding about among 
the royal young-folk, " with only one tooth left " (figuratively 
speaking), and somewhat given to tattle, in Princess Wilhel- 
mina's opinion. Grown very old now, poor lady ; and the 
dreadfulest bore, when she gets upon Hanover and her experi- 
ences, and Queen Sophie Charlotte's, in that stupendously 
magnificent court under Gentleman Ernst. Shun that topic, 
if you love your peace of mind! 1 She did certainly superin- 
tend the Boy Fritzkin for his first seven years ; that is a glory 
that cannot be taken from her. And her pupil, too, we agree- 
ably perceive, was always grateful for her services in that 
capacity. Once a week, if he were in Berlin, during his 
youthful time, he was sure to appear at the Roucoulles Soiree, 
and say and look various pleasant things to his " eher Ma/man 
(dear Mamma)," as he used to call her, and to the respectable 
ijfemoirw (above cited). 


small party she had. Hot to speak of other more substantial 
services, which also were not wanting. 

Boucoulles and the other female souls, mainly French, among 
whom the incipient Fritz now was, appear to have done their 
part as well as could be looked for. Respectable Edict-of- 
Nantes French ladies, with high head-gear, wide hoops; a 
clear, correct, but somewhat barren and meagre species, tight- 
laced and high-frizzled in mind and body. It is not a very 
fertile element for a young soul : not very much of silent piety 
in it; and perhaps of vocal piety more than enough in propor- 
tion. An element founding on what they call "enlightened 
Protestantism," "freedom of thought," and the like, which is 
apt to become loquacious, and too conscious of itself ; tending, 
on the whole, rather to contempt of the false, than to deep or 
very effective recognition of the true. 

But it is, in some important senses, a clear and pure element 
withal. At lowest, there are no conscious semi-falsities, or 
volunteer hypocrisies, taught the poor Boy ; honor, clearness, 
truth of word at least ; a decorous dignified bearing ; various 
thin good things, are honestly inculcated and exemplified; 
nor is any bad, ungraceful or suspicious thing permitted there, 
if recognized for such. It might have been a worse element ; 
and we must be thankful for it. Friedrich, through life, 
carries deep traces of this French-Protestant incipiency: a 
very big wide-branching royal tree, in the end ; but as small 
and flexible a seedling once as any one of us. 

The good old Dame de Koucoulles just lived to witness his 
accession ; on which grand juncture and afterwards, as he had 
done before, he continued to express, in graceful and useful 
ways, his gratitude and honest affection to her and hers. Tea- 
services, presents in cut-glass and other kinds, with Letters 
that were still more precious to the old Lady, had come 
always at due intervals : and one of his earliest kingly gifts 
was that of some suitable small pension for Montbail, the 
elderly daughter of this poor old Roucoulles, 1 who was just 

iPrenss, Friedrich der Grosse,ane Lebentyeschichte (5 vote. Berlin, 1832- 
1834}, r. (Urktmdenbnch, p. 4). (Eitens de FrO*ic (some Freak's Edition, 
Berlin, 1846-1850, &c.), xvi. 184, 191. The Herr Doctor J. D. E. Preugg, 


singing her Dimittas, as it were, still in a blithe and pious 
manner. For she saw now (in 1740) her little nursling grown 
to be a brilliant man and King ; King gone out to the Wars, 
too, with all Europe inquiring and wondering what the issue 
would be. As for her, she closed her poor old eyes, at this 
stage of the business ; piously, in foreign parts, far from her 
native Normandy ; and did not see farther what the issue was. 
Good old Dame, I have, as was observed, read some seven 
times over what they call biographical accounts of her ; but 
have seven times (by Heaven's favor, I do partly believe) 
mostly forgotten them again ; and would not, without cause, 
inflict on any reader the like sorrow. To remember one 
worthy thing, how many thousand unworthy things must a 
man be able to forget ! 

From this Edict-of-Nantes environment, which taught our 
young Fritz his first lessons of human behavior, a polite 
sharp little Boy, we do hope and understand, he learned 
also to clothe his bits of notions, emotions, and garrulous 
utterabilities, in the French dialect. Learned to speak, and 
likewise, what is more important, to think, in French ; which 
was otherwise quite domesticated in the Palace, and became 
his second mother-tongue. Not a bad dialect ; yet also none 
of the best. Very lean and shallow, if very clear and con- 
venient ; leaving much in poor Fritz unuttered, unthought, 
unpractised, which might otherwise have come into activity 
in the course of his life. He learned to read very soon, I 
presume; but he did not, now or afterwards, ever learn to 
spell. He spells indeed dreadfully ill, at his first appearance 
on the writing stage, as we shall see by and by ; and he con- 
tinued, to the last, one of the bad spellers of his day. A cir- 

" Historiographer of Brandenburg," devoted wholly to the study of Friedrich 
for flve-aud-twenty years past, and for above a dozen years busily engaged in 
editing the (Em-res de Frederic, has, besides that Lebensgeschckte just cit.-d, 
three or four smaller Books, of indistinctly different titles, on the same subject. 
A meritoriously exact man ; acquainted with the outer details of Friedrich's 
Biography (had he any way of arranging, organizing or setting them forth) as 
few men ever were or will be. We shall mean always this Memgendnchte 
here, when no other title is given ; and (Euvres de Frfdtrie shall signify hit 
Edition, unless the contrary be stated. 

comstan.ce which I never can fully account for, and will leave 
to the reader's study. 

From all manner of sources, from inferior valetaille, Prus- 
sian Omcials, Eoyal Majesty itself when not in gala, he 
learned, not less rootedly, the corrupt Prussian dialect of 
German ; and used the same, all his days, among his soldiers, 
native officials, common subjects and wherever it was most 
convenient ; speaking it, and writing and misspelling it, with 
great freedom, though always with a certain aversion and 
undisguised contempt, which has since brought him blame in 
some quarters. It is true, the Prussian form of German is but 
rude ; and probably Friedrich, except sometimes in Luther's 
Bible, never read any German Book. What, if we will think 
of it, could he know of his first mother-tongue ! German, to 
this day, is a frightful dialect for the stupid, the pedant and 
dullard sort ! Only in the hands of the gifted does it become 
supremely good. It had not yet been the language of any 
Goethe, any Lessing ; though it stood on the eve of becoming 
such. It had already been the language of Luther, of Ulrich 
Hutten, Friedrich Barbarossa, Charlemagne and others. And 
several extremely important things had been said in it, and 
some pleasant ones even sung in it, from an old date, in a very 
appropriate manner, had Crown-Prince Friedrich known all 
that. But he could not reasonably be expected to know : 
and the wiser Germans now forgive him for not knowing, and 
are even thankful that he did not. 


So that, as we said, there are two elements for young Fritz, 
and highly diverse ones, from both of which he is to draw 
nourishment, and assimilate what he can. Besides that Edict- 
of-Nantes French element, and in continual contact and con- 


1713-1723. , 

trast with it, which prevails chiefly in the Female Quarters of 
the Palace, there is the native German element for young 
Fritz, of which the centre is Papa, now come to be King, and 
powerfully manifesting himself as such. An abrupt peremp- 
tory young King ; and German to the bone. Along with whom, 
companions to him in his social hours, and fellow-workers in 
his business, are a set of very rugged German sons of Nature ; 
differing much from the French sons of Art. Baron Grumkow, 
Leopold Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (not yet called the " Old 
Dessauer," being under forty yet), General Glasenap, Colonel 
Derschau, General Flans ; these, and the other nameless Gen- 
erals and Officials, are a curious counterpart to the Camases, 
the Hauteharmoys and Forcades, with their nimble tongues 
and rapiers; still more to the Beausobres, Achards, full of 
ecclesiastical logic, made of Bayle and Calvin kneaded to- 
gether ; and to the high-frizzled ladies rustling in stiff silk, 
with the shadow of Versailles and of the Dragonnades alike 
present to them. 

Born Hyperboreans these others ; rough as hemp, and stout 
of fibre as hemp ; native products of the rigorous North. Of 
whom, after all our reading, we know little. Heaven, they 
have had long lines of rugged ancestors, cast in the same rude 
stalwart mould, and leading their rough life there, of whom 
we know absolutely nothing ! Dumb all those preceding busy 
generations ; and this of Friedrich Wilhehn is grown almost 
dumb. Grim semi-articulate Prussian men ; gone all to pipe-clay 
and mustache for us. Strange blond-complexioned, not unbeau- 
tiful Prussian honorable women, in hoops, brocades, and unin- 
telligible head-gear and hair-towers, ach Gott, they too are 
gone ; and their musical talk, in the French or German language, 
that also is gone ; and the hollow Eternities have swallowed it, 
as their wont is, in a very surprising manner I 

Grumkow, a cunning, greedy-hearted, long-headed fellow, of 
the old Pomeranian Nobility by birth, has a kind of superficial 
polish put upon his Hyperboreanisms ; he has been in foreign 
countries, doing legations, diplomacies, for which, at least for 
the vulpine parts of which, he has a turn. He writes and 
speaks articulate grammatical French; but neither in that, nor 


in native Pommerish Flatt-Deutsch, does he show us much, 
except the depths of his own greed, of his own astucities and 
stealthy audacities. Of which we shall hear more than enough 
by and by. 

Qf the Dessauer, not yet "Old." 

As to the Prince of AnhaltDessau, rugged man, whose very 
face is the color of gunpowder, he also knows French, and can 
even write in it, if he like, having duly had a Tutor of that 
nation, and strange adventures with him on the grand tour and 
elsewhere ; but does not much practise writing, when it can 
be helped. His children, I have heard, he expressly did not 
teach to read or write, seeing no benefit in that effeminate art, 
but left them to pick it up as they could. His Princess, all 
rightly ennobled now, whom he would not but marry, though 
sent on the grand tour to avoid it, was the daughter of one 
Fos an Apothecary at Dessau ; and is still a beautiful and pru- 
dent kind of woman, who seems to suit him well enough, no 
worse than if she had been born a Princess. Much talk has 
been of her, in princely and other circles ; nor is his marriage 
the only strange thing Leopold has done. He is a man to keep 
the world's tongue wagging, not too musically always ; though 
himself of very unvocal nature. Perhaps the biggest mass of 
inarticulate human vitality, certainly one of the biggest, then 
going about in the world. A man of vast dumb faculty ; dumb, 
but fertile, deep ; no end of ingenuities in the rough head of 
him: as much mother-wit there, I often guess, as could be 
found in whole talking parliaments, spouting themselves away 
in vocables and eloquent wind .' 

A man of dreadful impetuosity withal. Set upon his will 
as the one law of Nature ; storming forward with incontrollable 
violence : a very whirlwind of a man. He was left a minor : 
his Mother guardian. Nothing could prevent him from marry- 
ing this Fos the Apothecary's Daughter; no tears nor contri- 
vances of his Mother, whom he much loved, and who took 
skilful measures. Fourteen months of travel in Italy ; grand 
tour, with eligible French Tutor, whom he once drew sword 
upon, getting some rebuke from him one night in Venice, and. 


would have killed, had not the man been nimble, at once dex- 
terous and sublime : it availed not. The first thing he did, 
on re-entering Dessau, with his Tutor, was to call at Apothecary 
Fos's, and see the charming Mamsell ; to go and see his Mother, 
was the second thing. Not even his grand passion for war 
could eradicate Fos : he went to Dutch William's wars ; the 
wise mother still counselling, who was own aunt to Dutch 
William, and liked the scheme. He besieged Namur; fought 
and besieged up and down, with insatiable appetite for 
fighting and sieging; with great honor, too, and ambitions 
awakening in him; campaign after campaign: but along 
with the flamy-thundery ideal bride, figuratively called Bellona, 
there was always a soft real one, Mamsell Eos of Dessau, to 
whom he continued constant The Government of his Domin- 
ions he left cheerfully to his Mother, even when he came of 
age : " I am for learning War, as the one right trade ; do with 
all things as you please, Mamma, only not with Mamsell, 
not with her!" 

Headers may figure this scene too, and shudder over it. 
Some rather handsome male Cousin of Mamsell, Medical Grad- 
uate or whatever he was, had appeared in Dessau: " Seems 
to admire Mamsell much ; of course, in a Platonic way," said 
rumor. "He ? Admire ? " thinks Leopold ; thinks a good 
deal of it, not in the philosophic mood. As he was one day 
passing Fos's, Mamsell and the Medical Graduate are visible, 
standing together at the window inside. Pleasantly looking 
out upon Nature, of course quite casually, say some His- 
tories with a sneer. In fact, it seems possible this Medical 
Graduate may have been set to act shoeing-horn ; but he had 
better not. Leopold storms into the House, " Draw, scanda- 
lous canaille, and defend yourself ! " And in this, or some 
such way, a confident tradition says, he killed the poor Medi- 
cal Graduate there and then. One tries always to hope 
not : but Varnhagen is positive, though the other Histories say 
nothing of it. God knows. The man was a Prince ; no Eeichs- 
hofrath, Speyer-Wetzlar Kammer, or other Supreme Court, 
would much trouble itself, except with formal shakings of the 
wig, about such a peccadillo. In fine, it was better for Leo- 

pold to marry the Miss Fos ; which he actually did (1698, in 
his twenty-second year), "with the left-hand," and then 
with the right and both hands ; having got her properly en- 
nobled before long, by his splendid military services. She 
made, as we have hinted, an excellent Wife to him, for the 
fifty or sixty ensuing years. 

This is a strange rugged specimen, this inarticulate Leo- 
pold; already getting mythic, as we can perceive, to the 
polished vocal ages ; which mix all manner of fables with 
the considerable history he has. Readers will see him turn 
up again in notable forms. A man hitherto unknown except 
in his own country ; and yet of very considerable significance 
to all European countries whatsoever ; the fruit of his activi- 
ties, without his name attached, being now manifest in all of 
them. He invented the iron ramrod ; he invented the equal 
step ; in fact, he is the inventor of modern military tactics. 
Even so, if we knew it : the Soldiery of every civilized country 
still receives from this man, on parade-fields and battle-fields, 
its word of command ; out of his rough head proceeded the 
essential of all that the innumerable Drill-sergeants, in various 
languages, daily repeat and enforce. Such a man is worth 
some transient glance from his fellow-creatures, especially 
with a little Fritz trotting at his foot, and drawing inferences 
from him. 

Dessau, we should have said for the English reader's behoof, 
was and still is a little independent Principality ; about the size 
of Huntingdonshire, but with woods instead of bogs ; reve- 
nue of it, at this day, is 60,000, was perhaps not 20, or even 
10,000 in Leopold's first time. It lies some fourscore miles 
southwest of Berlin, attainable by post-horses in a day. Leo- 
pold, as his Father had done, stood by Prussia as if wholly 
native to it. Leopold's Mother was Sister of that fine Louisa, 
the Great Elector's first Wife ; his Sister is wedded to the 
Margraf of Schwedt, Friedrich Wilhelm's half-uncle. Lying 
in such neighborhood, and being in such aflinity to the Prus- 
sian House, the Dessauers may be said to have, in late times, 
their headquarters at Berlin. Leopold and Leopold's sons, 
as his father before him had done, without neglecting thek 


Dessau and Principality, hold by the Prussian Army as their 
main employment. Not neglecting Dessau either ; but going 
thither in winter, or on call otherwise ; Leopold least of all 
neglecting it, who neglects nothing that can be useful to him. 

He is General Field-Marshal of the Prussian Armies, the 
foremost man in war-matters with this new King ; and well 
worthy to be so. He is inventing, or brooding in the way 
to invent, a variety of things, " iron ramrods," for one ; a 
very great improvement on the fragile ineffective wooden 
implement, say all the Books, but give no date to it; that 
is the first thing ; and there will be others, likewise undated, 
but posterior, requiring mention by and by. Inventing many 
things; and always well practising what is already in- 
vented, and known for certain. In a word, he is drilling 
to perfection, with assiduous rigor, the Prussian Infantry 
to be the wonder of the world. He has fought with them, 
too, in a conclusive manner; and is at all times ready for 

He was in Malplaquet with them, if only as volunteer 
on that occasion. He commanded them in Blenheim itself; 
stood, in the right or Eugene wing of that famed Battle of 
Blenheim, fiercely at bay, when the Austrian Cavalry had 
all fled ; fiercely volleying, charging, dexterously wheeling 
and manoeuvring; sticking to his ground with a mastiff-like 
tenacity, till Marlborough, and victory from the left, re- 
lieved him and others. He was at the Bridge of Cassano; 
where Eugene and Vend6me came to hand-grips; where 
Mirabeau's Grandfather, CoUArgent, got his six-and-thirty 
wounds, and was " killed " as he used to term it. 1 " The 
hottest fire I ever saw," said Eugene, who had not seen Mal- 
plaquet at that time. While Col-d' Argent sank collapsed 
upon the Bridge, and the horse charged over him, and again 
charged, and beat and were beaten three several times, 
Anhalt-Dessau, impatient of such fiddling hither and thither, 
swashed into the stream itself with his Prussian Foot: 
swashed through it, waist-deep or breast-deep ; and might have 
settled the matter, had not his cartridges got wetted. Old 

i Carlyle's Miscellanies, v. Mirabeau. 
vpt. v. 2\ 

King Friedrich rebuked him angrily for his impetuosity in 
tibia matter, and the sad loss of men. 

Then again he was at the Storming of the Lines of Turin, 
Eugene's feat of 1706, and a most volcanic business ; was 
the first man that got over the entrenchment there. Foremost 
man ; face all black with the smoke of gunpowder, only chan- 
nelled here and there with rivulets of sweat; not a lovely 
phenomenon to the French in the interior ! Who still fought 
like madmen, but were at length driven into heaps, and obliged 
to run. A while before they ran, Anhalt-Dessau, noticing 
some Captain posted with his company in a likely situation, 
stept aside to him for a moment, and asked, " Am I wounded, 
think you? No? Then have you anything to drink?" 
and deliberately " drank a glass of aqua-vitae," the judicious 
Captain carrying a pocket-pistol of that sort, in case of acci- 
dent; and likewise "eat, with great appetite, a bit of bread 
from one of the soldiers' haversacks; saying, He believed 
the heat of the job was done, and that there was no fear 
now!" 1 

A man that has been in many wars ; in whose rough head 
are schemes hatching. Any religion he has is of Protestant 
nature ; but he has not much, on the doctrinal side, very 
little. Luther's Hymn, Mnefeste Burg ist wnser Gott, he calls 
"God Almighty's grenadier-march," On joining battle, he 
audibly utters, with bared head, some growl of rugged prayer, 
far from orthodox at times, but much in earnest : that lifting 
of his hat for prayer, is his last signal on such occasions. He 
is very cunning as required, withal ; not disdaining the ser- 
pentine method when no other will do. With Friedrich Wil- 
helm, who is his second-cousin (Mother's grand-nephew, if the 
reader can count that), he is from of old on the best footing, 
and contrives to be his Mentor in many things besides War. 
Till his quarrel with Grumkow, of which we shall hear, he 
took the lead in political advising, too; and had schemes, 
or was thought to have, of which Queen Sophie was in much 

i Da *fcr<te LvpMi, fc. { Anonymous, by Enfft, cited above), pp 
48-45, 52, 65. 



A tall, strong-boned, hairy man ; with cloudy brows, vigilant 
swift eyes ; has "a bluish tint of akin," says Wilhelmina, " as 
if the gunpowder still stuck to him." He wears long mus- 
taches; triangular hat, plume and other equipments, are of 
thrifty practical size. Can be polite enough in speech ; but 
hides much of his meaning, which indeed is mostly inarticu- 
late, and not always joyful to the by-stander. He plays rough 
pranks, too, on occasion; and has a big horse-laugh in him, 
where there is a fop to be roasted, or the like. We will leave 
him for the present, in hope of other meetings. 

Remarkable men, many of those old Prussian soldiers: of 
whom one wishes, to no purpose, that there had more knowl- 
edge been attainable. But the Books are silent ; no painter, 
no genial seeing-man to paint with his pen, was there. Grim 
hirsute Hyperborean figures, they pass mostly mute before 

of which the buff-belts and the steel are alone conspicuous. 
Growling in guttural Teutsch what little articulate meaning 
they had : spending, of the inarticulate, a proportion in games 
of chance, probably too in drinking beer ; yet having an im- 
mense overplus which they do not so spend, but endeavor to 
utter in such working as there may be. So have the Hyper- 
boreans lived from of old. From the times of Tacitus and 
Pytheas, not to speak of Odin and Japhet, what hosts of them 
have marched across Existence, in that manner; and where 
is the memory that would, even if it could, speak of them 

We will hope the mind of our little Fritz has powers of 
assimilation. Bayle-Calvin logics, and shadows of Versailles, 
on this hand, and gunpowder Leopolds and inarticulate Hyper- 
boreans on that : here is a wide diversity of nutriment, all 
rather tough in quality, provided for the young soul. Innumer- 
able unconscious inferences he must have drawn in his little 
head ! Prince Leopold's face, with the whiskers and blue skin, 
I find he was wont, at after periods, to do in caricature, under 
the figure of a Gat's ; horror and admiration not the sole 

feelings raised in him by the Field-Marshal For bodily 
nourishment he had "beer-soup ; " a decided Spartan tone pre- 
vailing, wherever possible, in the breeding and treatment of 


And we need not doubt, by far the most important element 
of his education was the unconscious Apprenticeship he con- 
tinually served to such a Spartan as King Friedrich Wilhelm. 
Of whose works and ways he could not help taking note, angry 
or other, every day and hour ; nor in the end, if he were intel- 
ligent, help understanding them, and learning from them. A 
harsh Master and almost half-mad, as it many times seemed 
to the poor Apprentice ; yet a true and solid one, whose real 
wisdom was worth that of all the others, as he came at length 
to recognize. 



WITH the death of old King Friedrich, there occurred at 
once vast changes in the Court of Berlin ; a total and universal 
change in the mode of living and doing business there. Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, out of filial piety, wore at his father's funeral 
the grand French peruke and other sublimities of French cos- 
tume ; but it was for the last time : that sad duty once done, 
he flung the whole aside, not without impatience, and on no 
occasion wore such costume again. He was not a friend to 
French fashions, nor had ever been ; far the contrary. In his 
boyhood, say the Biographers, there was once a grand em- 
broidered cloth-of-gold, or otherwise supremely magnificent, 
little Dressing-gown given him ; but he would at no rate put 
it on, or be concerned with it ; on the contrary, stuffed it indig- 
nantly " into the fire ; " and demanded wholesome useful duffel 

He began his reform literally at the earliest moment Be- 
ing summoned into the apartment where his poor Father was 


in the last struggle, lie could scarcely get across for Kammvr- 
junker, Kammerherrn, Goldsticks, Silversticks, aad the other 
solemn histrionic functionaries, all crowding there to do their 
sad mimicry on the occasion : not a lovely accompaniment in 
Friedrich Wilhelm's eyes. His poor Father's death-struggle 
once done, and all reduced to everlasting rest there, Friedrich 
Wilhelm looked in silence over the Unutterable, for a short 
space, disregardful of the Goldsticks and their eager new 
homaging ; walked swiftly away from it to his own room, shut 
the door with a slam ; and there, shaking the tears from his 
eyes, commenced by a notable duty, the duty nearest hand, 
and therefore first to be done, as it seemed to him. It was 
about one in the afternoon, 25th February, 1713 ; his Father 
dead half an hour before : " Tears at a Father's death-bed, must 
they be dashed with rage by such a set of greedy Histrios ? " 
thought Friedrich Wilhelm. He summoned these his Court- 
people, that is to say, summoned their Ober-ffofmarschall and 
representative ; and through him signified to them, That, till 
the Funeral was over, their service would continue ; and that 
on the morrow after the Funeral, they were, every soul of 
them, discharged; and from the highest Goldstick down to 
the lowest Page-in-waiting, the King's House should be swept 
entirely clean of them ; said House intending to start afresh 
upon a quite new footing. 1 Which spread such a consterna- 
tion among the courtier people, say the Histories, as was never 
seen before. 

The thing was done, however; and nobody durst whisper 
discontent with it ; this rugged young King, with his plangent 
metallic voice, with his steady-beaming eyes, seeming dread- 
fully in earnest about it, and a person that might prove danger- 
ous if you crossed him. He reduced his Household accord- 
ingly, at once, to the lowest footing of the indispensable ; and 
discharged a whole regiment of superfluous official persons, 
court-flunkies, inferior, superior and supreme, in the most 
ruthless manner. He does not intend keeping any Ober-Hof- 
marschall, or the like idle person, henceforth ; thinks a mini 
mum of tha Goldsticks ought to suffice every man. 
1 Forster, i. 174 ; Follnitz, Memoiren, ii. 4. 

Eight Lackeys, in the ante-chambers and elsewhere, these, 
with each a Jagerlwrsch (what we should call an Under-keener) 
to assist when not hunting, will suffice : Lackeys at eight 
thalers monthly," which is six shillings a week. Three active 
Pages, sometimes two, instead of perhaps three dozen idle 
that there nsed to be. In King Friedrich's time, there were 
wont to be a thousand saddle-horses at corn and hay: but 
how many of them were in actual use ? Very many of them 
were mere imaginary quadrupeds; their price and keep 
pocketed by some knavish StaUmeieter, Equerry or Head- 
groom. Friedrich Wilhelm keeps only thirty Horses ; but 
these are very actual, not imaginary at all; their corn not 
running into any knave's pocket ; but lying actually in the 
mangers here ; getting ground for you into actual four-footed 
speed, when, on turf or highway, you require such a thing. 
About thirty for the saddle, with a few carriage-teams, are 
what Friedrich Wilhelm can employ in any reasonable mea- 
sure : and more he will not hare about him. 

In the like ruthless humor he goes over his Pension-list ; 
strikes three fourths of that away, reduces the remaining 
fourth to the very bone. In like humor, he goes over every 
department of his Administrative, Household and other 
Expenses: shears everything down, here by the hundred 
thalers, there by the ten, willing even to save half a thaler. 
He goes over all this three several times; his Papers, the 
three successive Lists he used on that occasion, have been 
printed. 1 He has satisfied himself, in about two months, 
what the effective minimum is ; and leaves it so. Reduced 
to below the fifth of what it was; 65,000 thalen, instead of 

By degrees he went over, went into and through, every 
department of Prussian Business, in that fashion; steadily, 
warily, irresistibly compelling every item of it, large and 
little, to take that same character of perfect economy and 
solidity, of utility pure and simple. Needful work is to be 

i Bodenbeek, BeitrSge zur BerMerung der L^nsb^hreibungen Fnedrick 
Wilhelm, I. timf Friedrichs del Groum (Berlin, 1836), pp. 99-127. 


rigorously well done; needless work, and ineffectual or imagi- 
nary workers, to be rigorously pitched out of doors. What a 
blessing on this Earth ; worth purchasing almost at any price ! 
The money saved is something, nothing if you will; but the 
amount of mendacity expunged, has any one computed that ? 
Mendacity not of tongue; but the far feller sort, of hand, 
and of heart, and of head; short summary of all Devil's- 
worship whatsoever. Which spreads silently along, once you 
let it in, with full purse or with empty ; some fools even 
praising it : the quiet dry-rot of Nations ! To expunge such 
is greatly the duty of every man, especially of every King. 
Unconsciously, not thinking of Devil's-worship, or spiritual 
dry-rot, but of money chiefly, and led by Nature and the ways 
she has with us, it was the task of Friedrich Wilhelm's life to 
bring about this beneficent result in all departments of Prus- 
sian Business, great and little, public and even private. Year 
after year, he brings it to perfection ; pushes it unweariedly 
forward every day and hour. So that he has Prussia, at last, 
all a Prussia made after his own image; the most thrifty, 
hardy, rigorous and Spartan country any modern King ever 
ruled over ; and himself (if he thought of that) a King indeed. 
He that models Nations according to his own image, he is a 
King, though his sceptre were a walking-stick ; and, properly 
no other is. 

Friedrich Wilhelm was wondered at, and laughed at, by 
innumerable mortals for his ways of doing; which indeed 
were very strange. Not that he figured much in what is 
called Public History, or desired to do so; for, though a 
vigilant ruler, he did not deal in protocoling and eampaisfn- 
ing, he let a minimum of that suffice him. But in court, 
soirees, where elegant empty talk goes on, and of all materials 
for it scandal is found incomparably the most interesting, I 
suppose there turned up no name oftener than that of his 
Prussian Majesty; and during these twenty-seven years of 
his Reign, his wild pranks and explosions gave food for 
continual talk in such quarter. 

For he was like no other King that then existed, or had 
ever been discovered. Wilder Son of Nature seldom came 

into the artificial world ; into a royal throne there, probably 
never. A wild man, wholly in earnest, veritable as the old 
rocks, and with a terrible volcanic fire in him too. He 
would have been strange anywhere ; but among the dapper 
Royal gentlemen of the Eighteenth Century, what was to be 
done with such an Orson of a King ? Clap him in Bedlam, 
and bring out the ballot-boxes instead ? The modern genera- 
tion, too, still takes its impression of him from these rumors, 
still more now from Wilhelmina's Book; which paints the 
outside savagery of the royal man, in a most striking manner 5 
and leaves the inside vacant, undiscovered by Wilhelmina or 
the rumors. 

Nevertheless it appears there were a few observant eyes 
even of contemporaries, who discerned in him a surprising 
talent for "National Economics " at least. One Leipzig Pro- 
fessor, Saxon, not Prussian by nation or interest, recognizes 
in Friedrich Wilhelm " den grossen Wvrth (the great Manager, 
Husbandry-man, or Landlord) of the epoch;" and lectures 
on his admirable "works, arrangements and institutions" in 
that kind. 1 Nay the dapper Royal gentlemen saw, with envy, 
the indubitable growth of this mad savage Brother; and 
ascribed it to "his avarice," to his mean ways, which were 
in such contrast to their sublime ones. That he understood 
National Economics has now become very certain. His grim 
semi-articulate Papers and Rescripts, on these subjects, are 
still almost worth reading, by a lover of genuine human talent 
in the dumb form. For spelling, grammar, penmanship and 
composition, they resemble nothing else extant; are as if 
done by the paw of a bear: indeed the utterance generally 
sounds more like the growling <rf a bear than anything that 
could be handily spelt or parsed. But there is a decisive 
human sense in the heart of it; and there is such a dire 
hatred of empty bladders, unrealities and hypocritical forms 
and pretences, what he calls "wind and humbug (Wind und 
bla-uer Dunsf)," as is very strange indeed. Strange among all 
mankind; doubly and trebly strange among the unfortunate 

i Bodenbeck'g BfiMge (p. 14), - Year, or Name of Lecturer, not men- 



species called Kings in our time. To whom, for sad reasons 

that could be given, " wind and blue vapor (blatter J>unst)," 

artistically managed by the rules of Acoustics and Optics, 

seem to be all we have left us ! 

It must be owned that this man is inflexibly, and with a 
fierce slow inexorable determination, set upon having realities 
round him. There is a divine idea of fact put into him ; the 
genus sham was never hatef uler to any man. Let it keep out 
of his way, well beyond the swing of that rattan of his, or it 
may get something to remember ! A just man, too ; would not 
wrong any man, nor play false in word or deed to any man. 
What is Justice but another form of the reality we love ; a 
truth acted out? Of all the humbugs or "painted vapors" 
known, Injustice is the least capable of profiting men or 
kings ! A just man, I say; and a valiant and veracious : but 
rugged as a wild bear ; entirely inarticulate, as if dumb. No 
bursts of parliamentary eloquence in him, nor the least ten- 
dency that way. His talent for Stump-Oratory may be reck- 
oned the minimum conceivable, or practically noted a zero. 
A man who would not have risen in modern Political Cir- 
cles ; man unchoosable at hustings or in caucus ; man forever 
invisible, and very unadmirable if seen, to the Able Edi- 
tor and those that hang by him. In fact, a kind of savage 
man, as we soy ; but highly interesting, if you can read dumb 
human worth; and of inexpressible profit to the Prussian 

For the first ten years of his reign, he had a heavy, contin- 
ual straggle, getting his finance and other branches of admin- 
istration extricated from their strangling imbroglios of coiled 
nonsense, and put upon a rational footing. His labor in these 
years, the first of little Fritz's life, must have been great; the 
pushing and pulling strong and continual. The good plan 
itself, this comes not of its own accord; it is the fruit of 
"genius " (which means transcendent capacity of taking trouble, 
first of all) : given a huge stack of tumbled thrums, it is not 
in your sleep that you will find the vital centre of it, or get 
the first thrum by the end ! And then the execution, the 


realizing, amid the contradiction, silent or expressed, of men 
and things ? Explosive violence was by no means Friedrich 
Wilhehn's method; the amount of slow stubborn broad-shoul- 
dered strength, in all kinds, expended by the man, strikes us 
as very great. The amount of patience even, though patience 
is not reckoned his forte. 

That of the Ritter-Dienst (Knights'-Service), for example, 
which is but one small item of his business, the commuting of 
the old feudal duty of his Landholders to do Service in War- 
time, into a fixed money payment : nothing could be fairer, 
more clearly advantageous to both parties ; and most of his 
"Knights" gladly accepted the proposal: yet a certain fac- 
tious set of them, the Magdeburg set, stirred up by some seven 
or eight of their number, "hardly above seven or eight really 
against me," saw good to stand out; remonstrated, recalci- 
trated; complained in the Diet (Kaiser too happy to hear of 
it, that he might have a hook on Friedrich Wilhelm) ; and for 
long years that paltry matter was a provocation to him. 1 But 
if your plan is just, and a bit of Nature's plan, persist in it 
like a law of Nature. This secret too was known to Friedrich 
Wilhelm. In the space of ten years, by actual human strength 
loyally spent, he had managed many things ; saw all things in 
a course towards management. All things, as it were, fairly 
on the road ; the multiplex team pulling one way, in rational 
human harness, not in imbroglios of coiled thrums made by 
the Nightmares. 

How he introduced a new mode of farming his Domain 
Lands, which are a main branch of his revenue, and shall be 
farmed on regular lease henceforth, and not wasted in pecula- 
tion and indolent mismanagement as heretofore ; * new modes 
of levying his taxes and revenues of every kind : * How he at 
last concentrated, and harmonized into one easy-going effective 
General Directory* the multifarious conflicting Boards, that 
were jolting and jangling in a dark use-and-wont manner, and 

11717-1725. Fowter, Si. 163-165, IT. 81-34; Stenzd, iii. 316-319; Samuel 
Bachholz, NmeOe PreuisiKh-Brandenburgische Geschickte (Berlin, 177S), i. 197. 
S FSnter, ii. 206, 216. Ib. ii- 190, 195. 

Completed 19th January, 1728 (Ib. ii. 172). 


leaving their work half done, when he first came into power : 1 
How he insisted on having daylight introduced to the very 
bottom of every business, fair-and-square observed as the rule 
of it, and the shortest road adopted for doing it: How he 
drained bogs, planted colonies, established manufactures, made 
bis own uniforms of Prussian wool, in a Lagerhaus of his own : 
How he dealt with the Jew Gompert about farming his To- 
bacco ; how, from many a crooked case and character he, by 
slow or short methods, brought out something straight; would 
take no denial of what was his, nor make any demand of what 
was not ; and did prove really a terror to evil-doers of various 
kinds, especially to prevaricators, defalcators, imaginary work- 
ers, and slippery unjust persons : How he urged diligence on 
all mortals, would not have the very Apple- women sit " with- 
out knitting" at their stalls; and brandished his stick, or 
struck it fiercely down, over the incorrigibly idle : All this, 
as well as his ludicrous explosions and unreasonable violences, 
is on record concerning Friedrich Wilhelm, though it is to the 
latter chiefly that the world has directed its unwise attention, 
in judging of him. He was a very arbitrary King. Yes, but 
then a good deal of his arbitrium, or sovereign will, was that 
of the Eternal Heavens as well ; and did exceedingly behoove 
to be done, if the Earth would prosper. Which is an immense 
consideration in regard to his sovereign will and him ! He 
was prompt with his rattan, in urgent cases ; had his gallows 
also, prompt enough, where needful Let him see that no 
mistakes happen, as certainly he means that none shall 1 

Yearly he made his country richer; and this not in money 
alone (which is of very uncertain value, and sometimes has no 
value at all, and even less), but in frugality, diligence, punctu- 
ality, veracity, the grand fountains from which money, and 
all real values and valors spring for men. To Friedrich Wil- 
helm, in his rustic simplicity, money had no lack of value ; 
rather the reverse. To the homespun man it was a success ol 
most excellent quality, and the chief symbol of success in all 
kinds. Yearly he made his own revenues, and his people's 
ier Zeit (Lemgo mid Hanover, 1814-1819), 

along with them and as the source of them, larger : and in all 
states of his revenue, he had contrived to make his expendi- 
ture less than it ; and yearly saved masses of coin, and " re- 
posited them in barrels in the cellars of his Schloss," where 
they proved very useful, one day. Much in Friedrich Wilhelm 
proved useful, beyond even his expectations. As a Nation's 
Husband he seeks his fellow among Kings, ancient and mod- 
ern. Happy the Nation which gets such a Husband, once in 
the half-thousand years. The Nation, as foolish wives and 
Nations do, repines and grudges a good deal, its weak whims 
and will being thwarted very often; but it advances steadily, 
with consciousness or not, in the way of well-doing ; and after 
long times the harvest of this diligent sowing becomes manifest 
to the Nation and to all Nations. 

Strange as it sounds in the Eepublic of Letters, we are 
tempted to call Friedrich Wilhelm a man of genius ; genius 
fated and promoted to work in National Husbandry, not in 
writing Verses or three-volume Novels. A silent genius. His 
melodious stanza, which he cannot bear to see halt in any 
syllable, is a rough fact reduced to order ; fact made to stand 
firm on its feet, with the world-rocks under it, and looking free 
towards all the winds and all the stars. He goes about sup- 
pressing platitudes, ripping off futilities, turning deceptions 
inside out. The realm of Disorder, which is Unveracity, Un- 
reality, what we call Chaos, has no fiercer enemy. Honest 
soul, and he seemed to himself such a stupid fellow often ; no 
tongue-learning at all ; little capable to give a reason for the 
faith that was in him. He cannot argue in articulate logic, 
only in inarticulate bellowings, or worse. He must do a thing, 
leave it undemonstrated ; once done, it will itself tell what 
kind of thing it is, by and by. Men of genius have a hard 
time, I perceive, whether born on the throne or off it ; and 
must expect contradictions next to unendurable, the plurality 
of blockheads being so extreme ! 

I find, except Samuel Johnson, no man of equal veracity 
with Friedrich Wilhelm in that epoch: and Johnson too, 
with all his tongue-learning, had not logic enough. In fact, 
it depends on how much conviction you have. Blessed be 



Heaven, there is here and there a man born who loves truth 
as truth should be loved, with all his heart and all his soul ; 
and hates untruth with a corresponding perfect hatred. Such 
men, in polite circles, which understand that certainly truth 
is better than untruth, but that you must be polite to both, 
are liable to get to the end of their logic. Even Johnson had 
a bellow in him ; though Johnson could at any time withdraw 
into silence, his kingdom lying all under his own hat. How 
much more Priedrich Wilhehn, who had no logic whatever; 
and whose kingdom lay without him, far and wide, a thing he 
could not withdraw from. The rugged Orson, he needed to 
be right. From utmost Memel down to Wesel again, ranked 

all manner of things and persons were depending on hi, and 
on his being right, not wrong, in his notion. 

A man of clear discernment, very good natural eyesight ; 
and irrefragably confident in what his eyes told him, in what 
his belief was; yet of huge simplicity withal. Capable of 
being coaxed about, and led by the nose, to a strange degree, 
if there were an artist dexterous enough, daring enough ! His 
own natural judgment was good, and, though apt to be hasty 
and headlong, was always likely to come right in the end ; but 
internally, we may perceive, his modesty, self-distrust, anxiety 
and other unexpected qualities, must have been great. And 
then his explosiveness, impatience, excitability ; his conscious 
dumb ignorance of all things beyond his own small horizon of 
personal survey ! An Orson capable enough of being coaxed 
and tickled, by some first-rate conjurer ; first-rate ; a second- 
rate might have failed, and got torn to pieces for his pains. 
But Seckendorf and Grumkow, what a dance they led him on 
some matters, as we shall see, and as poor Fritz and others 
will see J 

He was full of sensitiveness, rough as he was and shaggy 
of skin. His wild imaginations drove him hither and thither 
at a sad rate. He ought to have the privileges of genius. 
His tall Potsdam Eegiment, his mad-looking passion for en- 
listing tall men ; this also seems to me one of the whims of 
genius, an exaggerated notion to have his "stanza" polished 


to the last punctilio of perfection; and might be paralleled in 
the history of Poets. Stranger "man of genius," or in more 
peculiar circumstances, the world never saw ! 

Friedrich Wilhelm, in his Crown-Prince days, and now still 
more when he was himself in the sovereign place, had seen all 
along, with natural arithmetical intellect, That his strength in 
this world, as at present situated, would very much depend 
upon the amount of potential-battle that lay in him, on the 
quantity and quality of Soldiers he could maintain, and have 
ready for the field at any time. A most indisputable truth, 
and a heartfelt one in the present instance. To augment the 
quantity, to improve the quality, in this thrice-essential par- 
ticular: here lay the keystone and crowning summit of all 
Friedrieh Wilhelm's endeavors ; to which he devoted himself, 
as only the best Spartan could have done. Of which there 
will be other opportunities to speak in detail. For it was a 
thing world-notable; world-laughable, as was then thought; 
the extremely serious fruit of which did at length also become 
notable enough. 

In the Malplaquet time, once on some occasion, it is said, 
two English Officers, not well informed upon the matter, and 
provoking enough in their contemptuous ignorance, were rea- 
soning with one another in Friedrieh Wilhelm's hearing, as 
to the warlike powers of the Prussian State, and Whether the 
King of Prussia could on his own strength maintain a standing 
army of 15,000 ? Without subsidies, do you think, so many 
as 15,000? Friedrich Wilhelm, incensed at the thing and at 
the tone, is reported to have said with heat : Yes, 30,000 1 " l 
whereat the military men slightly wagged their heads, letting 
the matter drop for the present. But he makes it good by 
degrees; twofold or threefold; and will have an army of 
from seventy to a hundred thousand before he dies, 2 the best- 
drilled of fighting men ; and what adds much to the wonder, 
a full Treasury withal. This is the Brandenburg Spartan 
King ; acquainted with National Economics. Alone of exist- 

i Forstei, i. 138. 

72,000 field-troops, 80,000 garrison-troops " (GaOadnine ernes (EXer 
ran*, Bredaa, 1788, i. 64). 



ing Kings he lays by money annually ; and is laying by many 
other and far more precious things, for Prussia and the little 
Boy he has here. 

Ftiedrich Wilhelm's passion for drilling, recruiting and 
perfecting his army attracted much notice : laughing satirical 
notice, in the hundred mouths of common rumor, which he 
regarded little ; and notice iracund and minatory, when it 
led him into collision with the independent portions of man- 
kind, now and then. This latter sort was not pleasant, and 
sometimes looked rather serious; but this too he contrived 
always to digest in some tolerable manner. He continued 
drilling and recruiting, we may say not his Army only, but 
his Nation in all departments of it, as no man before or 
since ever did: increasing, by every devisable method, the 
amount of potential-battle that lay in him and it. 

In a military, and also in a much deeper sense, he may 
be defined as the great Drill-sergeant of the Prussian Nation. 
Indeed this had been the function of the Hohenzollerns all 
along; this difficult, unpleasant and indispensable one of 
drilling. From the first appearance of Burggraf Friedrich, 
with good words and with Heavy Peg, in the wreck of an- 
archic Brandenburg, and downwards ever since, this has 
steadily enough gone on. And not a little good drilling 
these populations have had, first and last ; just orders given 
them (wise and just, which to a respectable degree were 
Heaven's orders as well) : and certainly Heavy Peg, for in- 
stance, Heavy Peg, bringing Quitzow's strong House about 
his ears, was a respectable drummer's cat to enforce the 
same. This has been going on these three hundred years. 
But Friedrich Wilhelrn completes the process ; finishes it off 
to the last pitch of perfection. Friedrich Wilhelm carries 
it through every fibre and cranny of Prussian Business, and 
so far as possible, of Prussian Life; so that Prussia is all 
a drilled phalanx, ready to the word of command ; and what 
we see in the Army is but the last consummate essence of 
what exists in the Nation everywhere. That was Friedrich 
Wilhelm's function, made ready for him, laid to his hand 


by his Hohenzollern foregoers; and indeed it proved a most 
beneficent function. 

For I have remarked that, of all things, a Nation needs 
first to be drilled ; and no Nation that has not first been 
governed by so-called " Tyrants," and held tight to the curb 
till it became perfect in its paces and thoroughly amenable 
to rule and law, and heartily respectful of the same, and to- 
tally abhorrent of the want of the same, ever came to much 
in this -world. England itself, in foolish quarters of England, 
still howls and execrates lamentably over its William Con- 
queror, and rigorous line of Normans and Plantagenets ; but 
without them, if you will consider well, what had it ever 
been ? A gluttonous race of Jutes and Angles, capable of 
no grand combinations ; lumbering about in pot-bellied equa- 
nimity; not dreaming of heroic toil and silence and endur- 
ance, such as leads to the high places of this Universe, and 
the golden mountain-tops where dwell the Spirits of the 
Dawn. Their very ballot-boxes and suffrages, what they call 
their "Liberty," if these mean "Liberty," and are such a 
road to Heaven, Anglo-Saxon high-road thither, could never 
have been possible for them on such terms. How could they ? 
Nothing but collision, intolerable interpressure (as of men not 
perpendicular), and consequent battle often supervening, could 
have been appointed those undrilled Anglo-Saxons ; their pot- 
bellied equanimity itself continuing liable to perpetual inter- 
ruptions, as in the Heptarchy time. An enlightened Public 
does not reflect on these things at present ; but will again, by 
and by. Looking with human eyes over the England that 
now is, and over the America and the Australia, from pole to 
pole ; and then listening to the Constitutional litanies of Dry- 
asdust, and his lamentations on the old Norman and Plantoge- 
net Kings, and his recognition of departed merit and causes of 
effects, the mind of man is struck dumb I 



FJSIEDBICH WILHELM'S History is one of Economics ; which 
study, so soon as there are Kings again in this world, will be 
precious to them. In that happy state of matters, Friedrich 
Wilhelm's History will well reward study; and teach by 
example, in a very simple and direct manner. In what is 
called the Political, Diplomatic, "Honor-to-be" department, 
there is not, nor can ever be, much to be said of him ; this 
Economist King having always kept himself well at home, 
and looked steadily to his own affairs. So that for the pres- 
ent he has, as a King, next to nothing of what is called His- 
tory ; and it is only as a fellow-man, of singular faculty, and 
in a most peculiar and conspicuous situation, that he can be 
interesting to mankind. To us he has, as Father and daily 
teacher and master of young Fritz, a continual interest ; and 
we must note the master's ways, and the main phenomena of 
the workshop as they successively turned up, for the sake of 
the notable Apprentice serving there. 

He was not tall of stature, this arbitrary King: a florid- 
complexioned stout-built man; of serious, sincere, authorita- 
tive face ; his attitudes and equipments very Spartan in type. 
Man of short firm stature ; stands (in Pesne's best Portraits 
of him) at his ease, and yet like a tower. Most solid ; 
"plumb and rather more;" eyes steadfastly awake; cheeks 
slightly compressed, too, which fling the mouth rather for- 
ward; as if asking silently, "Anything astir, then? All 
right here ? " Face, figure and bearing, all in him is expres- 
sive of robust insight, and direct determination; of healthy 
energy, practicality, unquestioned authority, a certain air 
of royalty reduced to its simplest form. The face, in Pic- 


tares by Pesne and others, is not beautiful or agreeable; 
healthy, genuine, authoritative, is the best you can say of it. 
Yet it may have been, what it is described as being, originally 
handsome. High enough arched brow, rather copious cheeks 
and jaws ; nose smallish, inclining to be stumpy ; large gray 
eyes, bright with steady fire and life, often enough gloomy 
and severe, but capable of jolly laughter too. Eyes "natu- 
rally with a kind of laugh in them," says Pollnitz; which 
laugh can blaze out into fearful thunderous rage, if you give 
him provocation. Especially if you lie to him ; for that he 
hates above all things. Look him straight in the face : he 
fancies he can see in your eyes, if there is an internal men- 
dacity in you : wherefore you must look at him in speaking ; 
such is his standing order. 

His hair is flaxen, falling into the ash-gray or darker ; fine 
copious flowing hair, while he wore it natural. But it soon 
got tied into clubs, in the military style ; and at length it was 
altogether cropped away, and replaced by brown, and at last 
by white, round wigs. Which latter also, though bad wigs, 
became him not amiss, under his cocked-hat and cockade, says 
Pollnitz. 1 The voice, I guess, even when not loud, was of 
clangorous and penetrating, quasi-metallic nature ; and I learn 
expressly once, that it had a nasal quality in it. 2 His Majesty 
spoke through the nose ; snuffled his speech in an earnest 
ominously plangent manner. In angry moments, which were 
frequent, it must have been unpleasant to listen to. For 
the rest, a handsome man of his inches ; conspicuously well- 
built in limbs and body, and delicately finished off to the very 
extremities. His feet and legs, says Pollnitz, were very fine. 
The hands, if he would have taken care of them, were beauti- 
fully white ; fingers long and thin ; a hand at once nimble 
to grasp, delicate to feel, and strong to clutch and hold: 
what may be called a beautiful hand, because it is the use- 

Nothing could exceed his Majesty's simplicity of habitudes. 
But one loves especially in him his scrupulous attention to 

* Pollnitz, Memoiren (Berlin, 1791), ii. 668. 
1 Buwhing, Batrage, I 668. 


cleanliness of person and of environment. He washed like A 
very Mussulman, five times a day; loved cleanliness in all 
things, to a superstitious extent; which trait is pleasant in 
the rugged man, and indeed of a piece with the rest of his 
character. He is gradually changing all his silk and other 
cloth room-furniture ; in his hatred of dust, he will not suffer 
a floor-carpet, even a stuffed chair ; but insists on having all 
of wood, where the dust may be prosecuted to destruction. 1 
Wife and womankind, and those that take after them, let such 
have stuffing and sofas : he, for his part, sits on mere wooden 
chairs ; sits, and also thinks and acts, after the manner of 
a Hyperborean Spartan, which he was. He ate heartily, but 
as a rough farmer and hunter eats; country messes, good 
roast and boiled; despising the French Cook, as an entity 
without meaning for him. His favorite dish at dinner was 
bacon and greens, rightly dressed; what could the French 
Cook do for such a man ? He ate with rapidity, almost with 
indiscriminate violence: his object not quality but quantity. 
He drank too, but did not get drunk : at the Doctor's order 
he could abstain ; and had in later years abstained. Pollnitz 
praises his fineness of complexion, the originally eminent 
whiteness of his skin, which he had tanned and bronzed by 
hard riding and hunting, and otherwise worse discolored by 
his manner of feeding and digesting : alas, at last his waist- 
coat came to measure, I am afraid to say how many Prussian 
ells, a very considerable diameter indeed ! 2 

For some years after his accession he still appeared occa- 
sionally in " burgher dress," or unmilitary clothes ; " brown 
English coat, yellow waistcoat " and the other indispensables. 
But this fashion became rarer with him every year ; and 
ceased altogether (say Chronologists) about the year 1719 : 
after which he appeared always simply as Colonel of the 
Potsdam Guards (his own Lifeguard Kegiment) in simple 
Prussian uniform : close military coat ; blue, with red cuffs 
and collar, buff waistcoat and breeches; white linen gaiters 
to the knee. He girt his sword about the loins, well out of 
the mud; walked always with a thick bamboo in his hand. 
1 Forster, i. 208. * Ib. i. 163. 



Steady, not slow of step; with his triangular hat, cream- 
white round wig (in his older days), and face tending to 
purple, the eyes looking out mere investigation, sharp 
swift authority, and dangerous readiness to rebuke and set 
the cane in motion: it was so he walked abroad in this 
earth; and the common run of men rather fled his approach 
than courted it. 

For, in fact, he was dangerous ; and would ask in an alarm- 
ing manner, "Who are you?" Any fantastic, much more 
any suspicious-looking person, might fare the worse. An idle 
lounger at the street-corner he has been known to hit over the 
crown ; and peremptorily despatch : " Home, Sirrah, and take 
to some work!" That the Apple-women be encouraged to 
knit, while waiting for custom ; encouraged and quietly 
constrained, and at length packed away, and their stalls taken 
from them, if unconstrainable, there has, as we observed, 
an especial rescript been put forth ; very curious to read. 1 

Dandiacal figures, nay people looking like Frenchmen, idle 
flaunting women even, better for them to be going. " Who 
are you?" and if you lied or prevaricated ("Jr lllcke mioh, 
gerade an, Look me in the face, then ! "), or even stumbled, 
hesitated, and gave suspicion of prevaricating, it might be 
worse for you. A soft answer is less effectual than a prompt 
clear one, to turn away wrath, "A Candidatus Theologice, 
your Majesty," answered a handfast threadbare youth one day, 
when questioned in this manner. " Where from ? " " Berlin, 
your Majesty." " Hm, na, the Berliners are a good-for-noth- 
ing set." "Yes, truly, too many of them ; but there are excep- 
tions ; I know two." " Two ? which then ? " " Your Majesty 
and myself!" Majesty burst into a laugh: the Candida- 
tus was got examined by the Consistoriums, and Authorities 
proper in that matter, and put into a chaplaincy. 

This King did not love the French, or their fashions, at all. 

We said he dismissed the big Peruke, put it on for the last 

. time at his Father's funeral, so far did filial piety go ; and then 

packed it aside, dismissing it, nay banishing and proscribing 

i In BodenbecV, BeitrSge, p. 15. 



it, never to appear more. The Peruke, and, as it were, all that 
the Peruke symbolized. For this was a King come into the 
world with quite other aims than that of wearing big perukes, 
and, regardless of expense, playing burst-frog to the ox of 
Versailles, which latter is itself perhaps a rather useless 
animaL Of Friedrich Wilhelm's taxes upon wigs ; of the old 
" Wig-inspectors," and the feats they did, plucking off men's 
periwigs on the street, to see if the government-stamp were 
there, and to discourage wiggery, at least all but the simple 
scratch or useful Welsh-wig, among mankind : of these, and 
of other similar things, I could speak ; but do not. This little 
incident, which occurred once in the review-ground on the out- 
skirts of Berlin, will suffice to mark his temper in that respect. 
It was in the spring of 1719 ; our little Fritz then six years 
old, who of course heard much temporary confused commentary, 
direct and oblique, triumphant male laughter, and perhaps 
rebellious female sighs, on occasion of such a feat. 

Count Bothenburg, Prussian by birth, 1 an accomplished and 
able person in the diplomatic and other lines of business, but 
much used to Paris and its ways, had appeared lately in Berlin, 
as French envoy, and, not unnaturally, in high French cos- 
tume ; cocked-hat, peruke, laced coat, and the other trimmings. 
He, and a group of dashing followers and adherents, were ac- 
customed to go about in that guise ; very capable of proving 
infectious to mankind. What is to be done with them ? thinks 
the anxious Father of his People. They were to appear at 
the ensuing grand Review, as Friedrich Wilhelm understood. 
Whereupon Friedrich Wilhelm took his measures in private. 
Dressed up, namely, his Scavenger-Executioner people (what 
they call Profossen in Prussian regiments) in an enormous 
exaggeration of that costume; cocked-hats about an ell in 
diameter, wigs reaching to the houghs, with other fittings to 
match : these, when Count Bothenburg and his company ap- 
peared upon the ground, Friedrich Wilhelm summoned out, 
with some trumpet-peal or burst of field-music; and they 
solemnly crossed Count Bothenburg's field of vision; the 
strangest set of Phantasms he had seen lately. Awakening 
Bnchholz, Neuute Prettssisch-Brandenburgische Gachicltte, i. 28. 

salutary reflections in him. 1 Fancy that scene in History; 
Friedrich Wilhelm for comic-symbolic Dramaturgist. Gods 
and men (or at least Houyhnhnm horses) might have saluted it 
with a Homeric laugh, so huge and vacant is it, with a sus- 
picion of real humor too : but the men were not permitted, 
on parade, more than a silent grin, or general irrepressible 
rustling murmur 5 and only the gods laughed inextinguishably, 
if so disposed. The Scavenger-Executioners went back to their 
place ; and Count Kothenburg took a plain German costume, 
so long as he continued in those parts. 

Friedrich Wilhelm has a dumb rough wit and mockery, of 
that kind, on many occasions; not without geniality in its 
Brobdignag exaggeration and simplicity. Like a wild bear of 
the woods taking Ms sport ; with some sense of humor in the 
rough skin of him. Very capable of seeing through sumptuous 
costumes ; and respectful of realities alone. Not in French 
sumptuosity, but in native German thrift, does this King see 
his salvation ; so as Nature constructed him : and the world 
which has long lost its Spartans, will see again an original 
North-German Spartan ; and shriek a good deal over him ; 
Nature keeping her own counsel the while, and as it were, 
laughing in her sleeve at the shrieks of the flunky "world. 
For Nature, when she makes a Spartan, means a good deal by 
it ; and does not expect instant applauses, but only gradual 
and lasting. 

"For my own part," exclaims a certain Editor once, "I per- 
ceive well there was never yet any great Empire founded, 
Roman, English, down to Prussian or Dutch, nor in fact any 
great mass of work got achieved under the Sun, but it was 
founded even upon this humble-looking quality of Thrift, and 
became achievable in virtue of the same. Which will seem 
a strange doctrine, in these days of gold-nuggets, railway- 
fortunes, and miraculous snmptuosities regardless of expense. 
Earnest readers are invited to consider it, nevertheless. Though 
new, it is very old ; and a sad meaning lies in it to us of these 

i Forster, i. 165 ; Fassnuum, Leben und Tkaten des allerdwchliiuchtiffsten gv. 
KSniffs von Preutten Frtderici WUhelmi (Hamburg und Breslau, 1735), pp 


times ! That you hare squandered in idle fooleries, building 
where there was no basis, your Hundred Thousand Sterling, 
your Eight Hundred Million Sterling, is to me a comparatively 
small matter. You may still again become rich, if you have 
at last become wise. But if you have wasted your capacity of 
strenuous, devoutly valiant labor, of patience, perseverance, 
self-denial, faith in the causes of effects ; alas, if your once just 
judgment of what is worth something and what is worth noth- 
ing, has been wasted, and your silent steadfast reliance on 
the general veracities, of yourself and of things, is no longer 
there, then indeed you have had a loss ! You are, in fact, 
an entirely bankrupt individual ; as you will find by and by. 
Yes ; and though you had California in fee-simple ; and could 
buy all the upholsteries, groceries, funded-properties, tempo- 
rary (very temporary) landed properties of the world, at one 
swoop, it would avail you nothing. Henceforth for you no 
harvests in the Seedfield of this Universe, which reserves its 
salutary bounties, and noble heaven-sent gifts, for quite other 
than you ; and I would not give a pin's value for all you will 
ever reap there. Mere imaginary harvests, sacks of nuggets 
and the like ; empty as the east-wind ; with all the Demons 
laughing at you ! Do you consider that Nature too is a swollen 
flunky, hungry for veils ; and can be taken in with your sub- 
lime airs of sumptuosity, and the large balance you actually 
have in Lombard Street ? Go to the General Cesspool, with 
your nuggets and your ducats ! " 

The flunky world, much stript of its plush and fat per- 
quisites, accuses Friedrich Wilhelm bitterly of avarice and the 
cognate vices. But it is not so ; intrinsically, in the main, his 
procedure is to be defined as honorable thrift, verging to- 
wards avarice here and there ; as poor human virtues usually 
lean to one side or the other ! He can be magnificent enough 
too, and grudges no expense, when the occasion seems worthy. 
If the occasion is inevitable, and yet not quite worthy, I have 
known him have recourse to strange shifts. The Czar Peter, 
for example, used to be rather often in the Prussian Dominions, 
oftenest on business of his own: such a man is to be royally 
defrayed while with us ; yet one would wish it done cheap. 


Post-hoises, "two hundred and eighty-seven at every station," 
he has from the Community ; but the rest of his expenses, from 
Memel all the way to Wesel ? Friedrich Wilhelm's marginal 
response to Ms Finane-Directorium, requiring orders once on 
that subject, runs in the following strange tenor : " Yes, all 
the way (except Berlin, which I take upon myself) ; and ob- 
serve, you contrive to do it for 6,000 thalers (900)," which 
is uncommonly cheap, about 1 per mile ; " won't allow you 
one other penny (nit einen Pfennig gebe mehr dasu) ; but you 
are (sotten Sw)," this is the remarkable point, " to give out in 
the world that it costs me from Thirty to Forty Thousand ! " 1 
So that here is the Majesty of Prussia, who beyond all men 
abhors lies, giving orders to tell one ? Alas, yes ; a kind of 
lie, or fib (white fib, or even gray), the pinch of Thrift com- 
pelling ! But what a window into the artless inner-man of his 
Majesty, even that gray fib ; not done by oneself, but ordered 
to be done by the servant, as if that were cheaper ! 

"Verging upon avarice," sure enough: but, unless we are 
unjust and unkind, he can by no means be described as a 
Miser King. He collects what is his; gives you accurately 
what is yours. For wages paid he will see work done; he 
will ascertain more and more that the work done be work 
needful for him ; and strike it off, if not. A Spartan man, as 
we said, though probably he knew as little of the Spartans 
as the Spartans did of him. But Nature is still capable of 
such products : if in Hellas long ages since, why not in Bran- 
denburg now ? 


ONE of Fritz's earliest strong impressions from the outer 

world chanced to be of War, so it chanced, though he 

had shown too little taste that way, and could not, as 

1 1717: Former, i. 213. 


yet, understand such phenomena; and there must have 
been much semi-articulate questioning and dialoguing with 
Dame de Roucoulles, on his part, about the matter now 
going on. 

In the year 1715, little Fritz's third year, came grand 
doings, not of drill only, but of actual war and fighting : the 
Stralsund Expedition," Friedrich Wilhelm's one feat in that 
kind. Huge rumor of which fills naturally the maternal heart, 
the Berlin Palace drawing-rooms ; and occupies, with new 
vivid interests, all imaginations young and old. For the ac- 
tual battle-drums are now beating, the big cannon-wains are 
creaking tinder way; and military men take farewell, and 
march, tramp, tramp ; Majesty in grenadier-guard uniform at 
their head : horse, foot and artillery ; northward to Stralsund 
on the Baltic shore, where a terrible human Lion has taken 
up his lair lately. Charles XII. of Sweden, namely; he has 
broken out of Turkish Bender or Demotica, and ended his 
obstinate torpor, at last ; has ridden fourteen or sixteen days, 
he and a groom or two, through desolate steppes and moun- 
tain wildernesses, through crowded dangerous cities; "came 
by Vienna and by Cassel, then through Pommern ; " leaving his 
" royal train of two thousand persons " to follow at its leisure. 
He, for his part, has ridden without pause, forward, ever 
forward, in darkest incognito, the indefatigable man ; and 
finally, on Old-Hallowmas Eve (22d-llth November, 1714), 
far in the night, a Horseman, with two others still following 
him, travel-splashed, and " white with snow," drew bridle at 
the gate of Stralsund ; and, to the surprise of the Swedish 
sentinel there, demanded instant admission to the Governor. 
The Governor, at first a little surly of humor, saw gradually 
how it was ; sprang out of bed, and embraced the knees of 
the snowy man ; Stralsund in general sprang out of bed, and 
illuminated itself, that same Hallow-Eve : and in brief, 
Charles XII., after five years of eclipse, has reappeared upon 
the stage of things ; and menaces the world, in his old fash- 
ion, from that City. From which it becomes urgent to many 
parties, and at last to Friedrich Wilhelm himself, that he be 


The root of this Stralsund story belongs to the former reign, 
as did the grand apparition of Charles XII. on the theatre of 
European History, and the terror and astonishment he created 
there. He is now thirty-three years old ; and only the wind- 
ing up, both of Mm and of the Stralsund story, falls within 
our present field. Fifteen years ago, it was like the bursting 
of a cataract of bomb-shells in a dull ball-room, the sudden 
appearance of this young fighting Swede among the luxurious 
Kings and Kinglets of the North, all lounging about and 

Friedrich IV. of Denmark rejoicing over red wine ; August 
the Strong gradually producing his " three hundred and fifty- 
four bastards;" 1 these and other neighbors had confidently 
stept in, on various pretexts; thinking to help themselves 
from the young man's properties, who was still a minor; 
when the young minor suddenly developed himself as a major 
and maximus, and turned out to be such a Fire-King among 

In consequence of which there had been no end of Northern 
troubles ; and all through the Louis-Fourteenth or Marlbor- 
ough grand " Succession War," a special " Northern War " 
had burnt or smouldered on its own score ; Swedes versus 
Saxons, Russians and Danes, bickering in weary intricate con- 
test, and. keeping those Northern regions in smoke if not on 
fire. Charles XII., for the last five years (ever since Pultawa, 
and the summer of 1709), had lain obstinately dormant in 
Turkey; urging the Turks to destroy Czar Peter. Which 
they absolutely could not, though they now and then tried ; 
and Viziers not a few lost their heads in consequence. Charles 
lay sullenly dormant; Danes meanwhile operating upon his 
Holstein interests and adjoining territories ; Saxons, Russians, 
battering continually at Swedish Pommern, continually march- 
ing thither, and then marching home again, without success, 
always through the Brandenburg Territory, as they needs 
must. Which latter circumstance Friedrich Wilhelm, while 
yet only Crown-Prince, had seen with natural displeasure, 
could that have helped it. But Charles XH. would not yield 
MUmoiTefdeBareith (Wilhelmina'a Book, Londres, 1818), i. 111. 


a whit ; sent orders peremptorily, from his bed at Bender or 
Demotica, that there must be no surrender. Neither could 
the sluggish enemy compel surrender. 

So that, at length, it had grown a feeble wearisome welter 
of inextricable strifes, with worn-out combatants, exhausted 
of all but their animosity ; and seemed as if it would never 
end. Inveterate ineffective war ; ruinous to all good interests 
in those parts. What miseries had Holstein from it, which 
last to our own day! Mecklenburg also it involved in sore 
troubles, which lasted long enough, as we shall see. But Bran- 
denburg, above all, may be impatient; Brandenburg, which 
has no business with it except that of unlucky neighborhood. 
One of Friedrich Wilhelm's very first operations, as King, was 
to end this ugly state of matters, which he had witnessed with 
impatience, as Prince, for a long while. 

He had hailed even the Treaty of Utrecht with welcome, in 
hopes it might at least end these Northern brabbles. This 
the Treaty of Utrecht tried to do, but could not : however, 
it gave Mm back his Prussian Fighting Men ; which he has 
already increased by six regiments, raised, we may perceive, 
on the ruins of bis late court-flunkies and dismissed gold- 
sticks; with these Friedrich Wilhelm will try to end it 
himself. These he at once ordered to form a Camp on his 
frontier, close to that theatre of contest ; and signified now 
with emphasis, in the beginning of 1713, that he decidedly 
wished there were peace in those Pommern regions. Nego- 
tiations in consequence ; * very wide negotiations, Louis XIV. 
and the Kaiser lending hand, to pacify these fighting North- 
ern Kings and their Czar : at length the Holstein Government, 
representing their sworn ally, Charles XII., on the occasion, 
made an offer which seemed promising. They proposed that 
Stettin and its dependencies, the strong frontier Town, and, 
as it were, key of Swedish Pommern, should be evacuated by 
the Swedes, and be garrisoned by neutral troops, Prussians 
and Holsteiners in equal number ; which neutral troops shall 
prohibit any hostile attack of Pommern from without, Sweden 
engaging not to make any attack through Pommern from 
10th June, 1713 : Bnchholz, i. 21. 


within. That will be as good as peace in Pommern, till we 
get a general Swedish Peace. With which Friedrich Wilhelm 
gladly complies. 1 

Unhappily, however, the Swedish Commandant in Stettin 
would not give up the place, on any representative or sec- 
ondary authority ; not without an express order in his King's 
own hand. Which, as his King was far away, in abstruse 
Turkish circumstances and localities, could not be had at the 
moment; and involved new difficulties and uncertainties, new 
delay which might itself be fatal. The end was, the Eussians 
and Saxons had to cannonade the man out by regular siege : 
they then gave up the Town to Prussia and Holstein ; but re- 
quired first to be paid their expenses incurred in sieging it, 
400,000 thalers, as they computed and demonstrated, or some- 
where about 60,000 of our money. 

Friedrich Wilhelm paid the money (Holstein not having a 
groschen) ; took possession of the Town, and dependent towns 
and forts ; intending well to keep them till repaid. This was 
in October, 1713 ; and ever since, there has been actual tran- 
quillity in those parts : the embers of the Northern War may 
still burn or smoulder elsewhere, but here they are quite 
extinct. At first, it was a joint possession of Stettin, Hol- 
steiners and Prussians in equal number ; and if Friedrich Wil- 
helm had been sure of his money, so it would have continued. 
But the Holsteiners had paid nothing; Charles XII.'s sanction 
never could be expressly got, and the Holsteiners were mere 
dependents of his. Better to increase our Prussian force, by 
degrees ; and, in some good way, with a minimum of violence, 
get the Holsteiners squeezed out of Stettin : Friedrich Wil- 
helm has so ordered and contrived. The Prussian force hav- 
ing now gradually increased to double in this important 
garrison, the Holsteiners are quietly disarmed, one night, and 
ordered to depart, under penalties ; which was done. Hold- 
ing such a pawn-ticket as Stettin, buttoned in our own pocket, 
we count now on being paid our 60,000 before parting 
With it. 

Matters turned out as Friedrich Wilhelm had dreaded the; 

l 22d June, 1713 : Buchholz, i. 21. 


might. Here is Charles XII. come back; inflexible as cold 
Swedish iron ; will not hear of any Treaty dealing with his 
properties in that manner : Is he a bankrupt, then, that you 
will sell his towns by auction ? Charles does not, at heart, 
believe that Friedrich Wilhelm ever really paid the 60,000 ; 
Charles demands, for his own part, to have his own Swedish 
Town of Stettin restored to him ; and has not the least in- 
tention, or indeed ability, to pay money. Vain to answer : 
" Stettin, for the present, is not a Swedish Town ; it is a Prus- 
sian Pawn-ticket I " There was much negotiation, corre- 
spondence ; Louis XIV. and the Kaiser stepping in again to 
produce settlement. To no purpose. Louis, gallant old Bank- 
rupt, tried hard to take Charles's part with effect. But he 
had, himself, no money now ; could only try finessing by am- 
bassadors, try a little menacing by them; neither of which 
profited. Friedrich Wilhelm, wanting only peace on his 
borders, after fifteen years of extraneous uproar there, has 
paid 60,000 in hard cash to have it: repay him that sum, 
with promise of peace on his borders, he will then quit Stettin ; 
till then not. Big words from a French Ambassador in big 
wig, will not suffice : " Bullying goes for nothing (Bange ma- 
chen gilt nicht)," the thing covenanted for will need to be 
done ! Poor Louis the Great, whom we now call " Bankrupt- 
Great," died while these affairs were pending ; while Charles, 
his ally, was arguing and battling against all the world, with 
only a grandiloquent Ambassador to help him from Louis. 
" J'ai trop aime' la guerre," said Louis at his death, addressing 
a new small Louis (five years old), his great-grandson and suc- 
cessor: "I have been too fond of war; do not imitate me in 
that, ne m'imitez pas en cela." 1 Which counsel also, as we 
shall see, was considerably lost in air. 

Friedrich Wilhelm had a true personal regard for Charles 
XII., a man made in many respects after his own heart ; and 
would fain have persuaded him into softer behavior. But it 
was to no purpose. Charles would not listen to reasons of 
policy ; or believe that his estate was bankrupt, or that his 
i 1st September, 1715. 



towns could be put in pawn. Danes, Saxons, Russians, even 
George I. of England (George having just bought, of the Dan- 
ish King, who had got hold of it, a great Hanover bargain, 
Bremen and Verden, on cheap terms, from the quasi-bankrupt 
estate of poor Charles), hare to combine against him, and see 
to put him down. Among whom Prussia, at length actually 
attacked by Charles in the Stettin regions, has reluctantly to 
take the lead in that repressive movement. On the 28th of 
April, 1715, Friedrich Wilhelm declares war against Charles ; is 
already on march, with a great force, towards Stettin, to coerce 
and repress said Charles. No help for it, so sore as it goes 
against us : " Why will the very King whom I most respect 
compel me to be his enemy ? " said Friedrich Wilhelm. 1 

One of Friedrich Wilhelm's originalities is his farewell 
Order and Instruction, to his three chief Ministers, on this 
occasion. Ilgen, Dohna, Prinzen, tacit dusky figures, whom 
we meet in Prussian Books, and never gain the least idea of, 
except as of grim, rather cunning, most reserved antiquarian 
gentlemen, a kind of human iron-safes, solemnly filled (un- 
der triple and quadruple patent-locks) with what, alas, has 
now all grown waste-paper, dust and cobweb, to us: these 
three reserved cunning Gentlemen are to keep a thrice-watch- 
ful eye on all subordinate boards and persons, and see well 
that nobody nod or do amiss. Brief weekly report to his. 
Majesty will be expected; staffettes, should cases of hot haste 
occur: any questions of yours are "to be put on a sheet of 
paper folded down, to which I can write marginalia : " if noth- 
ing particular is passing, "nit sehreiben, you don't write." 
Pay out no money, except what falls due by the Books ; none ; 
if an extraordinary case for payment arise, consult my 
Wife, and she must sign her order for it. Generally in mat- 
ters of any moment, consult my Wife ; but her only, "except 
her and the Privy Councillors, no mortal is to poke into my 
affairs : " I say no mortal, " sonst kein Mensch." 

"My Wife shall be told of all things," he says elsewhere, 
"and counsel asked of her." The rugged Paterfamilias, but 
the human one! "And as I am a man," continues he, "and 

<E*ont de Frederic (HiHeire de Brandebourg), i. 132; Buchholz, i. 28. 


may be shot dead, I command you and all to take care of 
Fritz (fur Frits susorgeri), as God shall reward you. And I 
give you all, Wife to begin with, my curse (meinen FlucK), 
that God may punish you in Time and Eternity, if you do not, 
after my death," do what, Heavens ? " bury me in the 
vault of the Schlosskirche," Palace-Church at Berlin! "And 
you shall make no grand to-do (kein Festin) on the occasion. 
On your body and life, no festivals and ceremonials, except 
that the regiments one after the other fire a volley over me." 
Is not this an ursine man-of-genius, in some sort, as we once 
defined him? He adds suddenly, and concludes: "I am as- 
sured you will manage everything with all the exactness in 
the world ; for which I shall ever zealously, as long as I live, 
be your friend." 1 

Eussians, Saxons affected to intend joining Friedrich Wil- 
helm in his Pommern Expedition ; and of the latter there 
did, under a so-called Field-Marshal von Wackerbarth, of high 
plumes and titles, some four thousand of whom only Colonel 
von Seckendorf, commanding one of the horse-regiments, is 
remarkable to us come and serve. The rest, and all the 
Eussians, he was as well pleased to have at a distance. Some 
sixteen thousand Danes joined him, too, with the King of 
Denmark at their head ; very furious, all, against the Swedish- 
iron Hero ; but they were remarked to do almost no real ser- 
vice, except at sea a little against the Swedish ships. George I. 
also had a fleet in the Baltic; but only "to protect English 
commerce." On the whole, the Siege of Stralsund, to which 
the Campaign pretty soon reduced itself, was done mainly by 
Friedrich Wilhelm. He stayed two months in Stettin, get- 
ting all his preliminaries completed; his good Queen, Wife 
" Feekin," was with him for some time, I know not whether 
now or afterwards. In the end of June, he issued from Stet- 
tin; took the interjacent outpost places ; and then opened 
ground before Stralsund, where, in a few days more, the 
Danes joined him. It was now the middle of July : a com- 
bined Army of well-nigh forty thousand against Charles ; 

i 26th April, 1715: Cosmars nnd Klaproths Staatsrath, a. 223 (in Stenzel, 
iii. 269). 


who, to man his works, musters about the fourth part of that 

Stralsund, with its outer lines and inner, with its marshes, 
ditches, ramparts and abundant cannon to them, and leaning, 
one side of it, on the deep sea, which Swedish ships command 
as yet, is very strong. Wallenstein, we know, once tried it 
with furious assault, with bombardment, sap and storm ; 
swore he would have it, "though it hung by a chain from 
Heaven ; " but could not get it, after all his volcanic raging ; 
and was driven away, partly by the Swedes and armed Towns- 
folk, chiefly by the marsh-fevers and continuous rains. Stral- 
sund has been taken, since that, by Prussian sieging ; as old 
men, from the Great Elector's time, still remember. 1 To 
Louis Fourteenth's menacing Ambassador, Friedrich Wilhelm 
seems to intimate that indeed big bullying words will not 
take it, but that Prussian guns and men, on a just ground, 
still may. 

The details of this Siege of Stralsund are all on record, and 
had once a certain fame in the world ; but, except as a distant 
echo, must not concern us here. It lasted till midwinter, 
under continual fierce counter-movements and desperate sallies 
from the Swedish Lion, standing at bay there against all the 
world. But Friedrich Wilhelm was vigilance itself ; and he 
had his Anhalt-Dessaus with him, his Borcks, Buddenbrocks, 
Finkensteins, veteran men and captains, who had learned 
their art under Marlborough and Eugene. The Lion King's 
fierce sallies, and desperate valor, could not avail. Point 
after point was lost for him. Koppen, a Prussian Lieutenant- 
Colonel, native to the place, who has bathed in those waters 
in his youth, remembers that, by wading to the chin, you 
could get round the extremity of Charles's main outer line. 
Koppen states his project, gets it approved of; wades ac- 
cordingly, with a select party, under cloud of night (4th of 
November, eve of Gunpowder-day, a most cold-hot job) ; other 
ranked Prussian battalions awaiting intently outside, with 

i Panli, viii. 85-101 ; Bnchholz, i. 31-39; Fowter, ii. 34-39 ; Stenzel, iii. 

10th-15th October, 1678 (Panli, v. 203, 205). 


shouldered firelock, invisible in the dark; what will become of 
him. Koppen wades successfully ; seizes the first battery of 
said line, masters said line with its batteries, the outside 
battalions and he. Irrepressibly, with horrible uproar from 
without and from within ; the flying Swedes scarcely getting 
up the Town drawbridge, as he chased them. That important 
line is lost to Charles. 

Next they took the Isle of Kttgen from him, which shuts 
up the harbor. Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, our rugged friend, 
in Danish boats, which were but ill navigated, contrives, 
about a week after that Eoppen feat, to effect a landing on 
Bugen at nightfall ; beats off the weak Swedish party ; en- 
trenches, palisades himself to the teeth, and lies down under 
arms. That latter was a wise precaution. For, about four 
in the morning, Charles comes in person, with eight pieces of 
cannon and four thousand horse and foot : Charles is struck 
with amazement at the palisade and ditch (" Mein Gott, 
who would have expected this ! " he was heard murmuring) ; 
dashes, like a fire-flood, against ditch and palisade ; tears at 
the pales himself, which prove impregnable to his cannon 
and him. He storms and rages forward, again and again, 
now here, now there ; but is met everywhere by steady deadly 
musketry; and has to retire, fruitless, about daybreak, him- 
self wounded, and leaving his eight cannons, and four hundred 

Poor Charles, there had been no sleep for him that night, 
and little for very many nights : " on getting to horse, on the 
shore at Stralsund, he fainted repeatedly; fell out of one faint 
into another ; but such was his rage, he always recovered 
himself, and got on horseback again." 1 Poor Charles : a 
bit of right royal Swedish-German stuff, after his kind; and 
tragically ill bested now at last ! This is his exit he is now 
making, still in a consistent manner. It is fifteen years 
now since he waded ashore at Copenhagen, and first heard the 
bullets whistle round him. Since which time, what a course 
has he run; crashing athwart all manner of ranked armies, 
diplomatic combinations, right onward, like a cannon-ball ; 



tearing off many solemn wigs in those Northern parts, and 
scattering them upon the winds, even as he did his own 
full-bottom wig, impatiently, on that first day at Copenhagen, 
finding it unfurthersome for actual business in battle. 1 

In about a month hence, the last important hornwork is 
forced ; Charles, himself seen fiercely fighting on the place, is 
swept back from his last hornwork; and the general storm, 
now altogether irresistible, is evidently at hand. On entreaty 
from his followers, entreaty often renewed, with tears even 
(it is said) and on bended knees, Charles at last consents to 
go. He left no orders for surrender ; would not name the 
word ; " left only ambiguous vague orders." But on the 19th 
December, 1715, he does actually depart ; gets on board a little 
boat, towards a Swedish frigate, which is lying above a mile 
out ; the whole road to which, between Biigen and the main- 
land, is now solid ice, and has to be cut as he proceeds. This 
slow operation, which lasted all day, was visible, and its mean- 
ing well known, in the besiegers' lines. The King of Den- 
mark saw it ; and brought a battery to bear upon it ; his 
thought had always been, that Charles should be captured or 
killed in Stralsund, and not allowed to get away. Friedrich 
Wilhelm was of quite another mind, and had even used secret 
influences to that effect ; eager that Charles should escape. It 
is said, he remonstrated very passionately with the Danish 
King and this battery of his ; nay, some add, since remon- 
strances did not avail, and the battery still threatened to fire, 
Friedrich Wilhelm drew up a Prussian regiment or two at the 
muzzles of it, and said, You shall shoot us first, then. 2 Which 
is a pleasant myth at least ; and symbolical of what the 
reality was. 

Charles reached his frigate about nightfall, but made little 
way from the place, owing to defect of wind. They say, he 
even heard the chamade beating in Stralsund next day, and 
that a Danish frigate had nearly taken him; both which state- 
ments are perhaps also a little mythical. Certain only that he 
vanished at this point into Scandinavia; and general Europe 

1 Kohler, Mtozbelustigungen, xiv. 213. 

* Bnchholz, p. 138. 


never saw Mm more. Vanished into a cloud of untenable 
schemes, guided by Alberoni, Baron Gortz and others ; wild 
schemes, financial, diplomatic, warlike, nothing not chimerical 
in them but his own unquenchable real energy ; and found 
his death (by assassination, as appears) in the trenches of 
Frederickshall, amotig the Norway Hills, one winter night, 
three years hence. Assassination instigated by the Swedish 
Omcial Persons, it is thought. The bullet passed through both 
his temples ; he had clapt his hand upon the hilt of his sword, 
and was found leant against the parapet, in that attitude, 
gone upon a long march now. So vanished Charles Twelfth ; 
the distressed Official Persons and Nobility exploding upon 
him in that rather damnable way, anxious to slip their 
muzzles at any cost whatever. A man of antique character ; 
true as a child, simple, even bashful, and of a strength and 
valor rarely exampled among men. Open-hearted Antique 
populations would have much worshipped such an Appear- 
ance; Voltaire, too, for the artificial Moderns, has made 
a myth of him, of another type; one of those impossible 
cast-iron gentlemen, heroically mad, such as they show in the 
Playhouses, pleasant but not profitable, to an undiscerning 
Public. 1 The last of the Swedish Kings died in this way ; 
and the unmuzzled Ofiicial Persons have not made much of 
kinging it in h:s stead. Charles died ; and, as we may say, 
took the life of Sweden along with him ; for it has never 
shone among the Nations since, or been much worth mention- 
ing, except for its misfortunes, spasmodic impotences and 

Stralsund instantly beat the chamade, as we heard ; and all 
was surrender and subjection in those regions. Surrender; 
not yet pacification, not while Charles lived ; nor for half a 
century after his death, could Mecklenburg, Holstein-Gottorp, 
and other his confederates, escape a sad coil of calamities 
bequeathed by him to them. Friedrich Wilhelm returned to 
Berlin, victorious from his first, which was also his last Prus- 

i See Adlerfeld ( Military Hislonfof Charies XII. London, 1740, 3 vols, 
"from the Swedish," through the French) and Kohler (Mmzbdwstigwngm, nbi 
supra), for some authentic traits of his life and him. 


sian War, in January, 1716 ; and was doubtless a happy man, 
not "to be buried in the Sohlosskirche (under penalty of God's 
curse)," but to find his little Fritz and Feekin, and all the 
world, merry to see him, and all things put square again, 
abroad as at home. He forbade the " triumphal entry " which 
Berlin was preparing for him ; entered privately ; and ordered 
a thanksgiving sermon in all the churches next Sunday. 

The Devil in Earnest : Oreutz the Finance-Minister. 

In the King's absence nothing particular had occurred, 
except indeed the walking of a dreadful Spectre, three nights 
over, in the corridors of the Palace at Berlin ; past the doors 
where our little Prince and Wilhelmina slept : bringing with 
it not airs from Heaven, we may fear, but blasts from the 
Other place ! The stalwart sentries shook in their paces, and 
became "half-dead" from terror. "A horrible noise, one 
night," says Wilhelmina, " when all were buried in sleep : all 
the world started up, thinking it was fire ; but they were much 
surprised to find that it was a Spectre." Evident Spectre, 
seen to pass this way, "and glide along that gallery, as if 
towards the apartments of the Queen's Ladies." Captain of 
the Guard could find nothing in that gallery, or anywhere, 
and withdrew again: but lo, it returns the way it went! 
Stalwart sentries were found melted into actual deliquium of 
swooning, as the Preternatural swept by this second time. 
"They said, It was the Devil in person; raised by Swedish 
wizards to kill the Prince-Royal." 1 Poor Prince-Royal ; sleep- 
ing sound, we hope ; little more than three years old at this 
time, and knowing nothing of it ! All Berlin talked of the 
affair. People dreaded it might be a "Spectre" of Swedish 
tendencies; aiming to burn the Palace, spirit off the Royal 
Children, and do one knew not what ? 

Not that at all, by any means ! The Captain of the Guard, 

reinforcing himself to defiance even of the Preternatural, does, 

on the third or fourth apparitiqn, clutch the Spectre ; finds 

him to be a prowling Scullion of the Palace, employed here 

1 Wilhelmina, Mtmaint d BanUk, i. 18. 


he will not say how ; who is straightway locked in prison, and 
so exorcised at least. Exorcism is perfect ; but Berlin is left 
guessing as to the rest, secret of it discoverable only by the 
Queen's Majesty and some few most interior parties. To the 
following effect. 

Spectre-Scullion, it turns out, had been employed by Gram- 
kow, as spy upon one of the Queen's Maids of Honor, 
suspected by him to be a No-maid of Dishonor, and of ill 
intentions too, who lodges in that part of the Palace : of 
whom Herr Grumkow wishes intensely to know, " Has she an 
intrigue with Creutz the new Finance-Minister, or has she 
not ? " " Has, beyond doubt ! " the Spectre-Scullion hopes he 
has discovered, before exorcism. Upon which Grumkow, 
essentially illuminated as to the required particular, manages 
to get the Spectre-Scullion loose again, not quite hanged ; gloz- 
ing the matter off to his Majesty on his return: for the rest, 
ruins entirely the Creutz speculation ; and has the No-maid 
called of Honor with whom Creutz thought to have seduced 
the young King also, and made the young King amenable 
dismissed from Court in a peremptory irrefragable manner. 
This is the secret of the Spectre-Scullion, fully revealed by 
Wilhelmina many years after. 

This one short glance into the Satan's Invisible-World of 
the Berlin Palace, we could not but afford the reader, when an 
actual Goblin of it happened to be walking in our neighbor- 
hood. Such an Invisible-World of Satan exists in most human 
Houses, and in all human Palaces; with its imps, familiar 
demons, spies, go-betweens, and industrious bad-angels, con- 
tinually mounting and descending by their Jacob's-Ladder, or 
Palace Backstairs : operated upon by Conjurers of the Grum- 
kow-Creutz or other sorts. Tyrannous Mamsell Leti, 1 treach- 
erous Mamsell Eamen, valet-surgeon Eversmann, and plenty 
more : readers of Wilhelmina's Book are too well acquainted 

i Leti, Governess to Wilhelmina, but soon dismissed for insolent cruelty and 
other bad conduct, was daughter of that Gregorio Leti ("Protestant Italian 
Eefugee," " Historiographer of Amsterdam," &c. &c.), who once had a pension 
in this country ; and who wrote History-Books, a Life of Cromwell one of them, 
so regardless of the difference between true and false. 


with them. Nor are expert Conjurers wanting; capable to 
work strange feats with so plastic an element as Friedrich 
Wilhelm's mind. Let this one short glimpse of such Subter- 
ranean World be sufficient indication to the reader's fancy. 

Creutz was not dismissed, as some people had expected he 
might be. Creutz continues Finance-Minister ; makes a great 
figure in the fashionable Berlin world in these coming years, 
and is much talked of in the old Books, though, as he works 
mostly underground, and merely does budgets and finance- 
matters with extreme talent and success, we shall hope to hear 
almost nothing more of him. Majesty, while Crown-Prince, 
when he first got his regiment from Papa, had found this 
Creutz " Auditor " in it ; a poor but handsome fellow, with 
perhaps seven shillings a week to live upon ; but with such 
a talent for arranging, for reckoning and recording, in brief 
for controlling finance, as more and more charmed the royal 
mind. 1 

One of Majesty's first acts was to appoint him Finance- 
Minister ; a and there he continued steady, not to be overset 
by little flaws of wind like this of the Spectre-Scullion's rais- 
ing. It is certain he did, himself, become rich ; and helped 
well to make his Majesty so. We are to fancy him his Maj- 
esty's bottle-holder in that battle with the Finance Nightmares 
and Imbroglios, when so much had to be subjugated, and 
drilled into step, in that department. Evidently a long-headed 
cunning fellow, much of the Grumkow type ; standing very 
low in Wilhelmina's judgment ; and ill-seen, when not avoid- 
able altogether, by the Queen's Majesty. "The man was a 
poor Country Bailiffs (Amtmann's, kind of Tax-manager's) 
son: from Auditor of a regiment," Papa's own regiment, "he 
had risen to be Director of Finance, and a Minister of State. 
His soul was as low as his birth ; it was an assemblage of all 

i Mauvillon ("Elder Manvfflon," Anonymous), Histoire de Frederic GuU~ 

Inume I., par M. de M (Amsterdam et Leipzig, 1741 ), i. 47. A vague 

flimsy compilation ; gives abundant " State-Papers " (to such as want them), 
and echoes of old Newspaper rumor. Very copious on Creutz. 

* 4th May, 1713 : Prenss, i. 349 n. 


the vices," 1 says Wilhelmina, in the language of exaggeration. 
Let him stand by his budgets ; keep well out of Wilhel- 
mina's and the Queen's way; and very especially beware of 
coming on Grumkow's field again. 



THIS Siege of Stralsund, the last military scene of Charles 
XII., and theirs* ever practically heard of by our little Fritz, 
who is now getting into his fourth year, and must have thought 
a great deal about it in his little head, Papa and even Mamma 
being absent on it, and such a marching and rumoring going on 
all round him, proved to be otherwise of some importance 
to little Fritz. 

Most of his Tutors were picked up by the careful Papa in 
this Stralsund business. Duhan de Jandun, a young French 
gentleman, family-tutor to General Count Dohna (a cousin of 
our Minister Dohna's), but fonder of fighting than of teaching 
grammar ; whom Friedrich Wilhelm found doing soldier's work 
in the trenches, and liked the ways of ; he, as the foundation- 
stone of tutorage, is to be first mentioned. And then Count 
Fink von Finkenstein, a distinguished veteran, high in com- 
mand (of whose qualities as Head-Tutor, or occasional travel- 
ling guardian Friedrich Wilhelrn had experience in his own 
young days *) ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Kalkstein, a prisoner- 
of-war from the Swedish side, whom Friedrich Wilhelm, judg- 
ing well of him, adopts into his own service with this view : 
these three come all from Stralsund Siege ; and were of vital 
moment to our little Fritz in the subsequent time. Colonel 

i Wilhelmina, i. 16. 

Biographizes Lexikon oiler Helden und Militairpersonen, welche tick in 
Preussiscken Diensten ber&mht gemacht lidben (4 rols. Berlin, 1788), i. 418, 
Finkenstein. A praiseworthy, modest, highly correct Book, of its kind; 
which we shall, in future, call Mtiitair-IexUcon, when referring to it. 

Seckendorf, again, who had a command in the four thousand 
Saxons here, and refreshed into intimacy a transient old ac- 
quaintance with Friedrich Wilhelm, is not he too of terrible 
importance to Fritz and him ? As we shall see in time ! 

For the rest, here is another little incident. We said it had 
been a disappointment to Papa that his little Fritz showed 
almost no appetite for soldiering, but found other sights more 
interesting to him than the drill-ground. Sympathize, then, 
with the earnest Papa, as he returns home one afternoon, 
date not given, but to all appearance of that year 1715, when 
there was such war-rumoring, and marching towards Stral- 
sund; and found the little Fritz, with Wilhelmina looking 
over him, strutting about, and assiduously beating a little 

The paternal heart ran over with glad fondness, invoking 
Heaven to confirm the omen. Mother was told of it; the 
phenomenon was talked of, beautifulest, hopefulest of little 
drummers. Painter Pesne, a French Immigrant, or Importee, 
of the last reign, a man of great skill with his brush, whom 
History yet thanks on several occasions, was sent for ; or he 
heard of the incident, and volunteered his services. A Portrait 
of little Fritz drumming, with Wilhelmina looking on; to 
which, probably for the sake of color and pictorial effect, a 
Blackamoor, aside with parasol in hand, grinning approbation, 
has been added, was sketched, and dexterously worked out 
in oil, by Painter Pesne. Picture approved by mankind there 
and then. And it still hangs on the wall, in a perfect state, in 
Charlottenburg Palace ; where the judicious tourist may see it 
without difficulty, and institute reflections on it. 

A really graceful little Picture ; and certainly, to Prussian 
men, not without weight of meaning. Nor perhaps to Picture- 
Collectors and Cognoscenti generally, of whatever country, 
if they could forget, for a moment, the correggiosity of Correg- 
gio, and the learned babble of the Sale-room and varnishing 
Auctioneer; and think, "Why it is, probably, that Pictures 
exist in this world, and to what end the divine art of Painting 
was bestowed, by the earnest gods, upon poor mankind ? " I 


could advise it, once, for a little ! Flaying of Saint Bartholo- 
mew, Eape of Europa, Rape of the Sabines, Piping and Amours 
of goat-footed Pan, Eomulus suckled by the Wolf : all this, 
and much else of fabulous, distant, unimportant, not to say 
impossible, ugly and unworthy, shall pass without undue 
severity of criticism, in a Household of such opulence as ours, 
where much goes to waste, and where things are not on an 
earnest footing for this long while past ! As Created Objects, 
or as Phantasms of such, pictorially done, all this shall have 
much worth, or shall have little. But I say, Here withal is 
one not phantasmal ; of indisputable certainty, home-grown, 
just commencing business, who carried it far ! 

Fritz is still, if not in " long-clothes," at least in longish 
and flowing clothes, of the petticoat sort, which look as of 
dark-blue velvet, very simple, pretty and appropriate; in a 
cap of the same; has a short raven's feather in the cap; 
and looks up, with a face and eyes full of beautiful vivacity 
and child's enthusiasm, one of the beautifulest little figures, 
while the little drum responds to his bits of drumsticks. 
Sister Wilhelmina, taller by some three years, looks on in 
pretty marching attitude, and with a graver smile. Blacka- 
moor, and accompaniments elegant enough; and finally the 
figure of a grenadier, on guard, seen far off through an open- 
ing, make up the background. 

We have engravings of this Picture ; which are of clumsy 
poor quality, and misrepresent it much : an excellent Copy 
in oil, what might be called almost a f ac-simile and the per- 
fection of a Copy, is now (1854) in Lord Ashburton's Col- 
lection here in England. In the Berlin Galleries, which 
are made up, like other Galleries, of goat-footed Pan, Europa's 
Bull, Eomulus's She-Wolf, and the correggiosity of Correggio; 
and contain, for instance, no Portrait of Frederick the Great ; 
no Likenesses at all, or next to none at all, of the noble series 
of Human Realities, or of any part of them, who have sprung 
not from the idle brains of dreaming Dilettanti, but from 
the Head of God Almighty, to make this poor authentic 
Earth a little memorable for us, and to do a little work 
that may be eternal there: in those expensive Halls of 

"High Art" at Berlin, there -were, to my experience, few 
Pictures more agreeable than this of Pesne's. Welcome, like 
one tiny islet of Reality amid the shoreless sea of Phantasms, 
to the reflective mind, seriously loving and seeking what 
is worthy and memorable, seriously hating and avoiding what 
is the reverse, and intent not to play the dilettante in this 

The same Pesne, an excellent Artist, has painted Fried- 
rich as Prince-Royal : a beautiful young man with moist-look- 
ing enthusiastic eyes of extraordinary brilliancy, smooth oval 
face; considerably resembling his Mother. After which 
period, authentic Pictures of Friedrich are sought for to lit- 
tle purpose. For it seems he never sat to any Painter, in 
his reigning days; and the Prussian Chodowiecki, 1 Saxon 
Graff, English Cunningham had to pick up his physiognomy 
from the distance, intermittently, as they could. NOT is 
Ranch's grand equestrian Sculpture a thing to be believed, 
or perhaps pretending much to be so. The commonly received 
Portrait of Friedrich, which all German limners can draw at 
once, the cocked-hat, big eyes and alert air, reminding you 
of some uncommonly brisk Invalid Drill-sergeant or Green- 
wich Pensioner, as much as of a Royal Hero, is nothing but 
a general extract and average of all the faces of Friedrich, 
such as has been tacitly agreed upon ; and is definable as a 
received pictorial-myth, by no means as a fact, or credible re- 
semblance of life. 

But enough now of Pictures. This of the Little Drummer, 
the painting and the thing painted which remain to us, may 
be taken as Friedrich's first appearance on the stage of the 
world ; and welcomed accordingly. It is one of the very few 
visualities or definite certainties we can lay hold of, in those 
young years of his, and bring conclusively home to our imagi- 
nation, out of the waste Prussian dust-clouds of uninstructive 
garrulity which pretend to record them for us. Whether it 
came into existence as a shadowy emanation from the Stral- 
sund Expedition, can only be matter of conjecture. To judge 

1 Pronounce Kodovyetoki; and endeavor to make some acquaintance 
with this "Prussian Hogarth," who hag real worth and originality. 


by size, these figures must hare been painted about the year 
1715 ; Fritz some three or four years old, his sister Wilhelmina 

It remains only to be intimated, that Friedrich Wilhelm, 
for his part, had got all he claimed from this Expedition : 
namely, Stettin with the dependent Towns, and quietness 
in Pommern. Stettin was, from of old, the capital of his 
own part of Pommern ; thrown in along with the other parts 
of Pommern, and given to Sweden (from sheer necessity, 
it was avowed), at the Peace of Westphalia, sixty years ago 
or more : and now, by good chance, it has come back. Wait 
another hundred years, and perhaps Swedish Pommern alto- 
gether will come back ! But from all this Friedrich Wilhelm 
is still far. Stettin and quiet are all he dreams of demanding 

Stralsund he did not reckon his ; left it with the Danes, to 
hold in pawn till some general Treaty. Nor was there farther 
outbreak of war in those regions ; though actual Treaty of 
Peace did not come till 1720, and make matters sure. It was 
the new Queen of Sweden, Ulrique Eleonora (Charles's younger 
Sister, wedded to the young Landgraf of Hessen-Cassel), 
much aided by an English Envoy, who made this Peace with 
Friedrich Wilhelm. A young English Envoy, called Lord 
Carteret, was very helpful in this matter ; one of his first feats 
in the diplomatic world. For which Peace, 1 Friedrich Wilhelro 
was so thankful, good pacific armed-man, that happening to 
have a Daughter born to him just about that time, he gave the 
little creature her Swedish Majesty's name ; a new " Ulrique," 
who grew to proper stature, and became notable in Sweden, 
herself, by and by. 2 

1 Stockholm, 21st January, 1720 : in Mauyfflon (i. 38IM17) the Document 
itself at large. 

3 Louisa Ulrique, born 24th July, 1 720 ; Queen of Sweden in time coming 



Is the Autumn of 1717, Peter the Great, coming home 
from his celebrated French journey, paid Priedrich Wilhelm 
a visit; and passed four days at Berlin. Of -which let us give 
one glimpse, if we can with brevity. 

Friedrich Wilhelm and the Czar, like in several points, 
though so dissimilar in others, had always a certain regard 
for one another; and at this time, they had been brought 
into closer intercourse by their common peril from Charles 
XII., ever since that Stralsund business. The peril was real, 
especially with a Gortz and Alberoni putting hand to it ; and 
the alarm, the rumor, and uncertainty were great in those 
years. The wounded Lion driven indignant into his lair, 
with Plotting Artists now operating upon the rage of the 
noble animal : who knows what spring he will next take ? 

George I. had a fleet cruising in the Baltic Sounds, and 
again a fleet; paying, in that oblique way, for Bremen and 
Verden; which were got, otherwise, such a bargain to his 
Hanover. Czar Peter had marched an Army into Denmark ; 
united Russians and Danes count fifty thousand there ; for 
a conjunct invasion, and probable destruction, of Sweden: 
but that came to nothing ; Charles looking across upon it too 
dangerously, "visible in clear weather over from the Danish 
side." 1 So Peter's troops have gone home again ; Denmark 
too glad to get them away. Perhaps they would have stayed 
in Denmark altogether ; much liking the green pastures and 
convenient situation, had not Admiral Nbrris with his can- 
non been there ! Perhaps ? And the Pretender is coming 
again, they say ? And who knows what is coming ? How 
Gortz, in about a year hence was laid hold of, and let go, and 
i, p. 171. 



then ultimately tried and beheaded (once his lion Master was 
disposed of) ; * how, Ambassador Cellamare, and the Spanish 
part of the Plot, having been discovered in Paris, Cardinal 
Alberoni at Madrid was discovered, and the whole mystery 
laid bare; all that mad business, of bringing the Pretender 
into England, throwing out George L, throwing out the 
Regent d'Orldans, and much more, is now sunk silent 
enough, not worthy of reawakening ; but it was then a most 
loud matter ; filling the European Courts, and especially that 
of Berlin, with rumors and apprehensions. No wonder Fried- 
rich Wilhelm. was grateful for that Swedish Peace of his, 
and named his little daughter "Ulrique" in honor of it. 
Tumultuous cloud-world of Lapland Witchcraft had ceased 
hereby, and daylight had begun : old women (or old Cardinals) 
riding through the sky, on broomsticks, to meet Satan, where 
now are they? The fact still dimly perceptible is, Europe, 
thanks to that pair of Black- Artists, GoTtz and Alberoni, not 
to mention Law the Finance-Wizard and his French incanta- 
tions, had been kept generally, for these three or four years 
past, in the state of a Haunted House ; riotous Goblins, of 
unknown dire intent, walking now in this apartment of it, 
now in that; no rest anywhere for the perturbed inhabi- 

As to Fried^ich Wilhelm, his plan in 1717, as aU along, in 
this bewitched state of matters, was : To fortify his Frontier 
Towns ; Memel, Wesel, to the right and left, especially to 
fortify Stettin, his new acquisition ; and to put his Army, 
and his Treasury (or Aimj-Chesf), more and more in order. 
In that way we shall better meet whatever goblins there may 
be, thinks Friedrich Wilhelm. Count Lottum, hero of the 
Prussians at Malplaquet, is doing his scientific uttermost in 
Stettin and those Frontier Towns. For the rest, his Majesty, 
invited by the Czar and France, has been found willing to 
make paction with them, as he is with all pacific neighbors. 
In fact, the Czar and he had their private Conference, at 
Havelberg, last year, Havelberg, some sixty miles from 

l 19th March, 1719: Bee KShler (Miinzbelusttgmigm, vi. 233-240, xvii. 897- 
304) for many curious details of Gortz and his end. 

Berlin, on the road towards Denmark, as Peter was passing 
that way; ample Conference of five days; 1 privately 
agreeing there, about many points conducive to tranquillity. 

And it was on that same errand, though ostensibly to look 
after Art and the higher forms of Civilization so called, that 
Peter had been to France on this celebrated occasion of 1717. 
We know he saw much Art withal ; saw Marly, Trianon and 
the grandeurs and politenesses; saw, among other things, 
"a Medal of himself fall accidentally at his feet;" polite 
Medal " just getting struck in the Mint, with a rising sun on 
it; and the motto, VIBES ACQUIEIT BUNDO."* Ostensibly it 
was to see cette belle France; but privately withal the Czar 
wished to make his bargain, with the Eegent d'Orl&ms, as to 
these goblins walking in the Northern and Southern parts, 
and what was to be done with them. And the result has 
been, the Czar, Friedrich Wilhelm and the said Eegent have 
just concluded an Agreement ; * undertaking in general, that 
the goblins shall be well watched ; that they Three will stand 
by one another in watching them. And now the Czar will 
visit Berlin in passing homewards again. That is the posi- 
tion of affairs, when he pays this visit. Peter had been in 
Berlin more than once before ; but almost always in a suc- 
cinct rapid condition; never with his "Court" about him till 
now. This is his last, and by far his greatest, appearance in 

Such a transit, of the Barbaric semi-fabulous Sovereignties, 
could not but be wonderful to everybody there. It evidently 
struck "Wllhelmina's fancy, now in her ninth year, very much. 
What her little Brother did in it, or thought of it, I nowhere 
find hinted ; conclude only that it would remain in his head 
too, visible occasionally to the end of his life. Wilhelmina's 
Narrative, very loose, dateless or misdated, plainly wrong in 

1 S3d-28th November, 1716 : Fassmann, p. 172. 

* Voltaire, (Euvres Completes (Hiaotre duCzar Pierre), xxxi. 886 Koh- 
ler in Muaddustigumien, xvii. 386-392 (this very Medal the subject), give* 
authentic account, day by day, of the Czar's visit'there. 

* 4th August, 1717 : Bnchholz, i. 43. 


various particulars, has still its value for us: human eyes, 
even a child's, are worth something, in comparison to human 
want-of-eyes, which is too frequent in History-books and else- 
where! Czar Peter is now forty-five, his Czarina Catherine 
about thirty-one. It was in 1698 that he first passed this 
way, going towards Saardam and practical Ship-building: 
within which twenty years what a spell of work done I Vic- 
tory of Pultawa is eight years behind him ; 1 victories in many 
kinds are behind him : by this time he is to be reckoned a 
triumphant Czar ; and is certainly the strangest mixture of 
heroic virtue and brutish Samoeidic savagery the world at any 

It was Sunday, 19th September, 1717, when the Czar arrived 
in Berlin. Being already sated with scenic parades, he had 
begged to be spared all ceremony; begged to be lodged in 
Monbijou, the Queen's little Garden-Palace with river and 
trees round it, where he hoped to be quietest. Monbijou 
has been set apart accordingly ; the Queen, not in the benign- 
est humor, sweeping all her crystals and brittle things away ; 
knowing the manners of the Muscovites. Nor in the way 
of ceremony was there much : King and Queen drove out to 
meet him; rampart-guns gave three big salvos, as the Czar- 
ish Majesty stept forth. " I am glad to see you, my Brother 
Friedrich," said Peter, in German, his only intelligible lan- 
guage; shaking hands with the Brother Majesty, in a cordial 
human manner. The Queen he, still more cordially, " would 
have kissed;" but this she evaded, in some graceful effec- 
tive way. As to the Czarina, who, for obstetric and other 
reasons, of no moment to us, had stayed in Wesel all the 
time he was in France, she followed him now at two 
days' distance; not along with him, as Wilhebnina has it. 
Wilhelmina says, she kissed the Queen's hand, and again 
and again kissed it; begged to present her Ladies, "about 
four hundred so-called Ladies, who were of her Suite." 
Surely not so many as four hundred, you too witty Prin- 
cess ? "Mere German serving-maids for the most part," says 
the witty Princess; "Ladies when there is occasion, then 
i 27th June, 1709. 

acting as chambermaids, cooks, washerwomen, when that is 

Queen Sophie was averse to salute these creatures ; but the 
Czarina Catherine making reprisals upon our Margravines, 
and the King looking painfully earnest in it, she prevailed 
upon herself. Was there ever seen such a travelling tagrag- 
gery of a Sovereign Court before? "Several of these crea- 
tures [presque tmdea, says the exaggerative Princess] had, in 
their arms, a baby in rich dress; and if you asked, 'Is that 
yours, then ? ' they answered, making salaams in Russian 
style, ' The Czar did me the honor (m'a fait Vhonneur de me 
faire eet enfant) ! ' " 

Which statement, if we deduct the due 25 per cent, is prob- 
ably not mythic, after all. A day or two ago, the Czar had 
been at Magdeburg, on his way hither, intent upon inspecting 
matters there; and the Official Gentlemen, President Coc- 
ceji (afterwards a very celebrated man) at the head of them, 
waited on the Czar, to do what was needful. On entering, 
with the proper Address or complimentary Harangue, they 
found his Czarish Majesty "standing between two Eussian 
Ladies," clearly Ladies of the above sort; for they stood 
close by him, one of his arms was round the neck of each, 
and his hands amused themselves by taking liberties in that 
posture, all the time Cocceji spoke. Nay, even this was as 
nothing among the Magdeburg phenomena. Next day, for 
instance, there appeared in the audience-chamber a certain 
Serene high-pacing Duke of Mecklenburg, with his Duchess ; 
thrice-unfortunate Duke, of whom we shall too often hear 
again ; who, after some adventures, under Charles XII. first 
of all, and then under the enemies of Charles, had, about a 
year ago, after divorcing his first Wife, married a Niece of 
Peter's: Duke and Duchess arrive now, by order or gra- 
cious invitation of their Sovereign Uncle, to accompany him 
in those parts ; and are announced to an eager Czar, giving 
audience to his select Magdeburg public. At sight of which 
most desirable Duchess and Brother's Daughter, how Peter 
started up, satyr-like, clasping her in his arms, and snatching 
her into an inner room, with the door left ajar, and there 



It is too Samoeidic for human speech ! and would excel belief, 
were not the testimony so strong. 1 A Duke of Mecklenburg, 
it would appear, who may count himself the Nonplus-ultra of 
husbands in that epoch ; as among Sovereign Rulers, too, in 
a small or great way, he seeks his fellow for ill-luck ! 

Duke and Duchess accompanied the Czar to Berlin, where 
Wilhelmina mentions them, as presentees; part of those 
" four hundred " anomalies. They took the Czar home with 
them to Mecklenburg : where indeed some Russian Regiments 
of his, left here on their return from Denmark, had been 
very useful in coercing the rebellious Eitterschaft (Knightage, 
or Landed-Gentry) of this Duke, till at length the general 
outcry, and voice of the Reich itself, had ordered the said 
Regiments to get on march again, and take themselves away. 8 
For all is rebellion, passive rebellion, in Mecklenburg ; taxes 
being so indispensable ; and the Knights so disinclined ; and 
this Duke a Sovereign, such as we may construe from his 
quarrelling with almost everybody, and his not quarrelling 
with an Uncle Peter of that kind. 8 His troubles as Sover- 
eign Duke, his flights to Dantzig, oustings, returns, law- 
pleadings and foolish confusions, lasted all his life, thirty 
years to come; and were bequeathed as a sorrowful legacy 
to Posterity and the neighboring Countries. Voltaire says, 
the Czar wished to buy his Duchy from him.* And truly, 
for this wretched Duke, it would have been good to sell it at 
any price : but there were other words than his to such a 
bargain, had it ever been seriously meditated. By this ex- 
traordinary Duchess he becomes Father (real or putative) of 
a certain Princess, whom we may hear of ; and through her 
again is Grandfather of an unfortunate Russian Prince, much 
bruited about, as " the murdered Iwan," in subsequent times. 

J PolImtz(Afa*i,, ii. 95) gives Friedrich Wilhelm as voucher, "who used 
to relate it as from eye-and-ear -witnesses." 

3 The lout of them, " July, 1717 ; " two months ago. (Michaelis, ii. 418.) 

One poor hint, on his behalf, let us not omit : "Wife quitted him in 1719, 
and lived at Moscow afterwards ! (General Mannste'in, Memoirs of Botsio, 
London, 1770, p. 27 n.) 

Ubi supra, xxxi. 414. 
VOL. r. 24 


With such a Duke and Duchess let our acquaintance be the 
minimum of what necessity compels. 

Wilhelmina goes by hearsay hitherto ; and, it is to be hoped, 
had heard nothing of these Magdeburg-Meckletiburg phenom- 
ena ; but after the Czarina's arrival, the little creature saw 
with her own eyes : 

"Next day," that is, Wednesday, 22d, "the Czar and his 
Spouse came to return the Queen's visit ; and I saw the Court 
myself." Palace Grand-Apartments ; Queen advancing a due 
length, even to the outer guard-room ; giving the Czarina her 
right hand, and leading her into her audience-chamber in that 
distinguished manner : King and Czar followed close ; and 
here it was that WUhelmina's personal experiences began. 
" The Czar at once recognized me, having seen me before, five 
years ago [March, 1713]. He caught me in his arms; fell 
to kissing me, like to flay the skin off my face. I boxed his 
ears, sprawled, and struggled with all my strength ; saying I 
would not allow such familiarities, and that he was dishonor- 
ing me. He laughed greatly at this idea; made peace, and 
talked a long time with me. I had got my lesson : I spoke of 
his fleet and his conquests; which charmed him so much, 
that he said more than once to the Czarina, If he could have 
a child like me, he would willingly give one of his Provinces 
in exchange.' The Czarina also caressed me a good deal. 
The Queen [Mamma] and she placed themselves under the 
dais, each in an arm-chair " of proper dignity ; " I was at 
the Queen's side, and the Princesses of the Blood," Margra- 
vines above spoken of, "were opposite to her," all in a 
standing posture, as is proper. 

"The Czarina was a little stumpy body, very brown, and 
had neither air nor grace : you needed only look at her, to 
guess her low extraction." It is no secret, she had been a 
kitchen-wench in her Lithuanian native country ; afterwards 
a female of the kind called unfortunate, under several figures : 
however, she saved the Czar once, by her ready-wit and cour- 
age, from a devouring Turkish Difficulty, and he made her 
fortunate and a Czarina, to sit under the dais as now. " With 


her huddle of clothes, she looked for all the world like a Ger- 
man Play-actress ; her dress, you would have said, had been 
bought at a second-hand shop ; all was out of fashion, all was 
loaded with silver and greasy dirt. The front of her bodice 
she had ornamented with jewels in a very singular pattern : 
A double-eagle in embroidery, and the plumes of it set with 
poor little diamonds, of the smallest possible carat, and very 
ill mounted. All along the facing of her gown were Orders 
and little things of metal ; a dozen Orders, and as many Por- 
traits of saints, of relics and the like; so that when she 
walked, it was with a jingling, as if you heard a mule with 
bells to its harness." Poor little Czarina ; shifty nutbrown 
fellow-creature, strangely chased about from the bottom to 
the top of this world ; it is evident she does not succeed at 
Queen Sophie Dorothee's Court ! 

" The Czar, on the other hand, was very tall, and might be 
called handsome," continues Wilhelmina: "his countenance 
was beautiful, but had something of savage in it which put 
you in fear." Partly a kind of Milton's-Devil physiognomy ? 
The Portraits give it rather so. Archangel not quite ruined, 
yet in sadly ruinous condition; its heroism so bemired, with 
a turn for strong drink, too, at times ! A physiognomy to 
make one reflect. "His dress was of sailor fashion, coat alto- 
gether plain." 

" The Czarina, who spoke German very ill herself, and did 
not understand well what the Queen said, beckoned to her 
Fool to come near," a poor female creature, who had once 
been a Princess Galitzin, but having got into mischief, had 
been excused to the Czar by her high relations as mad, and 
saved from death or Siberia, into her present strange harbor of 
refuge. With her the Czarina talked in unknown Buss, evi- 
dently "laughing much and loud," till Supper was announced. 

"At table," continues Wilhelmina, "the Czar placed himself 
beside the Queen. It is understood this Prince was attempted 
with poison in his youth, and that something of it had settled 
on his nerves ever after. One thing is certain, there took 
him very often a sort of convulsion, like Tic or St.-Vitus, 
which it was beyond his power to control. That happened at 


table now. He got into contortions, gesticulations; and as 
the knife was in his hand, and vent dancing about within 
arm's-length of the Queen, it frightened her, and she motioned 
several times to rise. The Czar begged her not to mind, for 
he would do her no ill ; at the same time he took her by the 
hand, which he grasped with such violence that the Queen 
was forced to shriek out. This set him heartily laughing; 
saying she had not bones of so hard a texture as his Cathe- 
rine's. Supper done, a grand Ball had been got ready; but 
the Czar escaped at once, and walked home by himself to 
Monbijou, leaving the others to dance." 

Wilhelmina's story of the Cabinet of Antiques ; of the In- 
decent little Statue there, and of the orders Catherine got to 
kiss it, with a " Kopf ab (Head off, if you won't) ! " from the 
bantering Czar, whom she had to obey, is not incredible, 
after what we have seen. It seems, he begged this bit of 
Antique Indecency from Friedrich Wilhelm; who, we may 
fancy, would give him such an article with especial readiness. 
That same day, fourth of the Visit, Thursday, 23d of the 
month, the august Party went its ways again ; Friedrich Wil- 
helm convoying " as far as Potsdam ; " Czar and Suite taking 
that route towards Mecklenburg, where he still intends some 
little pause before proceeding homeward. Friedrich Wilhelm 
took farewell ; and never saw the Czar again. 

It was on this Journey, best part of which is now done, 
that the famous Order bore, "Do it for six thousand thalers; 
won't allow you one other penny (nit einen Pfennig gebe mehr 
dazu) ; but give out to the world that it costs me thirty or 
forty thousand ! " Nay, it is on record that the sum proved 
abundant, and even superabundant, near half of it being left 
as overplus. 1 The hospitalities of Berlin, Friedrich Wilhelm 
took upon himself, and he has done them as we see. You 
shall defray his Czarish Majesty, to the last Prussian mile- 
stone ; punctually, properly, though with thrift ! 

Peter's viaticum, the Antique Indecency, Friedrich Wil- 
helm did not grudge to part with ; glad to purchase the Czar's 
i Crater, i. 815. 


good-will by coin of that kind. Last year, at Havelberg, he 
had given the Czar an entire Cabinet of Amber Articles, 
belonging to his late Father. Amber Cabinet, in the lump; 
and likewise such a Yacht, for shape, splendor and outfit, as 
probably Holland never launched before ; Yacht also belong- 
ing to his late Father, and without value to Friedrich Wilhelm. 
The old King had got it built in Holland, regardless of ex- 
pense, 15,000, they say, perhaps as good as 50,000 now ; 
and it lay at Potsdam : good for what ? Friedrich Wilhelm 
sent it down the Havel, down the Elbe, silk sailors and all, 
towards Hamburg and Petersburg, with a great deal of plea- 
sure. For the Czar, and peace and good-will with the Czar, was 
of essential value to him. Neither, at any rate, is the Czar a 
man to take gifts without return. Tall fellows for soldiers : 
that is always one prime object with Friedrich Wilhelm ; for 
already these Potsdam Guards of his are getting ever more 
gigantic. Not less an object, though less an ideal or poetic 
one (as we once denned), was this other, to find buyers for the 
Manufactures, new and old, which he was so bent on encour- 
aging. " It is astonishing, what quantities of cloth, of hard- 
ware, salt, and all kinds of manufactured articles the Russians 
buy from us," say the old Books ; " see how our ' Russian 
Company' flourishes!" In both these objects, not to speak 
of peace and good-will in general, the Czar is our man. 

Thus, this very Autumn, there arrive, astonished and as- 
tonishing, no fewer than a hundred and fifty human figures 
(one half more than were promised), probably from seven to 
eight feet high; the tallest the Czar could riddle out from his 
Dominions: what a windfall to the Potsdam Guard and its 
Colonel-King ! And all succeeding Autumns the like, so long 
as Friedrich Wilhelm lived; every Autumn, out of Russia 
a hundred of the tallest mortals living. Invaluable, to a 
"man of genius" mounted on his hobby! One's "stanza" 
can be polished at this rate. 

In return for these Russian sons of Anak, Friedrich Wil- 
helm grudged not to send German smiths, millwrights, drill- 
sergeants, cannoneers, engineers ; having plenty of them. By 
whom, as Peter well calculated, the inert opaque Russian mass 


might be kindled into luminosity and vitality ; and drilled to 
know the Art of War, for one thing. Which followed accord- 
ingly. And it is observable, ever since, that the Russian Art 
of War has a tincture of German in it (solid German, as 
contradistinguished from unsolid Revolutionary-French) ; and 
hints to us of Friedrich Wilhelm and the Old Dessauer, to 
this hour. Exeunt now the Barbaric semi-fabulous Sover- 
eignties, till wanted again. 



IN his seventh year, young Friedrich was taken out of the 
hands of the women; and had Tutors and Sub-Tutors of 
masculine gender, who had been nominated for him some time 
ago, actually set to work upon their function. These we have 
already heard of; they came from Stralsund Siege, all the 
principal hands. 

Duhan de Jandun, the young French gentleman who had 
escaped from grammar-lessons to the trenches, he is the prac- 
tical teacher. Lieutenant-General Graf Fink von Finkenstein 
and Lieutenant-Colonel von Kalkstein, they are Head Tutor 
(Oberkofmeister) and Sub-Tutor ; military men both, who had 
been in many wars besides Stralsund. By these three he 
was assiduously educated, subordinate schoolmasters work- 
ing under them when needful, in such branches as the pater- 
nal judgment would admit; the paternal object and theirs 
being to infuse useful knowledge, reject useless, and wind up 
the whole into a military finish. These appointments, made 
at different precise dates, took effect, all of them, in the year 

Duhan, independently of his experience in the trenches, ap- 
pears to have been an accomplished, ingenious and conscien- 
tious man ; who did credit to Friedrich Wilhelm's judgment ; 
and to whom Friedrich professed himself much indebted in 

after life. Their progress in some of the technical branches, 
as we shall perceive, was indisputably unsatisfactory. But the 
mind of the Boy seems to have been opened by this Duhan, 
to a lively, and in some sort genial, perception of things 
round him ; of the strange confusedly opulent Universe he 
had got into ; and of the noble and supreme function which 
Intelligence holds there ; supreme in Art as in Nature, beyond 
all other functions whatsoever. Duhan was now turned of 
thirty : a cheerful amiable Frenchman ; poor, though of good 
birth and acquirements ; originally from Champagne. Fried- 
rich loved him very much ; always considered him his spiritual 
father ; and to the end of Duhan's life, twenty years hence, 
was eager to do him any good in his power. Anxious always 
to repair, for poor Duhan, the great sorrows he came to on his 
account, as we shall see. 

Of Graf Fink von Finkenstein, who has had military ex- 
periences of all kinds and all degrees, from marching as 
prisoner into France, "wounded and without his hat," to 
fighting at Malplaquet, at Blenheim, even at Steenkirk, as 
well as Stralsund ; who is now in his sixtieth year, and seems 
to have been a gentleman of rather high solemn manners, 
and indeed of undeniable perfections, of this supreme Count 
Fink we learn almost nothing farther in the Books, except 
that his little Pupil did not dislike him either. The little 
Pupil took not unkindly to Fink; welcoming any benignant 
human ray, across these lofty gravities of the Oberhofmeister ; 
went often to his house in Berlin ; and made acquaintance 
with two young Finks about his own age, whom he found 
there, and who became important to him, especially the 
younger of them, in the course of the future. 1 This Pupil, 
it may be said, is creditably known for his attachment to his 
Teachers and others ; an attached and attaching little Boy. 

Of Kalkstein, a rational, experienced and earnest kind of 
man, though as yet but youag, it is certain also that the 
little Fritz loved him; and furthermore that the Great 
Eriedrich was grateful to him, and had a high esteem of his 

Zedlitz-Neukirch, Preussuches Adels-Lexityn (Leipzig, 1836), ii. 168. MM- 
, i. 420. 

integrity aid sense. "My master, Kalkstein," used to be his 
designation of him, when the name chanced to be mentioned 
in after times. They continued together, with various pas- 
sages of mutual history, for forty years afterwards, till Kalk- 
stein's death. Kalksteia is at present twenty-eight, the 
youngest of the three Tutors ; then, and ever after, an alto- 
gether downright correct soldier and man. He is of Preussen, 
or Prussia Proper, this Kalkstein; of the same kindred as 
that mutinous Kalkstein, whom we once heard of, who was 
rolled in a carpet," and kidnapped out of Warsaw, in the 
Great Elector's time. Not a direct descendant of that be- 
headed Kalkstein's but, as it were, his nephew so many times 
removed. Preussen is now far enough from mutiny ; subdued, 
with all its Kalksteins, into a respectful silence, not lightly 
using the right even of petition, or submissive remonstrance, 
which it may still have. Nor, except on the score of parlia- 
mentary eloquence and newspaper copyright, does it appear 
that Preussen has suffered by the change. 

How these Fink-Kalkstein functionaries proceeded in the 
great task they had got, very great task, had they known 
what Pupil had fallen to them, is not directly recorded for 
us, with any sequence or distinctness. We infer only that 
everything went by inflexible routine; not asking at all, 
What pupil ? nor much, Whether it would suit any pupil ? 
Duhan, with the tendencies we have seen in him, who is will- 
ing to soften the inflexible when possible, and to "guide 
Nature" by a rather loose rein, was probably a genial element 
in the otherwise strict affair. Fritz had one unspeakable 
advantage, rare among princes and even among peasants in 
these ruined ages : that of not being taught, or in general not, 
by the kind called "Hypocrites, and even Sincere-Hypocrites," 
f atalest species of the class Hypocrite. We perceive he was 
lessoned, all along, not by enchanted Phantasms of that dan- 
gerous sort, breathing mendacity of mind, unconsciously, out 
of every look; but by real Men, who believed from the heart 
outwards, and were daily doing what they taught. To which 
unspeakable advantage we add a second, likewise considerable : 

That his masters, though rigorous, were not unlovable to him*, 
that his affections, at least, were kept alive; that what- 
ever of seed (or of chaff and hail, as was likelier) fell on his 
mind, had sunshine to help in dealing with it. These are 
two advantages still achievable, though with difficulty, in our 
epoch, by an earnest father in behalf of his poor little son. 
And these are, at present, nearly all ; with these well achieved, 
the earnest father and his son ought to be thankful. Alas, in 
matter of education, there are no high-roads at present ; or 
there are such only as do not lead to the goal. Fritz, like the 
rest of us, had to struggle his way, Nature and Didactic Art 
differing very much from one another ; and to do battle, inces- 
sant partial battle, with his schoolmasters for any education 
he had. 

A very rough Document, giving Friedrich Wilhelm's regu- 
lations on this subject, from his own hand, has come down 
to us. Most dull, embroiled, heavy Document; intricate, 
gnarled, and, in fine, rough and stiff as natural bull-headed- 
ness helped by Prussian pipe-clay can make it ; contains 
some excellent hints, too ; and will show us something of 
Fritzchen and of Friedrich Wilhelm both at once. That is to 
say, always, if it can be read ! If by aid of abridging, eluci- 
dating and arranging, we can get the reader engaged to peruse 
it patiently; which seems doubtful. The points insisted 
on, in a ponderous but straggling confused manner, by his 
didactic Majesty, are chiefly these : 

1. " Must impress my Son with a proper love and fear of 
God, as the foundation and sole pillar of our temporal and 
eternal welfare. No false religions, or sects of Atheist, Arian 
(Arrian), Socinian, or whatever name the poisonous things 
have, which can so easily corrupt a young mind, are to be 
even named in his hearing : on the other hand, a proper ab- 
horrence (Abscheu) of Papistry, and insight into its baseless- 
ness and nonsensicality (Ungrund und Absurditaf), is to be 
communicated to him:" Papistry, which is false enough, 
like the others, but impossible to be ignored like them ; men- 
tion that, and give him due abhorrence for it. For we are 


Protestant to the bone in this country; and cannot stand 
Absurditat, least of all hypocritically religious ditto 1 But the 
grand thing will be, "To impress on him the true religion, 
which consists essentially in this, That Christ died for all 
men," and generally that the Almighty's justice is eternal and 
omnipresent, " which consideration is the only means of 
keeping a sovereign person (souveraine Mac fit), or one freed 
from human penalties, in the right way." 

2. "He is to learn no Latin;" observe that, however it 
may surprise you. What has a living German man and King, 
of the eighteenth Christian Sceculum, to do with dead old 
Heathen Latins, Romans, and the lingo they spoke their frac- 
tion of sense and nonsense in ? Frightful, how the young 
years of the European Generations have been wasted, for ten 
centuries back ; and the Thinkers of the world have become 
mere walking Sacks of Marine-stores, " Gelehrten, Learned," 
as they call themselves ; and gone lost to the world, in that 
manner, as a set of confiscated Pedants ; babbling about 
said Heathens, and their extinct lingo and fraction of sense 
and nonsense, for the thousand years last past! Heathen 
Latins, Romans ; who perhaps were no great things of Hea- 
then, after all, if well seen into ? I have heard judges say, 
they were wrferior, in real worth and grist, to German home- 
growths we have had, if the confiscated Pedants could have 
discerned it ! At any rate, they are dead, buried deep, these 
two thousand years ; well out of our way ; and nonsense 
enough of our own left, to keep sweeping into corners. Si- 
lence about their lingo and them, to this new Crown-Prince ! 
"Let the Prince learn French and German," so as to write 
and speak, "with brevity and propriety," in these two lan- 
guages, which may be useful to him in life. That will suffice 
for languages, provided he have anything effectually rational 
to say in them. For the rest, 

3. "Let him learn Arithmetic, Mathematics, Artillery, 
Economy to the very bottom." And, in short, useful knowl- 
edge generally ; useless ditto not at all. " History in particu- 
lar ; Ancient History only slightly (nur iiberhin) ; but the 
History of the last hundred and fifty Years to the exactest 


pitch. The Jus Naturals and Jus Gentium," by way of hand- 
lamp to History, " he must be completely master of ; as also 
of Geography, whatever is remarkable in each Country. And 
in Histories, most especially the History of the house of 
Brandenburg ; where he will find domestic examples, which 
are always of more force than foreign. And along with 
Prussian History, chiefly that of the Countries which have 
been connected with it, as England, Brunswick, Hessen and 
the others. And in reading of wise History-books there must 
be considerations made (sollen beym Lesen Jduger Historiarum 
Betrachtungen gemaeht werden) upon the causes of the events." 
Surely, OKing! 

4. " With increasing years, you will more and more, to a 
most especial degree, go upon Fortification," mark you I 
" the Formation of a Camp, and the other War-Sciences ; that 
the Prince may, from youth upwards, be trained to act as 
Officer and General, and to seek all his glory in the soldier 
profession." This is whither it must all tend. You, Finken- 
stein and Kalkstein, "have both of you, in the highest mea- 
sure, to make it your care to infuse into my Son \evnzupragen, 
stamp into him] a true love for the Soldier business, and to 
impress on him that, as there is nothing in the world which 
can bring a Prince renown and honor like the sword, so he 
would be a despised creature before all men, if he did not 
love it, and seek his sole glory (die einzige Gloria) therein." 1 
Which is an extreme statement of the case; showing how 
much we have it at heart. 

These are the chief Friedrich-Wilhelm traits; the rest of 
the document corresponds in general to what the late Majesty 
had written for Friedrich Wilhelm himself on the like occa- 
sion. 8 Buthless contempt of Useless Knowledge ; and passion- 
ate insight into the distinction between Useful and Useless, 
especially into the worth of Soldiering as a royal accomplish- 
ment, are the chief peculiarities here. In which latter point 
too Friedrich Wilhelm, himself the most pacific of men, unless 
i Prenss, i. 11-14 (of date 13th August, 1718). 

you pulled the whiskers of him, or broke into his goods and 
chattels, knew very well what he was meaning, much better 
than we of the "Peace Society " and "Philanthropic Move- 
ment " could imagine at first sight I It is a thing he, for his 
part, is very decided upon. 

Already, a year before this time, 1 there had been instituted, 
for express behoof of little Fritz, a miniature Soldier Com- 
pany, above a hundred strong ; which grew afterwards to be 
near three hundred, and indeed rose to be a permanent Insti- 
tution by degrees ; called Kompagnie der Kronprinzlicken Ka- 
detten (Company of Crown-Prince Cadets). A hundred and 
ten boys about his own age, sons of noble families, had been 
selected from the three Military Schools then extant, as a 
kind of tiny regiment for him ; where, if he was by no means 
commander all at once, he might learn his exercise in fellow- 
ship with others. Czar Peter, it is likely, took a glance of this 
tiny regiment just getting into rank and file there; which 
would remind the Czar of his own young days. An expe- 
rienced Lieutenant-Colonel was appointed to command in 
chief. A certain handy and correct young fellow, Eentsel by 
name, about seventeen, who already knew his fugling to a 
hair's-breadth, was Drill-master; and exercised them all, Fritz 
especially, with due strictness; till, in the course of time 
and of attainments, Fritz could himself take the head charge. 
Which he did duly, in a year or two : a little soldier thence- 
forth ; properly strict, though of small dimensions ; in tight 
blue bit of coat and cocked-hat: miniature image of Papa 
(it is fondly hoped and expected), resembling him as a six- 
pence does a half-crown. In 1721 the assiduous Papa set up 
a " little arsenal" for him, "in the Orange Hall of the Pal- 
ace : " there let him, with perhaps a chosen comrade or two, 
mount batteries, fire exceedingly small brass ordnance, his 
Engineer-Teacher, one Major von Senning, limping about (on 
cork leg), and superintending if needful. 

Eentzel, it is known, proved an excellent Drill-sergeant ; 
had good talents every way, and was a man of probity and 
sense. He played beautifully on the flute too, and had a 
1st September. 1717 : Preuss, i. 13. 

cheerful conversible turn ; which naturally recommended him 
still farther to Fritz ; and awoke or encouraged, among other 
faculties, the musical faculty in the little Boy. Bentzel con- 
tinued about him, or in sight of him, through life ; advancing 
gradually, not too fast, according to real merit and service 
(Colonel in 1759) ; and never did discredit to the choice Fried- 
rich Wilhelm had made of him. Of Senning, too, Engineer- 
Major von Senning, who gave Fritz his lessons in Mathemat- 
ics, Fortification and the kindred branches, the like, or better, 
can be said. He was of graver years ; had lost a leg in the 
Marlborough Campaigns, poor gentleman; but had abundant 
sense, native worth and cheery rational talk, in him : so that 
he too could never be parted with by Friedrich, but was kept 
on hand to the last, a permanent and variously serviceable 

Thus, at least, is the military education of our Crown- 
Prince cared for. And we are to fancy the little fellow, from 
his tenth year or earlier, going about in miniature soldier 
figure, for most part ; in strict Spartan-Brandenburg costume, 
of body as of mind. Costume little flattering to his own pri- 
vate taste for finery ; yet by no means unwholesome to him, 
as he came afterwards to know. In October, 1723, it is on 
record, when George I. came to visit his Son-in-law and 
Daughter at Berlin, his Britannic Majesty, looking out from 
his new quarters on the morrow, saw Fritzchen " drilling his 
Cadet Company ; " a very pretty little phenomenon. Drilling 
with clear voice, military sharpness, and the precision of 
clock-work on the Esplanade (Litstgarten) there ; and doubt- 
less the Britannic Majesty gave some grunt of acquiescence, 
perhaps even a smile, rare on that square heavy-laden counte- 
nance of his. That is the record : * and truly it forms for us 
by far the liveliest little picture we have got, from those dull 
old years of European History. Years already sunk, or sink- 
ing, into lonesome unpeopled Dusk for all men; and fast 
verging towards vacant Oblivion and eternal Night ; which 
(if some few articles were once saved out of them) is their 
just and inevitable portion from afflicted human nature. 
i Foister, i. 215. 

Of riding-masters, fencing-masters, swimming-masters ; much 
less of dancing-masters, music-masters (celebrated Graun, " on 
the organ," with Psalm-tunes), we cannot speak; but the 
reader may be satisfied they were all there, good of their 
kind, and pushing on at a fair rate. Nor is there lack any- 
where of paternal supervision to our young Apprentice. From 
an early age, Papa took the Crown-Prince with him on his 
annual Beviews. From utmost Memel on the Eussian border, 
down to Wesel on the French, all Prussia, in every nook of it, 
garrison, marching-regiment, board of management, is rigor- 
ously reviewed by Majesty once a year. There travels little 
military Fritz, beside the military Majesty, amid the generals 
and official persons, in their hardy Spartan manner ; and learns 
to look into everything like a Ehadamanthine Argus, and how 
the eye of the master, more than all other appliances, fattens 
the cattle. 

On his hunts, too, Papa took him. For Papa was a famous 
hunter, when at Wusterhausen in the season: hot Beagle- 
chase, hot Stag-hunt, your chief game deer; huge "Force- 
Hunt " (Parforce-Jagd, the woods all beaten, and your wild 
beasts driven into straits and caudine-forks for you); Boar- 
hunting (Sauhetze, " sow-Tbaiting," as the Germans call it), 
Partridge-shooting, Fox- and Wolf-hunting ; on all grand ex- 
peditions of such sort, little Fritz shall ride with Papa and 
party. Rough furious riding; now on swift steed, now at 
places on Wurstwagen, Wurstwagen, "Sausage-Car" BO 
called, most Spartan of vehicles, a mere stuffed pole or " sau- 
sage " with wheels to it, on which you sit astride, a dozen or 
so of you, and career ; regardless of the summer heat and 
sandy dust, of the winter's frost-storms and muddy rain. All 
this the little Crown-Prince is bound to do ; but likes it less 
and less, some of us are sorry to observe ! In fact he could 
not take to hunting at all, or find the least of permanent satis- 
faction in shooting partridges and baiting sows, "with such 
an expenditure of industry and such damage to the seedfields," 
he would sometimes allege in extenuation. In later years he 
has been known to retire into some glade of the thickets, and 
hold a little Flute-Hautbois Concert with his musical com- 

rades, while the sows were getting baited. Or he would eon- 
verse with Mamma and her Ladies, if her Majesty chanced to 
be there, in a day for open driving. Which things by no 
means increased his favor with Papa, a sworn hater of " effemi- 
nate practices." 

He was "nourished on beer-soup," as we said before. 
Frugality, activity, exactitude were lessons daily and hourly 
brought home to him, in everything he did and saw. His 
very sleep was stingily meted out to him : " Too much sleep 
stupefies a fellow ! " Friedrich Wilhelm was wont to say ; 
so that the very doctors had to interfere, in this matter, for 
little Fritz. Frugal enough, hardy enough; urged in every 
way to look with indifference on hardship, and take a Spartan 
view of life. 

Money-allowance completely his own, he does not seem 
to have had till he was seventeen. Exiguous pocket-money, 
counted in groscJien (English pence, or hardly more), only his 
Kalkstein and Finkenstein could grant as they saw good; 
about eighteenpence in the month, to start with, as would 
appear. The other small incidental moneys, necessary for 
his use, were likewise all laid out under sanction of his 
Tutors, and accurately entered in Day-books by them, audited 
by Friedrich Wilhelm ; of which some specimens remain, and 
one whole month, September, 1719 (the Boy's eighth year), 
has been published. Very singular to contemplate, in these 
days of gold-nuggets and irrational man-mountains fattened 
by mankind at such a price ! The monthly amount appears 
to have been some 3 10s. : and has gone, all but the eigh- 
teenpence of sovereign pocket-money, for small furnishings and 
very minute necessary luxuries; as thus: 

"To putting his Highness's shoes on the last;" for stretch- 
ing them to the little feet, and only one " last," as we per- 
ceive. "To twelve yards of Hairtape," Haarband, for our 
little queue, which becomes visible here. " For drink-money 
to the Postilions." " For the Housemaids at Wusterhausen," 
Don't I pay them myself ? objects the auditing Papa, at that 
latter kind of items: No more of that. "For mending the 
flute, four groschen [or pence];" "Two Boxes of Colors, six- 

teen ditto;" "For a live snipe, twopence;" "For grinding 
the hanger [little swordkin] ; " To a Boy whom the dog bit ; " 
and chiefly of all, "To the Klingbeutd," Collection-plate, or 
bag, at Church, which comes upon us once, nay twice, and 
even thrice a week, eighteenpence each time, and eats deep 
into our straitened means. 1 

On such terms can a little Fritz be nourished into a Fried- 
rich the Great ; while irrational man-mountains, of the beav- 
erish or beaverish-vulpine sort, take such a price to ratten 
them into monstrosity ! The Art-manufacture of your Fried- 
rich can come very cheap, it would appear, if once Nature have 
done her part in regard to him, and there be mere honest will 
on the part of the by-standers. Thus Samuel Johnson, too, 
cost next to nothing in the way of board and entertainment 
in this world. And a Robert Burns, remarkable modern Thor, 
a Peasant-god of these sunk ages, with a touch of melodious 
runes in him (since all else lay under ban for the poor fellow), 
was raised on frugal oatmeal, at an expense of perhaps half a 
crown a week. Nuggets and ducats are divine ; but they are 
not the most divine. I often wish the Devil had the lion's 
share of them, at once, and not circnitously as now. It 
would be an unspeakable advantage to the bewildered sons of 
Adam, in this epoch ! 

But with regard to our little Crown-Prince's intellectual 
culture, there is another Document, specially from Papa's 
hand, which, if we can redact, adjust and abridge it, as in 
the former case, may be worth the reader's notice, and elu- 
cidate some things for him. It is of date, Wusterhausen, 
3d September, 1721; little Fritz now in his tenth year, and 
out there, with his Duhans and Finkensteins, while Papa 
is rusticating for a few weeks. The essential title is, or 
might be : 

To Head-Governor von Finkenstein, Sub-Governor von Kalb- 
stein, Preceptor Jacques JEaide Duhan de Jandun, and others 
whom it may concern : Regulations for schooling, at Wuster- 
hausen, 3d September, 1721; ' in greatly abridged form. 

Sunday. "On Sunday he is to rise at 7; and as soon as he 
has got his slippers on, shall kneel down at his bedside, and 
pray to God, so as all in the room may hear it [that there be 
no deception or short measure palmed upon us], in these 
words: 'Lord God, blessed Father, I thank thee from my 
heart that thou hast so graciously preserved me through this 
night. Fit me for what thy holy will is; and grant that I 
do nothing this day, nor all the days of my life, which can 
divide me from thee. For the Lord Jesus my Eedeemer's 
sake. Amen.' After which the Lord's Prayer. Then rapidly 
and vigorously (geschwinde und hurtig) wash himself clean, 
dress and powder and comb himself [we forget to say, that 
while they are combing and queuing him, he breakfasts, with 
brevity, on tea] : Prayer, with washing, breakfast and the 
rest, to be done pointedly within fifteen minutes [that is, at 
a quarter past 7]. 

"This finished, all his Domestics and Duhan shall come in, 
and do family worship (das yrosse Gebet eu hatten) : Prayer 
on their knees, Duhan withal to read a Chapter of the Bible, 
and sing some proper Psalm or Hymn [as practised in well- 
regulated families]: It will then be a quarter to 8. All 
the Domestics then withdraw again ; and Duhan now reads 
with my Son the Gospel of the Sunday; expounds it a little, 
adducing the main points of Christianity ; questioning from 
Noltenius's Catechism [which Fritz knows by heart]: it 
will then be 9 o'clock. 

"At 9 he brings my Son down to me ; who goes to Church, 
and dines, along with me [dinner at the stroke of Noon]: 
the rest of the day is then his own [Fritz's and Duhan's]. 
At half-past 9 in the evening, he shall come and bid me good- 
night. Shall then directly go to his room; very rapidly (sehr 
l Preuas, i. 19. 


geschwinrf) get off his clothes, wash his hands [get into some 
tiny dressing-gown or eassaquin, no doubt]; and so soon as 
that is done, Duhan makes a prayer on his knees, and sings 
a hymn ; all the Servants being again there. Instantly after 
which, my Son shall get into bed ; shall be in bed at half-past 
10 ; " and fall asleep how soon, your Majesty ? This is very 
strict work. 

Monday. "On Monday, as on all week-days, he is to be 
called at 6 ; and so soon as called he is to rise ; you are to 
stand to him (anhatten) that he do not loiter or turn in bed, 
but briskly and at once get up ; and say his prayers, the same 
as on Sunday morning This done, he shall as rapidly as 
possible get on his shoes and spatterdashes; also wash his 
face and hands, but not with soap. Farther shall put on 
his cassaquin [short dressing-gown], have his hair combed 
out and queued, but not powdered. While getting combed 
and queued, he shall at the same time take breakfast of tea, 
so that both jobs go on at once ; and all this shall be ended 
before half-past 6." Then enter Duhan and the Domestics, 
with worship, Bible, Hymn, all as on Sunday; this is done 
by 7, and the Servants go again. 

" From 7 till 9 Duhan takes him on History ; at 9 comes 
Noltenius [a sublime Clerical Gentleman from Berlin] with 
the Christian Eeligion, till a quarter to 11. Then" Fritz 
rapidly (geschwind) washes his face with water, hands with 
soap-and-water ; clean shirt ; powders, and puts on his coat ; 
about 11 comes to the King. Stays with the King till 2," 
perhaps promenading a little; dining always at Ifoon; aftei- 
which Majesty is apt to be slumberous, and light amusements 
are over. 

"Directly at 2, he goes back to his room. Duhan is there, 
ready ; takes him upon the Maps and Geography, from 2 to 
3, giving account [gradually!] of all the European King- 
doms ; their strength and weakness ; size, riches and poverty 
of their towns. From 3 to 4, Duhan treats of Morality (soil 
die Moral traetiren). From 4 to 5, Duhan shall write German 
Letters with him, and see that he gets a good stylum [which 
he never in the least did]. About 5, Fritz shall wash his 



hands, and go to the King; ride out; divert himself, in the 
air and not in his room ; and do what he likes, if it is not 
against God." 

There, then, is a Sunday, and there is one Week-day ; which 
latter may serve for all the other five: though they are 
strictly specified in the royal monograph, and every hour of 
them marked out : How, and at what, points of time, besides 
this of History, of Morality, and Writing in German, of Maps 
and Geography with the strength and weakness of Kingdoms, 
you are to take up Arithmetic more than once; Writing of 
French Letters, so as to acquire a good stylum : in what nook 
you may intercalate " a little getting by heart of something, 
in order to strengthen the memory ; " how instead of Nolte- 
nius, Panzendorf (another sublime Keverend Gentleman from 
Berlin, who comes out express) gives the clerical drill on 
Tuesday morning ; with which two onslaughts, of an hour- 
and-half each, the Clerical Gentlemen seem to withdraw for 
the week, and we hear no more of them till Monday and 
Tuesday come round again. 

On Wednesday we are happy to observe a liberal slice of 
holiday come in. At half-past 9, having done his History, and 
"got something by heart to strengthen the memory [very 
little, it is co be feared], Fritz shall rapidly dress himself, 
and come to the King. And the rest of the day belongs to 
little Fritz (gehort vor Fritzchen)." On Saturday, too, there 
is some fair chance of half-holiday : 

"Saturday, forenoon till half-past 10, come History, Writ- 
ing and Ciphering; especially repetition of what was done 
through the week, and in Morality as well [adds the rapid 
Majesty], to see whether he has profited. And General Graf 
von Fmkenstein, with Colonel von Kalkstein, shall be present 
during this. If Fritz has profited, the afternoon shall be his 
own. If he has not profited, he shall, from 2 to 6, repeat and 
learn rightly what he has forgotten on the past days." And 
so the laboring week winds itself up. Here, however, is one 
general rule which cannot be too much impressed upon you, 
with which we conclude : 


"In undressing and dressing, you must accustom him to 
get out of, and into, his clothes as fast as is humanly possible 
(hurtiy so viel als menschenmoglich isf). You will also look 
that he learn to put on and put off his clothes himself, with- 
out help from others; and that he be clean and neat, and 
not so dirty (niokt so sckmuteig)." "Not so dirty/' that is my 
last word; and here is my sign-manual, 


WTTSTERHATTSEK-, where for the present these operations go 
on, lies about twenty English miles southeast of Berlin, as 
you go towards Schlesien (Silesia) ; on the old Silesian road, 
in a flat moory country made of peat and sand ; and is not 
distinguished for its beauty at all among royal Hunting- 
lodges. The Gohrde at Hanover, for example, what a splen- 
dor there in comparison ! But it serves Friedrich Wilhelm's 
simple purposes : there is game abundant in the scraggy wood- 
lands, otter-pools, fish-pools, and miry thickets, of that old 
" Schenkenland " (belonged all once to the " Schenken Fam- 
ily," till old King Friedrich bought it for his Prince) ; retinue 
sufficient find nooks for lodgment in the poor old Schloss 
so called ; and Noltenius and Panzendorf drive out each once 
a week, in some light vehicle, to drill Fritz in his religious 

One Zollner, a Tourist to Silesia, confesses himself rather 
pleased to find even Wusterhausen in such a country of sandy 
bent-grass, lean cattle, and flat desolate languor. 

"Getting to the top of the ridge" (most insignificant 
"ridge," made by hand, Wilhelmina satirically says), Tourist 
Zollner can discern with pleasure "a considerable Brook," 
visible, not audible, smooth Stream, or chain of meres 
and lakelets, flowing languidly northward towards Kopenik. 
i Prenss, i. 21. 


Inaudible big Brook or Stream ; which, we perceive, drains a 
slightly hollowed Tract; too shallow to be called valley, 
of several miles in width, of several yards in depth ; Tract 
with wood here and there on it, and signs of grass and cul- 
ture, welcome after what you have passed. On the foreground 
close to you is the Hamlet of Kdnigs-Wusterhausen, with tol- 
erable Lime-tree Avenue leading to it, and the air of some- 
thing sylvan from your Hill-top. Konigs-Wusterhausen was 
once JFmdisA-Westerhausen, and not far off is DestfecA^Wus- 
terhausen, famed, I suppose, by faction-fights in the Vandalic 
times : both of them are now JKm/s-Wusterhausen (since the 
King came thither), to distinguish them from other Wuster- 
hausens that there are. 

Descending, advancing through your Lime-tree Avenue, 
you come upon the backs of office-houses, out-houses, stables 
or the like, on your left hand I have guessed, extending 
along the Highway. And in the middle of these you come at 
last to a kind of Gate or vaulted passage (Art von Tkor, says 
Zbllner), where, if you have liberty, you face to the left, and 
enter. Here, once through into the free light again, you are 
in a Court: four-square space, not without prospect; right 
side and left side are lodgings for his Majesty's gentlemen ; 
behind you, well in their view, are stables and kitchens : in 
the centre of the place is a Fountain " with hewn steps and 
iron railings ; " where his simple Majesty has been known to 
sit and smoke, on summer evenings. The fourth side of your 
square, again, is a palisade ; beyond which, over bridge and 
moat and intervening apparatus, you perceive, on its trim ter- 
races, the respectable old Schloss itself. A rectangular mass, 
not of vast proportions, with tower in the centre of it (tower 
for screw-stair, the general roadway of the House) ; and look- 
ing though weather-beaten yet weather-tight, and as dignified 
as it can. This is Wusterhausen ; Friedrich Wilhelm's Hunt- 
ing-seat from of old. 

A dreadfully crowded place, says Wilielmina, where you 
are stuffed into garrets, and have not room to turn. The ter- 
races are of some magnitude, trimmed all round with a row of 
little clipped trees, one big lime-tree at each corner; under 

one of these big lime-trees, aided by an awning, it is Ms Maj- 
esty's delight to spread his frugal but substantial dinner, four- 
and-twenty covers, at the stroke of 12, and so dine sub dio. If 
rain come on, says Wilhelmina, you are wet to mid-leg, the 
ground being hollow in that place, and indeed in all weath- 
ers your situation every way, to a vehement young Princess's 
idea, is rather of the horrible sort. After dinner, his Majesty 
sleeps, stretched perhaps on some wooden settle or garden- 
chair, for about an hour ; regardless of the naming heat, under 
his awning or not ; and we poor Princesses have to wait, pray- 
ing all the Saints that they would resuscitate him soon. This 
is about 2 P.M. ; happier Fritz is gone to his lessons, in the 

These four Terraces, this rectangular Schloss with the four 
big lindens at the corners, are surrounded by a Moat ; black 
abominable ditch, Wilhelmina calls it ; of the hue of Tarta- 
rean Styx, and of a far worse smell, in fact enough to choke 
one, in hot days after dinner, thinks the vehement Princess. 
Three Bridges cross this Moat or ditch, from the middle of 
three several Terraces or sides of the Schloss ; and on the 
fourth it is impassable. Bridge first, coming from the pali- 
sade and Office-house Court, has not only human sentries walk- 
ing at it ; but two white Eagles perch near it, and two black 
ditto, symbols of the heraldic Prussian Eagle, screeching about 
in their littery way ; item two black Bears, ugly as Sin, which 
are vicious wretches withal, and many times do passengers a 
mischief. As perhaps we shall see, on some occasion. This 
is Bridge first, leading to the Court and to the outer Highway ; 
a King's gentleman, going to bed at night, has always to pass 
these Bears. Bridge second leads us southward to a common 
Mill which is near by ; its clacking audible upon the common 
Stream of the region, and not unpleasant to his Majesty, 
among its meadows fringed with alders, in a country of mere 
and moor. Bridge third, directly opposite to Bridge first and 
its Bears, leads you to the Garden ; whither Mamma, playing 
tocadille all day with her women, will not, or will not often 
enough, let us poor girls go. 1 

1 Zollner, Briefs flier Schlesien ( Berlin, 1792), i. 2, 3 ; Wilhelmina, i. 364, 365. 

Such is Wusterhausen, as delineated by a vehement Princess, 
some years hence, who becomes at last intelligible, by study 
and the aid of our Silesian Tourist. It is not distinguished 
among Country Palaces : but the figure of Friedrich Wilhelm 
asleep there after dinner, regardless of the flaming sun (should 
he sleep too long and the shadow of his Linden quit him), 
this is a sight which no other Palace in the world can match ; 
this will long render Wusterhansen memorable to me. His 
Majesty, early always as the swallows, hunts, I should sup- 
pose, in the morning ; dines and sleeps, we may perceive, till 
towards three, or later. His Official business he will not neg- 
lect, nor shirk the hours due to it ; towards sunset there may 
be a walk or ride with Fritz, or Feekin and the womankind : 
and always, in the evening, his Majesty holds Talbagw, Tabaks- 
Collegium (Smoking College, kind of Tobacco-Parliament, as 
we might name it), an Institution punctually attended to by 
his Majesty, of which we shall by and by speak more. At 
Wusterhausen his Majesty holds his Smoking Session mostly 
in the open air, oftenest "on the steps of the Great Fountain " 
(how arranged, as to seating and canvas-screening, I cannot 
say) ; smokes there, with his Grumkows, Derschaus, Anhalt- 
Dessaus, and select Friends, in various slow talk ; till Night 
kindle her mild starlights, shake down her dark curtains over 
all Countries, and admonish weary mortals that it is now bed- 

Not much of the Picturesque in this autumnal life of our 
little Boy. But he has employments in abundance ; and these 
make the permitted open air, under any terms, a delight. He 
can rove about with Duhan among the gorse and heath, and 
their wild summer tenantry winged and wingless. In the 
woodlands are wild swine, in the meres are fishes, otters ; the 
drowsy Hamlets, scattered round, awaken in an interested 
manner at the sound of our pony-hoofs and dogs. Mitten- 
walde, where are shops, is within riding distance ; we could 
even stretch to Ko'penik, and visit in the big Schloss there, 
if Duhan were willing, and the cattle fresh. From some 
church-steeple or sand-knoll, it is to be hoped, some blue 

streak of the Lausitz Hills may be visible : the Sun and 
the Moon and the Heavenly Hosts, these full certainly are 
visible ; and on an Earth which everywhere produces mira- 
cles of all kinds, from the daisy or heather-bell up to the 
man, one place is nearly equal to another for a brisk little 

Fine Palaces, if Wusterhausen be a sorry one, are not 
wanting to our young Friend : whatsoever it is in the power 
of architecture and upholstery to do for him, may be con- 
sidered withal as done. Wusterhausen is but a Hunting- 
lodge for some few Autumn weeks : the Berlin Palace and the 
Potsdam, grand buildings both, few Palaces in the world 
surpass them ; and there, in one or the other of these, is our 
usual residence. Little . Fritz, besides his young Finken- 
steins and others of the like, has Cousins, children of his 
Grandfather's Half-brothers, who are comrades of his. For 
the Great Elector, as we saw, was twice wedded, and had 
a second set of sons and daughters : two of the sons had 
children; certain of these are about the Crown-Prince's own 
age, "Cousins" of his (strictly speaking, Half-cousins of his 
Father's), who are much about him in his young days, and 
more or less afterwards, according to the worth they proved 
to have. Margraves and Margravines of Schwedt, there are 
five or six of such young Cousins. Not to mention the eldest, 
Friedrich Wilhelm by name, who is now come to manhood 
(born 1700) ; who wished much in after years to have had 
Wilhelmina to wife; but had to put up with a younger 
Princess of the House, and ought to have been thankful. 
This one has a younger Brother, Heinrich, slightly Fritz's 
senior, and much his comrade at one time ; of whom we shall 
transiently hear again. Of these two the Old Dessauer is 
Uncle : if both his Majesty and the Crown-Prince should die, 
one of these would be king. A circumstance which Wilhel- 
mina and the Queen have laid well to heart, and build many 
wild suspicions upon, in these years! As that the Old 
Dessauer, with his gunpowder face, has a plot one day to 
assassinate his Majesty, plot evident as sunlight to Wilhel- 
mina and Mamma, which providentially came to nothing ; 

and other spectral notions of theirs. 1 The Father of these 
two Margraves (elder of the two Half-brothers that have 
children) died in the time of Old King Friedrich, eight or 
nine years ago. Their Mother, th'e scheming old Margravine, 
whom I always fancy to dress in high colors, is still living, 
as Wilhelmina well knows 1 

Then, by another, the younger of those old Half-brothers, 
there is a Karl, a second Friedrich Wilielm, Cousin Mar- 
graves: plenty of Cousins; and two young Margravines 
among them, 2 the youngest about Fritz's own age.* No want 
of Cousins ; the Crown-Prince seeing much of them all ; and 
learning pleasantly their various qualities, which were good in 
most, in some not so good, and did not turn out supreme in any 
case. But, for the rest, Sister Wilhelmina is his grand con- 
federate and companion ; true in sport and in earnest, in joy 
and in sorrow. Their truthful love to one another, now and 
tiU death, is probably the brightest element their life yielded 
to either of them. 

What might be the date of Fritz's first appearance in the 
Eoucoulles " Soire"e held on Wednesdays," in the Finkenstein 
or any other Soire'e, as an independent figure, I do not know. 

i Wilhelmma, i. 35, 41. * Miehaelis, i. 425. 

Note of the Cousin Margraves. Great Elector, by his Second Wife, had 
five Sons, two of whom left Children; as follows (so far as they concern 
us, the others omitted) : 

1. Son PW,,'> Children (Mother the Old Dessauer's Sister) are: Fried- 
rich Wilhelm (1700), who wished much, hut in vain, to marry Wilhelmina. 
Heinrich Friedrich (1709), a comrade of Fritz's in youth; sometimes getting 
into scrapes; misbehaved, some way, at the Battle of Molwitz (first of 
Friedrich'a Battles), 1741, and was inexorably cut by the new King, and 
continued under a cloud thenceforth. This Philip (" Philip Wilhelm ") died 
171 1, his forty-third year ; Widow long survived him. 

2. Son Albert's Children (Mother a Conrland Princess) are: Karl (1705) ; 
lived near Custrin ; became a famed captain, in the Silesian Wars, under his 
Cousin. Friedrich (1701); fell at Molwitz, 1741. Friedrich Wilhelm (a Mar- 
graf Friedrich Wilhelm " No. 2," namesake of his now Majesty, it is like) ; 
born 1714; killed at Prag, by a cannon^hot (at King Friedrich's hand, 
reconnoitring the place), 1744. This Albert ("Albert Friedrich"; died 
suddenly 1731, age fifty-nine. 

But at the proper time, he does appear there, and with 
distinction not extrinsic alone; talks delightfully in such 
places ; can discuss, even with French Divines, in a charm- 
ingly ingenious manner. Another of his elderly consorts I 
must mention : Colonel Cainas, a highly cultivated Frenchman 
(French altogether by parentage and breeding, though born on 
Prussian land), who was Tutor, at one time, to some of those 
young Margraves. He has lost an arm, left it in those 
Italian Campaigns, under Anhalt-Dessau and Eugene; but 
by the aid of a cork substitute, dexterously managed, almost 
hides the want. A gallant soldier, fit for the diplomacies too ; 
a man of fine high ways. 1 And then his Wife In fact, the 
Camas House, we perceive, had from an early time been one 
of the Crown-Prince's haunts. Madam Camas is a German 
Lady ; but for genial elegance, for wit and wisdom and good- 
ness, could not readily be paralleled in France or elsewhere. 
Of both these Camases there will be honorable and important 
mention by and by ; especially of the Lady, whom he con- 
tinues to call "Mamma" for fifty years to come, and corre- 
sponds with in a very beautiful and human fashion. 

Under these auspices, in such environment, dimly visible to 
Us, at Wusterhausen and elsewhere, is the remarkablest little 
Crown-Prince of his century growing up, prosperously as 




FBIEDBICH WILHELM holds Tabagie nightly; but at Wus- 
terhausen or wherever he may be, there is no lack of intricate 
Official Labor, which, even in the Tabagie, Friedrich Wilhelm 
does not forget. At the time he was concocting those In- 
structions for his little Prince's Schoolmasters, and smoking 
meditative under the stars, with Magdeburg " Bitter-Dienst" 
and much else of his own to think of, there is an extraneous 
i Militair-Lexitm,l308. 


Political Intricacy, making noise enough, in the world, much 
in his thoughts withal, and no doubt occasionally murmured 
of amid the tobacco-clouds. The Business of the Heidelberg 
Protestants ; which is just coming to a height in those Autumn 
months of 1719. 

Indeed this Year 1719 was a particularly noisy one for him. 
This is the year of the "nephritic colic," which befell at 
Brandenburg on some journey of his Majesty's ; with alarm 
of immediate death ; Queen Sophie sent for by express ; testa- 
ment made in her favor ; and intrigues, very black ones, Wil- 
helmina thinks, following thereupon. 1 And the "Affair of 
Clement," on which the old Books are so profuse, falls like- 
wise, the crisis of ik falls, in 1719. Of Clement the "Hun- 
garian Nobleman," who was a mere Hungarian Swindler, and 
Forger of Royal Letters ; sowing mere discords, black suspi- 
cions, between Friedrich Wilhelm and the neighboring Courts, 
Imperial and Saxon: "Your Majesty to be snapt up, some 
day, by hired ruffians, and spirited away, for behoof of those 
treacherous Courts : " so that Friedrich Wilhelm fell into a 
gloom of melancholy, and for long weeks "never slept but 
with a pair of loaded pistols under his pillow:" of this 
Clement, an adroit Phenomenon of the kind, and intensely 
agitating to Friedrich Wilhelm; whom Friedrich Wilhelm 
had at last to lay hold of, try, this very year, and ultimately 
hang, 2 amid the rumor and wonder of mankind: of him, 
noisy as he was, and still filling many pages of the old Books, 
a hint shall suffice, and we will say nothing farther. But this 
of the Heidelberg Protestants, though also rather an extinct 
business, has still some claims on us. This, in justice to the 
"inarticulate man of genius," and for other reasons, we must 
endeavor to resuscitate a little. 

1 Moaning de Bareith, i. 26-29. 

Had arrived in Berlin, " end of 1 71 7 ; " stayed about a year, often privately 
in the King's company, poisoning the royal mind ; withdrew to the Hague, 
suspecting Berlin might soon grow dangerous; is wiled out of that Terri- 
tory into the Prussian, and arrested, by one of Friedrich Wilhelm'g Colonels, 
"end of 1718; "lies in Spandau, getting tried, for seventeen months ; hanged, 
with two Accomplices, 18th April, 1720. (See, in succession, Stenzel, iii. 298, 
i, p. 321 ; Forster, ii 272, and iii. 320-324.) 

Of Kur-Pfdz Karl PUUp : How Tie got a Wife long since, 

and did feats in the World. 

There reigns, in these years, at Heidelberg, as Elector Pala- 
tine, a kind-tempered bat abrupt and somewhat unreasonable 
old gentleman, now verging towards sixty, Earl Philip by 
name ; who has come athwart the Berlin Court and its affairs 
more than once 5 and will again do so, in a singularly disturb- 
ing way. From before Friedrich Wilhelm's birth, all through 
Friedrich Wilhelm's life and farther, this Karl Philip is a 
stone-of-stumbling there. His first feat in life was that of 
running off with a Prussian Princess from Berlin ; the rumor 
of which was still at its height when Friedrich Wilhelm, a 
fortnight after, came into the world, the gossips still talking 
of it, we may fancy, when Friedrich Wilhelm was first swad- 
dled. An unheard-of thing ; the manner of which was this. 

Readers have perhaps forgotten, that old King Friedrich I. 
once had a Brother ; elder Brother, who died, to the Father's 
great sorrow, and made way for Friedrich as Crown-Prince. 
This Brother had been married a short time ; he left a Widow 
without children ; a beautiful Lithuanian Princess, born Ead- 
zivil, and of great possessions in her own country: she, in her 
crapes and close-cap, remained an ornament to the new Berlin 
Court for some time ; not too long. The mourning-year 
once out, a new marriage came on foot for the brilliant widow ; 
the Bridegroom, a James Sobieski, eldest Prince of the famous 
John, King Sobieski ; Prince with fair outlooks towards Polish 
Sovereignty, and handy for those Lithuanian Possessions of 
hers: altogether an eligible match. 

This marriage was on foot, not quite completed ; when Karl 
Philip, Cadet of the Pfalz, came to Berlin; a rather idle 
young man, once in the clerical way ; now gone into the military, 
with secular outlooks, his elder Brother, Heir-Apparent of the 
Pfalz, "having no children :" came to Berlin, in the course 
of visiting, and roving about. The beautiful Widow-Princess 
seemed very charming to Karl Philip ; he wooed hard ; threw 
the Princess into great perplexity. She had given her Yes 


to James Sobieski; inevitable wedding-day was coming on 
with James ; and here was Karl Philip wooing so : in brief, 
the result was, she galloped off with Karl Philip, on the eve 
of said wedding-day ; married Karl Philip (24th July, 1688) ; 
and left Prince James standing there, too much like Lot's 
Wife, in the astonished Court of Berlin. 1 Judge if the Berlin 
public talked, unintelligible to Friedrich Wilhelm, then safe 
in swaddling-clothes. 

King Sobieski, the 'Father, famed Deliverer of Vienna, was 
in high dudgeon. But Karl Philip apologized, to all lengths ; 
made his peace at last, giving a Sister of his own to be Wife 
to the injured James. This was Karl Philip's first outbreak 
in life ; and it was not his only one. A man not ill-disposed, 
all grant ; but evidently of headlong turn, with a tendency to 
leap fences in this world. He has since been soldiering about, 
in a loose way, governing Innspruck, fighting the Turks. But, 
lately, his elder Brother died childless (year 1716) ; and left 
him Kurfiirst of the Pfalz. His fair Eadzivil is dead long ago ; 
she, and a successor, or it may be two. Except one Daughter, 
whom the fair Eadzivil left him, he has no children ; and in 
these times, I think, lives with a third Wife, of the left-hand 

His scarcity of progeny is not so indifferent to my readers 
as they might suppose. This new Kur-Pfulz (Elector-Palatine) 
Karl Philip is by genealogy who, thinks the reader ? Pfalz- 
Neuburg by line ; own Grandson of that Wolfgang Wilhelm, 
who got the slap on the face long since, on account of the Cleve- 
Julich matter ! So it has come round. The Line of Simmern 
died out, Winter-King's Grandson the last of that ; and then, 
as right was, the Line of Neuburg took the top place, and 
became Kur-Pfalz. The first of these was this Karl Philip's 
Father, son of the Beslapped ; an old man when he succeeded. 
Karl Philip is the third Kur-Pfalz of the Neuburg Line; his 
childless elder Brother (he who collected the Pictures at 
Dusseldorf, once notable there) was second of the Neuburgs. 
They now, we say, are Electors-Palatine, Head of the House ; 
and, we need not add, along with their Electorate and 
i Michaelis, ii. 93. 


BTeuburg Country, possess the Cleve-Jiilich Moiety of Heri- 
tage, about which there was such worrying in time past. Nay 
the last Kur-Pfala resided there, and collected the " Dusseldorf 
Gallery," as we have just said ; though Karl Philip prefers 
Heidelberg hitherto. 

To Friedrich Wilhelm the scarcity of progeny is a thrice- 
interesting fact. For if this actual Neuburg should leave no 
male heir, as is now humanly probable, the Line of Neuburg 
too is out ; and then great things ought to follow for our Prus- 
sian House. Then, by the last Bargain, made in 1666, with 
all solemnity, between the Great Elector, our Grandfather of 
famous memory, and your serene Father the then Pf alz-Neu- 
burg, subsequently Kur-Pfalz, likewise of famous memory, son 
of the Beslapped, the whole Heritage falls to Prussia, no 
other Pfalz Branch having thenceforth the least claim to it 
Bargain was express ; signed, sealed, sanctioned, drawn out on 
the due extent of sheepskin, which can still be read. Bargain 
clear enough : but will this Karl Philip incline to keep it ? 

That may one day be the interesting question. But that is 
not the question of controversy at present: not that, but 
another ; for Karl Philip, it would seem, is to be a frequent 
stone-of-stumbling to the Prussian House. The present ques- 
tion is of a Protestant-Papist matter ; into which Friedrich 
Wilhelm has been drawn by his public spirit alone. 

Earl Philip and Us Heidelberg Protestants. 

The Pf alz population was, from of old, Protestant-Calvinist ; 
the Electors-Palatine used to be distinguished for their for- 
wardness in that matter. So it still is with the Pfalz popula- 
tion ; but with the Electors, now that the House of Simmern 
is out, and that of Neuburg in, it is not so. The Neuburgs, 
ever since that slap on the face, have continued Popish ; a 
sore fact for this Protestant population, when it got them for 
Sovereigns. Karl Philip's Father, an old soldier at Vienna, 
and the elder Brother, a collector of Pictures at Dusseldorf, 
did not outwardly much molest the creed of their subjects. 
Protestants, and the remnant of Catholics (remnant naturally 



rather expanding now that the Court shone on it), were al- 
lowed to live in peace, according to the Treaty of Westphalia, 
or nearly so ; dividing the churches and church-revenues equi- 
tably between them, as directed there. But now that Karl 
Philip is come in, there is no mistaking his procedures. He 
has come home to Heidelberg with a retinue of Jesuits about 
him; to whom the poor old gentleman, looking before and 
after on this troublous world, finds it salutary to give ear. 

His nibblings at Protestant rights, his contrivances to slide 
Catholics into churches which were not theirs, and the like 
foul-play in that matter, had been sorrowful to see, for some 
time past. The Elector of Mainz, Chief-Priest of Germany, 
is busy in the same bad direction ; he and others. Indeed, ever 
since the Peace of Eyswick, where Louis XIV. surreptitiously 
introduced a certain " Clause," which could never be got rid of 
again, 1 nibbling aggressions of this kind have gone on more 
and more. Always too sluggishly resisted by the Corpus 
Evangelicorum, in the Diets or otherwise, the " United Prot- 
estant Sovereigns " not being an active " Body " there. And 
now more sluggishly than ever ; said Corpus having August 
Elector of Saxony, Catholic (Sham-Catholic) King of Poland, 
for its Official Head ; "August the Physically Strong," a man 
highly unconcerned for matters Evangelical ! So that the nib- 
blings go on worse and worse. An offence to all Protestant 
Rulers who had any conscience ; at length an unbearable one 
to Friedrich Wilhelm, who, alone of them all, decided to inter- 
vene effectually, and say, at whatever risk there might be, We 
will not stand it ! 

Karl Philip, after some nibblings, took up the Heidelberg 

J " Clowe oflho Fourth Article " is the technical name of it. Fourth Artid, 
stipulates that King Louis XIV. shall punctually restore all manner of towns 
and places, in the Palatinate &c. (much burnt, somewhat be-jetiu'tedtoo, in late 
Wars, by the said King, during his occupancy) : Clause of Fourth Artid 
(added to it, by a quirk, " at midnight," say the Books) contains merely these 
words, "Rdigione tamm CathoKw Esmond, in loci, tic restitutis, in statuquu 
mine tut remanente: Roman-Catholic religion to continue as it now is [as we 
hare made it to be] in such towns and places." Which Clause gave rise to 
very groat bnt ineffectual lamenting and debating. (Scholl, Truitto de Pme 
(Far. 1817), i. 433-438; Buchhok; SpitOer, Qufhichte WUrtembergi; &c). 



Catechism (which candidly calls the Mass "idolatrous"), and 
ordered said Catechism, an Authorized Book, to cease in his 
dominions. Hessen-Cassel, a Protestant neighbor, pleaded, 
remonstrated, Friedrich Wilhelm glooming in the rear; but 
to no purpose. Our old gentleman, his Priests being very dili- 
gent upon him, decided next to get possession of the Hettige- 
Geist Kirche (Church of the Holy Ghost, principal Place of 
Worship at Heidelberg), and make it his principal Cathedral 
Church there. By Treaty of Westphalia, or peaceably other- 
wise, the Catholics are already in possession of the Choir : but 
the whole Church would be so much better. "Was it not 
Catholic once ? " thought Karl Philip to himself : " built by 
our noble Ancestor Kaiser Rupert of the Pf alz, Rupert Klemm 
[" Pincers," so named for his firmness of mind] : why should 
these Heretics have it ? I will build them another ! " These 
thoughts, in 1719, the third year of Karl Philip's rule, had 
broken out into open action (29th August, 4th September the 
consummation of it) ; * and precisely in the time when Fried- 
rich Wilhelm was penning that first Didactic Morsel which we 
read, grave clouds from the Palatinate were beginning to over- , 
shadow the royal mind more or less. 

For the poor Heidelberg Consistorium, as they could not 
undertake to give up their Church on request of his Serenity, 
"How dare we, or can we?" answered they, had been 
driven out by compulsion and stratagem. Partly strategic 
was the plan adopted, to avoid violence; smith's picklocks 
being employed, and also mason's crowbars : but the end was, 
On the 31st of August, 1719, Consistorium and Congregation 
found themselves fairly in the street, and the HeUige-Geist 
Kirche clean gone from them. Screen of the Choir is torn 
down; one big Catholic edifice now; getting decorated into 
a Court Church, where Serene Highness may feel his mind 

The poor Heidelbergers, thus thrown into the street, made 

applications, lamentations ; but with small prospect of help : 

to whom apply with any sure prospect? Remonstrances 

from Hessen-Cassel have proved unavailing with his bigoted 

Mauvfflon, 1. 340-345. 


Serene Highness. Corpus Evangelieorum, so presided over as 
at present, what can be had of such a Corpus ? Long-winded 
lucubrations at the utmost; real action, in such a matter, 
none. Or will the Kaiser, his Jesuits advising him, interfere 
to do us justice 1 Kur-Mainz and the rest ; it is everywhere 
one story. Everywhere unhappy Protestantism getting bad 
usage, and ever worse ; and no Corpus Evangelicorum, or ap- 
pointed Watch-dog, doing other than hang its ears, and look 
sorry for itself and us ! 

The Heidelbergers, however, had applied to Friedrich Wil- 
helm among others. Friedrich Wilhelm, who had long looked 
on these Anti-Protestant phenomena with increasing anger, 
found now that this of the Heidelberg Catechism and Hettige- 
Geist "Kirche was enough to make one's patience run over. 
Your unruly Catholic bull, plunging about, and goring men in 
that mad absurd manner, it will behoove that somebody take 
him by the horns, or by the tail, and teach him manners. 
Teach him, not by vocal precepts, it is likely, which would 
avail nothing on such a brute, but by practical cudgelling and 
scourging to the due pitch. Pacific Friedrich Wilhelm per- 
ceived that he himself would have to do that disagreeable 
feat : the growl of him, on coming to such resolution, must 
have been consolatory to these poor Heidelbergers, when they 
applied ! His plan is very simple, as the plans of genius are ; 
but a plan leading direct to the end desired, and probably 
the only one that would have done so, in the circumstances. 
Cudgel in hand, he takes the Catholic bull, shall we say, by 
the horns? more properly perhaps by the tailj and teaches 

Friedrich Wilhelm' s Method; proves remedial in 

Friedrich Wilhelm's first step, of course, was to remonstrate 
pacifically with his Serene Highness on the Heidelberg-Church 
affair: from this he probably expected nothing; nor did he 
get anything. Getting nothing from this, and the countenance 
of external Protestant Powers, especially of George I. and the 


Butch, being promised Mm .in ulterior measures, he directed 
lis Administrative Officials in Magdeburg, in Minden, in Ham- 
ersleben, where are Catholic Foundations of importance, to 
assemble the Catholic Canons, Abbots, chief Priests and all 
whom it might concern in these three Places, and to signify 
to them as follows : 

From us, your Protestant Sovereign, you yourselves and 
all men will witness, you have hitherto had the best of usage, 
fair-play, according to the Laws of the Eewh, and even more. 
With the Protestants at Heidelberg, on the part of the Catholic 
Powers, it is different. It must cease to be different ; it must 
become the same. And to make it do so, you are the imple- 
ment I have. Sorry for it, but there is no other handy. From 
this day your Churches also are closed, your Public Worship 
ceases, and furthermore your Revenues cease ; and all makes 
dead halt, and falls torpid in respect of you. From this day; 
and so continues, till the day (may it be soon!) when the 
Heidelberg Church of the Holy Ghost is opened again, and 
right done in that question. Be it yours to speed such day : it 
is you that can and will, you who know those high Catholic 
regions, inaccessible to your Protestant Sovereign. Till then 
you are as dead men ; temporarily fallen dead for a purpose. 
And herewith God have you in his keeping ! " * 

That was Friedrich Wilhelm's plan ; the simplest, but prob- 
ably the one effectual plan. Infallible this plan, if you dare 
stand upon it; which Friedrich Wilhelm does. He has a 
formidable Army, ready for fight ; a Treasury or Army-chest 
in good order. George I. seconds, according to bargain ; shuts 
the Catholic Church at Zelle in his Luneburg Country, in like 
fashion ; Dutch, too, and Swiss will endorse the matter, should 
it grow too serious. All which, involving some diplomacy 
and correspondence, is managed with the due promptitude, 
moreover. 1 And so certain doors are locked; and Friedrich 
Wilhelm's word, unalterable as gravitation, has gone forth. 

1 Mauvfflon, i. 347, 349. 

* Church of Zelle shut up, 4th November ; Minden, 28th November ; Mon- 
astery of Hamersleben, 3d December, &c. (Putter, Hatoritehe Entoiekelung dtr 
k*aige* Staataxrfauuiy da TaOtdu* Reieb, Gottingao, 1788, u. 384, 390). 



In this manner is the mad Catholic bull taken by the tail: 
keep fast hold, and apply your cudgel duly in that attitude, 
he will not gore you any more ! 

The Magdeburg-Hamersleben people shrieked piteously ; not 
to Friedrich Wilhehn, whom they knew to be deaf on that 
side of his head, but to the Kaiser, to the Pope, to the Serenity 
of Heidelberg. Serene Highness of Heidelberg was much 
huffed; Kaiser dreadfully so, and wrote heavy menacing re- 
bukes. To which Friedrich Wilhelm listened with a minimum 
of reply ; keeping firm hold of the tail, in such bellowing of 
the animal. The end was, Serene Highness had to comply ; 
within three months, Kaiser, Serene Highness and the other 
parties interested, found that there would be nothing for it 
but to compose themselves, and do what was just. April 16th, 
1720, the Protestants are reinstated in their Heilige-Geist 
Kirche ; Heidelberg Catechism goes its free course again, May 
16th ; and one Baron Reck * is appointed Commissioner, from 
the Corpus Evangelicorum, to Heidelberg ; who continues rigor- 
ously inspecting Church matters there for a considerable time, 
much to the grief of Highness and Jesuits, till he can report 
that all is as it should be on that head. Karl Philip felt so 
disgusted with these results, he removed his Court, that same 
year, to Mannheim; quitted Heidelberg; to the discourage- 
ment and visible decay of the place ; and, in spite of humble 
petitions and remonstrances, never would return ; neither he 
nor those that followed him would shift from Mannheim again, 
to this day. 

Prussian Majesty has displeased the Kaiser and the King 
of Poland. 

Friedrich Wilhelm's praises from the Protestant public were 
great, on this occasion. Nor can we, who lie much farther 
from it in every sense, refuse him some grin of approval. Act, 
and manner of doing the act, are creditably of a piece with 
Friedrich Wilhelrn; physiognomic of the rugged veracious 
man. ' It is one of several such acts done by him : for it was 
ii. 95 ; Putter, u. 384, 390 ; Bnchhdz, pp. 61-63. 


a duty apt to recur in Germany, in his day. This duty Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, a solid Protestant after his sort, and convinced 
of the "nothingness and nonsensicality (Ungrund und Absur- 
ditaf) of Papistry," was always honorably prompt to do. There 
is an honest bacon-and-greens conscience in the man ; almost 
the one conscience you can find in any royal man of that day. 
Promptly, without tremulous counting of costs, he always 
starts up, solid as oak, on the occurrence of such a thing, and 
says, "That is unjust; contrary to the Treaty of Westphalia; 
you will have to put down that 1 " And if words avail not, 
his plan is always the same: Clap a similar thumbscrew, 
pressure equitably calculated, on the Catholics of Prussia; 
these can complain to their Popes and Jesuit Dignitaries: 
these are under thumbscrew till the Protestant pressure be 
removed. Which always did rectify the matter in a little time. 
One other of these instances, that of the Salzburg Protestants, 
the last such instance, as this of Heidelberg was the first, will 
by and by claim notice from us. 

It is very observable, how Friedrich Wilhelm, hating quar- 
rels, was ever ready to turn out for quarrel on such an occa- 
sion ; though otherwise conspicuously a King who stayed well 
at home, looking after his own affairs ; meddling with no neigh- 
bor that would be at peace with him. This properly is Fried- 
rich Wilhelin's "sphere of political activity" among his 
contemporaries; this small quasi-domestic sphere, of forbid- 
ding injury to Protestants. A most small sphere, but then a 
genuine one : nor did he seek even this, had it not forced itself 
upon him. And truly we might ask, What has become of 
the other more considerable " spheres " in that epoch ? The 
supremest loud-trumpeting " political activities " which then 
filled the world and its newspapers, what has the upshot of 
them universally been ? Zero, and oblivion ; no other. While 
this poor Friedrich- Wilhelm sphere is perhaps still a countable 
quantity. Wise is he who stays well at home, and does the 
duty he finds lying there ! 

Great favor from the Protestant public : but, on the other 
hand, his Majesty had given offence in high places. "What 
help for it ? The thing was a point of conscience with him ; 


natural to the surly Royal Overseer, going his rounds in the 
world, stick in hand ! However, the Kaiser was altogether 
gloomy of brow at such disobedience. A Kaiser unfriendly 
to Friedrich Wilhelm : witness that of the Rvtter-Dienst (our 
unreasonable Magdeburg Hitters, countenanced by him, on 
such terms, in such style too), and other offensive instances 
that could be given. Perhaps the Kaiser will not always con- 
tinue gloomy of brow ; perhaps the thoughts of the Imperial 
breast may alter, on our behalf or his own, one day ? 

Nor could King August the Physically Strong be glad to 
see his " Director " function virtually superseded, in this tri- 
umphant way. A year or two ago, Friedrich Wilhelm had, 
with the due cautions and politic reserves, inquired of the 
Corpits Evangelicorum, " If they thought the present Director- 
ship (that of August the Physically Strong) a good one ? " and 
" Whether he, Friedrich Wilhelm, ought not perhaps himself 
to be Director?" To which, though the answer was clear as 
noonday, this poor Corpus had only mumbled some " Quieta 
non movere," or other wise-foolish saw ; and helplessly shrugged 
its shoulders. 1 But King August himself, though a jovial 
social kind of animal, quite otherwise occupied in the world ; 
busy producing his three hundred and fifty-four Bastards there, 
and not careful of Church matters at all, had expressed his 
indignant surprise. And now, it would seem nevertheless, 
though the title remains where it was, the function has fallen 
to another, who actually does it : a thing to provoke compari- 
sons in the public. 

Clement, the Hungarian forger, vender of false state-secrets, 
is well hanged ; went to the gallows (18th April, 1720) with 
much circumstance, just two days before that Heidelberg 
Church was got reopened. But the suspicions sown by 
Clement cannot quite be abolished by the hanging of him : 
Forger indisputably; but who knows whether he had not 

1 1717-1719, when August's Kurprinz, Heir-Apparent, likewise declared 
himself Papist, to the horror and astonishment of poor Saxony, and wedded 
the late Kaiser Joseph's Daughter: not to Father August's horror; who 
was steering towards "popularity in Poland," "hereditary Polish Crown," 
&c. with the young man. (Bnchholz, i. 53-56.) 



something of fact for basis ? What with Clement, what with 
this Heidelberg business, the Court of Berlin has fallen wrong 
with Dresden, with Vienna itself, and important clouds have 

There it an absurd Flame of War, blown out by Admiral 
Byng; and a new Man of Genius announces himself to 
the dim Populations. 

The poor Kaiser himself is otherwise in trouble of his own, 
at this time. The Spaniards and he have fallen out, in spite 
of Utrecht Treaty and Eastadt ditto ; the Spaniards have taken 
Sicily from him; and precisely in those days while Karl 
Philip took to shutting up the HeUige-Geist Church at Heidel- 
berg, there was, loud enough in all the Newspapers, silent 
as it now is, a "Siege of Messina" going on; Imperial and 
Piedinontese troops doing duty by land, Admiral Byng still 
more effectively by sea, for the purpose of getting Sicily 
back. Which was achieved by and by, though at an extremely 
languid pace. 1 One of the most tedious Sieges; one of 
the paltriest languid Wars (of extreme virulence and extreme 
feebleness, neither party having any cash left), and for an 
object which could not be excelled in insignificance. Object 
highly interesting to Kaiser Karl VI. and Elizabeth Farnese 
Termagant Queen of Spain. These two were red, or even were 
pale, with interest in it; and to the rest of Adam's Posterity 
it was not intrinsically worth an ounce of gunpowder, many 
tons of that and of better commodities as they had to spend 
upon it. True, the Spanish Navy got well lamed in the busi- 
ness; Spanish Fleet blown mostly to destruction, " Eoads 
of Messina, 10th August, 1718," by the dexterous Byng (a 
creditable handy figure both in Peace and War) and his con- 

i Byng's Sea-fight, 10th August, 1718 (Campbell's Livei of the Admirals, iii. 
468) ; whereupon the Spaniards, who had hardly yet completed their capture 
of Messina, are besieged in it ; 29th October, 1719, Messina retaken (this is 
the " Siege of Messina") : February, 1720, Peace is clapt up (the chief article, 
that Alberoai shall be packed away), and a " Congress of Cambnti " is to 
meet, and settle everything. 


siderable Sea-fight there : if that was an object to Spain or 
mankind, that was accomplished. But the "War," except 
that many men were killed in it, and much vain babble was 
uttered upon it, ranks otherwise with that of Don Quixote, 
for conquest of the enchanted Helmet of Mambrino, which 
when looked into proved to be a Barber's Basin. 

Congress of Cambrai, and other high Gatherings and convul- 
sive Doings, which all proved futile, and look almost like Lap- 
land witchcraft now to us, will have to follow this futility of 
a War. It is the first of a long series of enchanted adven- 
tures, on which Kaiser Karl, duelling with that Spanish 
Virago, Satan's Invisible World in the rear of her, has now 
embarked, to the woe of mankind, for the rest of his life. The 
first of those terrifico-ludicrous paroxysms of crisis into which 
he throws the European Universe ; he with his Enchanted 
Barber's-Basin enterprises ; as perhaps was fit enough, in an 
epoch presided over by the Nightmares. Congress of Cambrai 
is to follow ; and much else equally spectral. About all which 
there will be enough to say anon ! Tor it was a fearful opera- 
tion, though a ludicrous one, this of the poor Kaiser ; and it 
tormented not the big Nations only, and threw an absurd 
Europe into paroxysm after paroxysm ; but it whirled up, in 
its wide-sweeping skirts, our little Fritz and his Sister, and 
almost dashed the lives out of them, as we shall see ! Which 
last is perhaps the one claim it now has to a cursory mention 
from mankind. 

Byng's Sea-fight, done with due dexterity of manoeuvring, 
and then with due emphasis of broadsiding, decisive of that 
absurd War, and almost the one creditable action in it, dates 
itself 10th August, 1718. And about three months later, on 
the mimic stage at Paris there came out a piece, (Edipe the 
title of it, 1 by one Fran$ois Arouet, a young gentleman about 
twenty-two ; and had such a run as seldom was ; apprising 
the French Populations that, to all appearance, a new man of 
genius had appeared among them (not intimating what work 
he would do); and greatly angering old M. Arouet of the 
Chamber of Accounts ; who thereby found his Son as good as 
* 18th November, 1718. 


cast into the whirlpools, and a solid Law-career thenceforth im- 
possible for the young fool. The name of that "M. Aiouet 
junior " changes itself, some years hence, into M. de Voltaire ; 
under which latter designation he will conspicuously reappear 
in this Narrative. 

And now we will go to our little Crown-Prince again; 
ignorant, he, of all this that is mounting up in the distance, 
and that it will envelop him one day. 


WILHEIMINA says, 1 her Brother was "slow" in learning: 
we may presume, she means idle, volatile, not always prompt 
in fixing his attention to what did not interest him. More- 
over, he was often weakly in health, as she herself adds ; 
so that exertion was not recommendable for him. Herr von 
Loen (a witty Prussian Official, and famed man-of-letters once, 
though forgotten now) testifies expressly that the Boy was of 
bright parts, and that he made rapid progress. " The Crown- 
Prince manifests in this tender age [his seventh year] an 
uncommon capacity; nay we may say, something quite ex- 
traordinary (etwas gang, Aiisgerordentliches). He is a most 
alert and vivacious Prince ; he has fine and sprightly man- 
ners ; and shows a certain kindly sociality, and so affection- 
ate a disposition that all things may be hoped of him. The 
French Lady who [under Eoucoulles] has had charge of his 
learning hitherto, cannot speak of him without enthusiasm. 
' C'est un esprit anyeliqwe (a little angel),' she is wont to say. 
He takes up, and learns, whatever is put before him, with the 
greatest facility." a 

For the rest, that Friedrich Wilhelm's intentions and Rhada- 

l JUtfmoim, i 22. 

* Von Loen, Kleine Sdmften, ii. 27 (as cited in Bodenbeck, No. iv. 479). 



manthine regulations, in regard to him, were fulfilled in every 
point, -we will by no means affirm. Rules of such exceeding 
preciseness, if grounded here and there only on the siwolo, 
how could they be always kept, except on the surface and to 
the eye merely ? The good Duhan, diligent to open his pupil's 
mind, and give Nature fair-play, had practically found it in- 
expedient to tie him too rigorously to the arbitrary formal 
departments where no natural curiosity, but only order from 
without, urges the ingenious pupil. What maximum strict- 
ness in school-drill there can have been, we may infer from 
one thing, were there no other : the ingenious Pupil's mode of 
spelling. Fritz learned to write a fine, free-flowing, rapid and 
legible business-hand; "Arithmetic" too, "Geography," and 
many other Useful Knowledges that had some geniality of 
character, or attractiveness in practice, were among his acqui- 
sitions ; much, very much he learned in the course of his life ; 
but to spell, much more to punctuate, and subdue the higher 
mysteries of Grammar to himself, was always an unachievable 
perfection. He did improve somewhat in after life ; but here 
is the length to which he had carried that necessary art in the 
course of nine years' exertion, under Duhan and the subsidiary 
preceptors ; it is in the following words and alphabetic letters 
that he gratefully bids Duhan farewell, who surely cannot 
have been a very strict drill-sergeant in the arbitrary branches 
of schooling ! 

" Mon cher Duhan Je Vous promais (promets) que quand 
j'aurez (faitrat) mon propre argent en main, je Vous donnerez 
(donneraty enuelement (annuettemenf) 2400 ecu (ecus) par an, 
et je vous aimerais (aimerafy toujour encor (toujours encore) un 
peu plus q'asteure (qu'b cette heure) s'il me 1'est (m'esi) posible 

" MY DEAR DUHAX, I promise to you, that when I shall 
have my money in my own hands, I will give you annually 
2400 crowns [say 360] every year ; and that I will love you 
always even a little more than at present, if that be possible. 

"FstDEBic P.B. [Prince-Eoyal]." 
AM. le 20 de juin, 1727." * 

Preuss, i. 22. 


The Document has otherwise its beauty; but such is the 
spelling of it. In fact his Grammar, as he would himself now 
and then regretf ully discern, in riper years, with some transient 
attempt or resolution to remedy or help it, seems to have come 
mainly by nature; so likewise his "stylus" both in Trench 
and German, a very fair style, too, in the former dialect : 
but as to his spelling, let him try as he liked, he never came 
within sight of perfection. 

The things ordered with such rigorous minuteness, if but 
arbitrary things, were apt to be neglected; the things for- 
bidden, especially in the like case, were apt to become doubly 
tempting. It appears, the prohibition of Latin gave rise to 
various attempts, on the part of Friedrich, to attain that de- 
sirable Language. Secret lessons, not from Duhan, but no 
doubt with Duhan's connivance, were from time to time under- 
taken with this view : once, it is recorded, the vigilant Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, going his rounds, came upon Fritz and one of 
his Preceptors (not Duhan but a subaltern) actually engaged 
in this illicit employment. Friedrich himself was wont to 
relate this anecdote in after life. 1 They had Latin books, 
dictionaries, grammars on the table, all the contraband appa- 
ratus ; busy with it there, like a pair of coiners taken in the 
fact. Among other Books was a copy of the Golden Bull of 
Kaiser Karl IV., Aurea Sulla, from the little golden bullets 
or pellets hung to it, by which sublime Document, as per- 
haps we hinted long ago, certain so-called Fundamental Con- 
stitutions, or at least formalities and solemn practices, method 
of election, rule of precedence, and the like, of the Holy 
Roman Empire, had at last been settled on a sure footing, by 
that busy little Kaiser, some three hundred and fifty years 
before ; a Document venerable almost next to the Bible in 
Friedrich Wilhelm's loyal eyes. " What is this ; what are 
you venturing upon here ? " exclaims Paternal Vigilance, in 
an astonished dangerous tone. "Ihro Majest&t, ich explidre 
dem Prinsen Auream Buttam," exclaimed the trembling peda- 
gogue : Your Majesty, I am explaining Aurea Sulla [Golden 

1 Bunching, Beitrage at der Lebenigesduchie denlaDBrdiffer Penonm, V. S3, 
PIMM, i. 24. 


Bull] to the Prince ! " Dog, I will Golden-Bull you ! " said 
his Majesty, flourishing his rattan, " Ich will dich, Schurke, 
be-aureamJuUam/" which sent the terrified wretch off at the 
top of his speed, and ended the Latin for that time. 1 

Friedrich's Latin could never come to much, under these 
impediments. But he retained some smatterings of it in 
mature life; and was rather fond of producing his classical 
scraps, often in an altogether mouldy, and indeed hitherto 
inexplicable condition. "De gustibus non eet disputandits" 
" Beati possedentes," " Compille intrare," "Beatus pauperes spi- 
rtiuB\" the meaning of these can be guessed : but " Tot verbas 
tot spondera" for example, what can any commentator make 
of that? "Festina lente," " Dominus voliscum," "Fleetamus 
genua" " Quod bene notandum ; " these phrases too, and some 
three or four others of the like, have been riddled from his 
Writings by diligent men : 2 " O tempora, mores/ You see 
I don't forget my Latin," writes he once. 

The worst fruit of these contraband operations was, that 
they involved the Boy in clandestine practices, secret disobe- 
diences, apt to be found out from time to time, and tended to 
alienate his Father from him. Of which sad mutual humor 
we already find traces in that early Wusterhausen Document : 
" Not to br so dirty," says the reproving Father. And the 
Boy does not take to hunting at all, likes verses, story-books, 
flute-playing better ; seems to be of effeminate tendencies, an 
Kffeminirter Kerl; affects French modes, combs out his hair 
like a cockatoo, the foolish French fop, instead of conforming 
to the Army-regulation, which prescribes close-cropping and 
a club! 

This latter grievance Friedrioh Wilhelm decided, at last, 
to abate, and have done with ; this, for one. It is an authentic 
fact, though not dated, dating perhaps from about Fritz's 
fifteenth year. "Fritz is a Qttetpfeifer und Poet," not a Sol- 
dier! would his indignant Father growl; looking at those 
foreign effeminate ways of his. Querpfeife, that is simply 
l Forster, i. 356. 
* Preasa (i. 24) furnishes the whole stock of them. 


" German-flute," " Cross-pipe " (or fife of any kind, for we 
English have thriftily made two useful words out of the 
Deutsch root) ; "Cross-pipe," being held across the mouth hori- 
zontally. Worthless employment, if you are not born to be 
of the regimental band! thinks Friedrich Wilhelm. Fritz is 
celebrated, too, for his fine foot ; a dapper little fellow, alto- 
gether pretty in the eyes of simple female courtiers, with his 
blond locks combed out at the temples, with his bright eyes, 
sharp wit, and sparkling capricious ways. The cockatoo locks, 
these at least we will abate ! decides the Paternal mind. 

And so, unexpectedly, Friedrich Wilhelm has commanded 
these bright locks, as contrary to military fashion, of which 
Fritz has now unworthily the honor of being a specimen, to be 
ruthlessly shorn away. Inexorable : the Hof-Chirurgus (Court- 
Surgeon, of the nature of Barber-Surgeon), with scissors and 
comb, is here ; ruthless Father standing by. Crop him, my 
jolly Barber; close down to the accurate standard; soaped 
club, instead of flowing locks ; we suffer no exceptions in this 
military department: I stand here till it is done. Poor Fritz, 
they say, had tears in his eyes ; but what help in tears ? The 
judicious Chirurgus, however, proved merciful. The judicious 
Chirurgus struck in as if nothing loath, snack, snack; and 
made a great show of clipping. Friedrich Wilhelm took a 
newspaper till the job were done ; the judicious Barber, still 
making a great show of work, combed back rather than cut off 
these Apollo locks ; did Fritz accurately into soaped club, to 
the cursory eye ; but left him capable of shaking out his cheve- 
lure again on occasion, to the lasting gratitude of Fritz. 1 

The ITotienius-ancLPanzendorf DrilUxerdse. 

On the whole, as we said, a youth needs good assimilating 
power, if he is to grow in this world ! Noltenius aud Panzen- 
dorf, for instance, they were busy "teaching Friedrich relig- 
ion." Rather a strange operation this too, if we were to look 
into it. We will not look too closely. Another pair of excellent 
most solemn drill-sergeants, in clerical black serge ; they also are 
1 Preuss, i. 16. 


busy instilling dark doctrines into the bright young Boy, so 
far as possible; but do not seem at any time to have made too 
deep an impression on Mm. May we not say that, in matter 
of religion too, Friedrich was but ill-bested? Enlightened 
Edict-of-Nantes Protestantism, a cross between Bayle and 
Calvin : that was but indifferent babe's-milk to the little crea- 
ture. Nor could Noltenius's Catechism, and ponderous drill- 
exercise in orthodox theology, much inspire a clear soul with 
pieties, and tendencies to soar Heavenward. 

Alas, it is a dreary litter indeed, mere wagon-load on wagon- 
load of shot-rubbish, that is heaped round this new human 
plant, by Noltenius and Company, among others. A wonder 
only that they did not extinguish all Sense of the Highest in 
the poor young soul, and leave only a Sense of the Dreariest 
and Stupidest. But a healthy human soul can stand a great 
deal. The healthy soul shakes off, in an unexpectedly victo- 
rious manner, immense masses of dry rubbish that have been 
shot upon it by its assiduous pedagogues and professors. 
What would become of any of us otherwise ! Duhan, opening 
the young soul, by such modest gift as Duhan had, to recog- 
nize black from white a little, in this embroiled high Universe, 
is probably an exception in some small measure. But, Duhan 
excepted, it may be said to have been in spite of most of his 
teachers, and their diligent endeavors, that Friedrich did 
acquire some human piety ; kept the sense of truth alive in his 
mind; knew, in whatever words he phrased it, the divine 
eternal nature of Duty ; and managed, in the muddiest element 
and most eclipsed Age ever known, to steer by the heavenly 
loadstars and (so we must candidly term it) to follow God's Law, 
in some measure, with or without Noltenius for company. 

tfoltenius's Catechism, or ghostly Drill-manual for Fritz, 
at least the Catechism he had plied Wilhelmina with, which 
no doubt was the same, is still extant. 1 A very abstruse 
Piece; orthodox Lutheran-Calvinist, all proved from Scrip- 
ture; giving what account it can of this unfathomable Uni- 
verse, to the young mind. To modern Prussians it by no 
means shines as the indubitablest Theory of the Universe, 
i Frew, i. 15 ; - specimens of it in Rodenbeck. 


Indignant modern Prussians produce excerpts from it, of an 
abstruse nature; and endeavor to deduce therefrom some of 
Friedrich's aberrations in matters of religion, which became 
notorious enough by and by. Alas, I fear, it would not have 
been easy, even for the modern Prussian, to produce a perfect 
Catechism for the use of Friedrich; this Universe still con- 
tinues a little abstruse! 

And there is another deeper thing to be remarked: the 
notion of " teaching " religion, in the way of drill-exercise ; 
which is a very strange notion, though a common one, and not 
peculiar to Noltenius and Friedrich Wilhelm. Piety to God, 
the nobleness that inspires a human soul to struggle Heaven- 
ward, cannot be " taught " by the most exquisite catechisms, 
or the most industrious preachings and drillings. No ; alas, 
no. Only by far other methods, chiefly by silent continual 
Example, silently waiting for the favorable mood and moment, 
and aided then by a kind of miracle, well enough named " the 
grace of God," can that sacred contagion pass from soul 
into soul. How much beyond whole Libraries of orthodox 
Theology is, sometimes, the mute action, the unconscious 
look of a father, of a mother, who had in them " Devoutness, 
pious Nobleness " ! In whom the young soul, not unobservant, 
though not consciously observing, came at length to rec- 
ognize it; to read it, in this irrefragable manner: a seed 
planted thenceforth in the centre of his holiest affections for- 
evermore ! 

Noltenius wore black serge ; kept the corners of his mouth 
well down; and had written a Catechism of repute; but I 
know not that Noltenius carried much seed of living piety 
about with him ; much affection from, or for, young Fritz he 
could not well carry. On the whole, it is a bad outlook on 
the religious side ; and except in Apprenticeship to the rugged 
and as yet repulsive Honesties of Friedrich Wilhelm, I see no 
good element in it. Bayle-Calvin, with Noltenius and Cate- 
chisms of repute : there is no " religion " to be had for a little 
Fritz out of all that. Endless Doubt will be provided for him 
out of all that, probably disbelief of all that; and, on the 
whole, if any form at aU, a very scraggy form of moral exist- 


ence ; from which, the Highest shall he hopelessly absent ; and 
in which anything High, anything not Low and Lying, will 
have double merit. 

It is indeed amazing what quantities and kinds of extinct 
ideas apply for belief, sometimes in a menacing manner, to 
the poor mind of man, and poor mind of child, in these days. 
They come bullying in upon him, in masses, as if they were 
quite living ideas ; ideas of a dreadfully indispensable nature, 
the evident counterpart, and salutary interpretation, of Pacts 
round him, which, it is promised the poor young creature, he 
shall recognize to correspond with them, one day. At which 
"correspondence," when the Facts are once well recognized, 
he has at last to ask himself with amazement, " Did I ever 
recognize it, then ? " Whereby come , results incalculable ; 
hot good results any of them ; some of them unspeakably 
bad ! The case of Crown-Prince Friedrich in Berlin is not 
singular ; all cities and places can still show the like. And 
when it will end, is not yet clear. But that it ever should 
have begun, will one day be the astonishment As if the 
divinest function of a human being were not even that of 
believing; of discriminating, with his God-given intellect, 
what is from what is not ; and as if the point were, to render 
that either an impossible function, or else what we must sor- 
rowfully call a revolutionary, rebellious and mutinous one. 
O Noltenius, Panzendorf, do for pity's sake take away your 
Catechetical ware ; and say either nothing to the poor young 
Boy, or some small thing he will find to be beyond doubt when 
he can judge of it ! Fever, pestilence, are bad for the body ; 
but Doubt, impious mutiny, doubly impious hypocrisy, are 
these nothing for the mind ? Who would go about inculcating 
Doubt, unless he were far astray indeed, and much at a loss 
for employment ! 

But the sorest fact in Friedrich's schooling, the sorest, for 
the present, though it ultimately proved perhaps the most 
beneficent one, being well dealt with by the young soul, and 
nobly subdued to his higher uses, remains still to be set forth. 
Which will be a long business, first and last 1 




THOSE vivacities of young Fritz, his taste for music, finery, 
those furtive excursions into the domain of Latin and forbid- 
den things, were distasteful and incomprehensible to Friedrich 
Wilhelm : Where can such things end ? They begin in diso- 
bedience and intolerable perversity ; they will be the ruin of 
Prussia and of Fritz ! Here, in fact, Las a great sorrow risen. 
We perceive the first small cracks of incurable divisions in 
the royal household ; the breaking out of fountains of bitter- 
ness, which by and by spread wide enough. A young sprightly, 
capricious and vivacious Boy, inclined to self-will, had it been 
permitted; developing himself into foreign tastes, into French 
airs and ways; very ill seen by the heavy-footed practical 
Germanic Majesty. 

The beginnings of this sad discrepancy are traceable from 
Friedrich's sixth or seventh year: "Not so dirty, Boy!" 
And there could be no lack of growth in the mutual ill-humor, 
while the Boy himself continued growing ; enlarging in bulk 
and in activity of his own. Plenty of new children come, to 
divide our regard withal, and more are coming; five new 
Princesses, wise little Ulrique the youngest of them (named 
of Sweden and the happy Swedish Treaty), whom we love 
much for her grave staid ways. Nay, next after Ulrique 
comes even a new Prince ; August Wilhelm, ten years younger 
than Friedrich ; and is growing up much more according to 
the paternal heart. Pretty children, all of them, more or 
less ; and towardly, and comfortable to a Father ; and the 
worst of them a paragon of beauty, in comparison to per- 
verse, clandestine, disobedient Fritz, with his French fopperies, 
flutings, and cockatoo fashions of hair ! 


And so the silent divulsion, silent on Fritz's part, exploding 
loud enough now and then on his Father's part, goes steadily 
on, splitting ever wider ; new offences ever superadding them- 
selves. Till, at last, the rugged Father has grown to hate the 
son ; and longs, with sorrowful indignation, that it were pos- 
sible to make August Wilhelm Crown-Prince in his stead. 
This Fritz ought to fashion himself according to his Father's 
pattern, a well-meant honest pattern ; and he does not ! Alas, 
your Majesty, it cannot be. It is the new generation come ; 
which cannot live quite as the old one did. A perennial con- 
troversy in human life ; coeval with the genealogies of men. 
This little Boy should have been the excellent paternal Maj- 
esty's exact counterpart ; resembling him at all points, " as 
a little sixpence does a big half-crown : " but we perceive he 
cannot. This is a new coin, with a stamp of its own. A sur- 
prising Friedrich d'or this ; and may prove a good piece yet ; 
but will never be the half-crown your Majesty requires ! 

Conceive a rugged thick-sided Squire Western, of supreme 
degree, for this Squire Western is a hot Hohenzollern, and 
wears a crown royal ; conceive such a burly ne^plus^ultra of 
a Squire, with his broad-based rectitudes and surly irrefraga- 
bilities ; the honest German instincts of the man, convictions 
certain as the Fates, but capable of no utterance, or next to 
none, in words j and that he produces a Son who takes into 
Voltairism, piping, fiddling and belles-lettres, with apparently 
a total contempt for Grumkow and the giant-regiment ! Sul- 
phurous rage, in gusts or in lasting tempests, rising from a fund 
of just implacability, is inevitable. Such as we shall see. 

The Mother, as mothers will, secretly favors Fritz ; anxious 
to screen him in the day of high-wind. Withal she has plans 
of her own in regard to Fritz, and the others ; being a lady 
of many plans. That of the "Double-Marriage," for ex- 
ample; of marrying her Prince and Princess to a Princess 
and Prince of the English-Hanoverian House ; it was a 
pleasant eligible plan, consented to by Papa and the other 
parties ; but when it came to be perfected by treaty, amid the 


rubs of external and internal politics, what new amazing dis- 
crepancies rose upon her poor children and her I Fearfully 
aggravating the quarrel of Father and Son, almost to the fatal 
point Of that " Double-Marriage," whirled up in a universe 
of intriguing diplomacies, in the " skirts of the Kaiser's huge 
Spectre-Hunt," as we have called it, there will be sad things 
to say by and by. 

Plans her Majesty has; and silently a will of her own. 
She loves all her children, especially Fritz, and would so love 
that they loved her. For the rest, all along, Fritz and Wil- 
helmina are sure allies. We perceive they have fallen into a 
kind of cipher-speech; 1 they communicate with one another 
by telegraphic signs. One of their words, " Ragotin (Stumpy)," 
whom does the reader think it designates ? Papa himself, the 
Koyal Majesty of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm I., he to his 
rebellious children is tyrant " Stumpy," and no better ; being 
indeed short of stature, and growing ever thicker, and surlier 
in these provocations ! 

Such incurable discrepancies have risen in the Berlin Pal- 
ace: fountains of bitterness flowing ever wider, till they 
made life all bitter for Son and for Father ; necessitating the 
proud Son to hypocrisies towards his terrible Father, which 
were very foreign to the proud youth, had there been any 
other resource. But there was none, now or afterwards. Even 
when the young man, driven to reflection and insight by intol- 
erable miseries, had begun to recognize the worth of his surly 
Ehadamanthine Father, and the intrinsic wisdom of much that 
he had meant with him, the Father hardly ever could, or could 
only by fits, completely recognize the Son's worth. Bugged 
suspieious Papa requires always to be humored, cajoled, even 
when our feeling towards him is genuine and loyal. Fried- 
rich, to the last, we can perceive, has to assume masquerade 
in addressing him, in writing to him, and in spite of real 
love, must have felt it a relief when such a thing was over. 

That is, all along, a sad element of Friedrich's education ! 

Out of which there might have come incalculable damage to 

i Mtmoires de BanitH, i. 168. 


the young man, had his natural assimilative powers, to extract 
benefit from all things, been less considerable. As it was, he 
gained self-help from it ; gained reticence, the power to keep 
his own counsel ; and did not let the hypocrisy take hold of 
him, or be other than a hateful compulsory masquerade. At 
an uncommonly early age, he stands before us accomplished 
in endurance, for one thing; a very bright young Stoic of his 
sort ; silently prepared for the injustices of men and things. 
And as for the masquerade, let us hope it was essentially 
foreign even to the skin of the man ! The reader will judge 
as he goes on. "Je n'aijamais trompe perrsonne durant ma vie, 
I have never deceived anybody during my life ; still less will 
I deceive posterity," l writes Friedrich when his head was now 



NEITHEE as to intellectual culture, in Duhan's special 
sphere, and with all Duhan's good-will, was the opportunity 
extremely golden. It cannot be said that Friedrich, who 
spells in the way we saw, " asteure " for " & eette hewre," has 
made shining acquisitions on the literary side. However, in 
the long-run it becomes clear, his intellect, roving on devious 
courses, or plodding along the prescribed tram-roads, had been 
wide awake ; and busy all the while, bringing in abundant 
pabulum of an irregular nature. 

He did learn " Arithmetic," " Geography," and the other 
useful knowledges that were indispensable to him. He knows 
History extensively ; though rather the Roman, French, and 
general European as the French have taught it him, than that 
of " Hessen, Brunswick, England," or even the "Electoral and 
Royal House of Brandenburg," which Papa had recommended. 

i Mtmoires depots la Paix de Hubertsbourg, 1763-1774 (Avant-PropOB), 
tEuvnst, vii. 8. 

420 I 

He read History, where he could find it readable, to the end of 
his life; and had early begun reading it, immensely eager 
to learn, in his little head, what strange things had been, and 
were, in this strange Planet he was come into. 

We notice with pleasure a lively taste for facts in the little 
Boy ; which continued to be the taste of the Man, in an emi- 
nent degree. Fictions he also knows; an eager extensive 
reader of what is called Poetry, Literature, and himself a per- 
former in that province by and by : but it is observable how 
much of Realism there always is in his Literature; how close, 
here as elsewhere, he always hangs on the practical truth of 
things ; how Fiction itself is either an expository illustrative 
garment of Fact, or else is of no value to him. Romantic 
readers of his Literature are much disappointed in conse- 
quence, and pronounce it bad Literature ; and sure enough, 
in several senses, it is not to be called good 1 Bad Literature, 
they say ; shallow, barren, most unsatisfactory to a reader of 
romantic appetites. Which is a correct verdict, as to the ro- 
mantic appetites and it. But to the man himself, this quality 
of mind is of immense moment and advantage; and forms 
truly the basis of all he was good for in life. Once for all, 
he has no pleasure in dreams, in parti-colored clouds and noth- 
ingnesses. All his curiosities gravitate towards what exists, 
what has being and reality round him. That is the signifi- 

already related to that, as friend or as enemy ; and feeling an 
unconscious indissoluble kinship, who shall say of what im- 
portance, towards all that. For he too is a little Fact, big as 
can be to himself; and in the whole Universe there exists 
nothing as fact but is a fellow-creature of his. 

That our little Fritz tends that way, ought to give Nol- 
tenius, Finkenstein and other interested parties, the very 
highest satisfaction. It is an excellent symptom of his intel- 
lect, this of gravitating irresistibly towards realities. Better 
symptom of its quality (whatever quantity there be of it), 
human intellect cannot show for itself. However it may go 
with Literature, and satisfaction to readers of romantic appe- 
tites, this young soul promises to become a successful Worker 


one day, and to do something under the Sun. For work is of 
an extremely unfictitious nature ; and no man can roof his 
house with clouds and moonshine, so as to turn the rain from 

It is also to be noted that his style of French, though he 
spelt it so ill, and never had the least mastery of punctua- 
tion, has real merit. Eapidity, easy vivacity, perfect clear- 
ness, here and there a certain quaint expressiveness : on the 
whole, he had learned the Art of Speech, from those old 
French Governesses, in those old and new French Books of 
his. We can also say of his Literature, of what he hastily 
wrote in mature life, that it has much more worth, even as 
Literature, than the common romantic appetite assigns to it. 
A vein of distinct sense, and good interior articulation, is 
never wanting in that thin-flowing utterance. The true is 
well riddled out from amid the false ; the important and es- 
sential are alone given us, the unimportant and superfluous 
honestly thrown away. A lean wiry veracity (an immense 
advantage in any Literature, good or bad !) is everywhere 
beneficently observable; the quality of the intellect always 
extremely good, whatever its quantity may be. 

It is true, his spelling "asteure" for "a cette heure" 
is very bad. And as for punctuation, he never could under- 
stand the mystery of it ; he merely scatters a few commas and 
dashes, as if they were shaken out of a pepper-box upon his 
page, and so leaves it. These are deficiencies lying very bare 
to criticism; and I confess I never could completely under- 
stand them in such a man. He that would have ordered 
arrest for the smallest speck of mud on a man's buff-belt, in- 
dignant that any pipe-clayed portion of a man should not be 
perfectly pipe-clayed: how could he tolerate false spelling, 
and commas shaken as out of a pepper-box over his page ? It 
is probable he cared little about Literature, after all ; cared, 
at least, only about the essentials of it ; had practically no 
ambition for himself, or none considerable, in that kind ; 
and so might reckon exact obedience and punctuality, in a 
soldier, more important than good spelling to an amateur 


literary man. He never minded snuff upon his own chin, 
not even upon his waistcoat and breeches : A merely super- 
ficial thing, not worth bothering about, in the press of real 

That Friedrich's Course of Education did on the whole 
prosper, in spite of every drawback, is known to all men. 
He came out of it a man of clear and ever-improving intelli- 
gence; equipped with knowledge, true in essentials, if not 
punctiliously exact, upon all manner of practical and specu- 
lative things, to a degree not only unexampled among modern 
Sovereign Princes so called, but such as to distinguish him 
even among the studious class. Nay many " Men-of-Letters " 
have made a reputation for themselves with but a fraction of 
the real knowledge concerning men and things, past and pres- 
ent, which Iriedrich was possessed of. Already at the time 
when action came to be demanded of him, he was what we 
must call a well-informed and cultivated man ; which charac- 
ter he never ceased to merit more and more ; and as for the 
action, and the actions, -we shall see whether he was fit for 
these or not. 

One point of supreme importance in his education was all 
along made sure of, by the mere presence and presidence of 
Friedrich. Wilhelm in the business : That there was an inflexi- 
ble law of discipline everywhere active in it; that there was 
a Spartan rigor, frugality, veracity inculcated upon him. 
" Economy he is to study to the bottom ; " and not only so, 
but, in another sense of the word, he is to practise economy ; 
and does, or else suffers for not doing it. Economic of his 
time, first of all: generally every other noble economy will 
follow out of that, if a man once understand and practise 
that Here was a truly valuable foundation laid; and as for 
the rest, Nature, in spite of shot-rubbish, had to do what she 
could in the rest. 

But Nature had been very kind to this new child of hers. 
And among the confused hurtful elements of his Schooling, 
there was always, as we say, this eminently salutary and most 
potent one, of its being, in the gross, an Apprenticeship to 



Friedrich Wilhelm the Ehadamantliine Spartan King, who 
hates from Ms heart all empty Nonsense, and Unveracitymost 
of all. Which one element, well aided by docility, by openness 
and loyalty of mind, on the Pupil's part, proved at length 
sufficient to conquer the others ; as it were to burn up all the 
others, and reduce their sour dark smoke, abounding every- 
where, into flame and illumination mostly. This radiant 
swift-paced Son owed much to the surly, irascible, sure-footed 
Father that bred him. Friedrich did at length see into Fried- 
rich Wilhelm, across the abstruse, thunderous, sulphurous 
embodiments and accompaniments of the man ; and proved 
himself, in all manner of important respects, the filial sequel 
of Friedrich Wilhelm. These remarks of a certain Editor are 
perhaps worth adding : 

" Friedrich Wilhelm, King of Prussia, did not set up for a 
Pestalozzi ; and the plan of Education for his Son is open to 
manifold objections. ^Nevertheless, as Schoolmasters go, I 
much prefer him to most others we have at present. The 
wild man had discerned, with his rugged natural intelligence 
(not wasted away in the idle element of speaking and of being 
spoken to, but kept wholesomely silent for most part), That 
human education is not, and cannot be, a thing of vocables. 
That it is a thing of earnest facts ; of capabilities developed, 
of habits established, of dispositions well dealt with, of ten- 
dencies confirmed and tendencies repressed : a laborious sepa- 
rating of the character into two firmaments ; shutting down 
the subterranean, well down and deep ; an earth and waters, 
and what lies under them ; then your everlasting azure sky, 
and immeasurable depths of aether, hanging serene overhead. 
To make of the human soul a Cosmos, so far as possible, that 
was Friedrich Wilhelm's dumb notion : not to leave the human 
soul a mere Chaos ; how much less a Singing or eloquently 
Spouting Chaos, which is ten times worse than a Chaos left 
mute, confessedly chaotic and not cosmic! To develop the 
man into doing something ; and withal into doing it as the 
Universe and the Eternal Laws require, which is but an- 
other name for really doing and not merely seeming to do 


' 1713-1728. 

it : that was Eriedrich Wilhelm's dumb notion: and it was, 
I can assure you, very far from being a foolish one, though 
there was no Latin in it, and much of Prussian pipe-olay ! " 

But the Congress of Cambrai is met, and much else is met 
and parted: and the Kaiser's Spectre-Hunt, especially his 
Duel with the She-Dragon of Spain, is in full course ; and it 
is time we were saying something of the Double-Marriage in a 
directly narrative way. 





WE saw George I. at Berlin in October, 1723, looking out 
upon his little Grandson drilling the Cadets there ; but we did 
not mention what important errand had brought his Majesty 

Visits between Hanover and Berlin had been frequent for a 
long time back ; the young Queen of Prussia, sometimes with 
her husband, sometimes without, running often over to see 
her Father ; who, even after his accession to the English 
crown, was generally for some months every year to be met 
with in those favorite regions of his. He himself did not 
much visit, being of taciturn splenetic nature : but this once 
he had agreed to return a visit they had lately made him, 
where a certain weighty Business had been agreed upon, 
withal ; which his Britannic Majesty was to consummate for- 
mally, by treaty, when the meeting in Berlin took effect. His 
Britannic Majesty, accordingly, is come ; the business in hand 
is no other than that thrice-famous "Double-Marriage" of 
Prussia with England ; which once had such a sound in the 
ear of Eumor, and still bulks so big in the archives of the 
Eighteenth Century; which worked such woe to all parties 
concerned in it ; and is, in fact, a first-rate nuisance in the 

History of that poor Century, as written hitherto. Nuisance 
demanding urgently to be abated 5 were that well possible 
at present. Which, alas, it is not, to any great degree ; there 
being an important young Friedrich inextricably wrapt up in 
it, to whom it was of such vital or almost fatal importance ! 
Without a Friedrich, the affair could be reduced to something 
like its real size, and recorded in a few pages ; or might even, 
with advantage, be forgotten altogether, and become zero. 
More gigantic instance of much ado about nothing has seldom 
occurred in human annals 5 had not there been a Friedrioh 
in the heart of it. 

Crown-Prince Friedrich is still very young for marriage- 
speculations on his score : but Mamma has thought good to 
take matters in time. And so we shall, in the next ensuing 
parts of this poor History, have to hear almost as much about 
Marriage as in the foolishest Three-volume Novel, and almost 
to still less purpose. For indeed, in that particular, Friedrich's 
young Life may be called a Romance flung heels-over-head ; 
Marriage being the one event there, round which all events 
turn, but turn in the inverse or reverse way (as if the Devil 
were in them) ; not only towards no happy goal for him or 
Mamma, or us, but at last towards hardly any goal at all for 
anybody! So mad did the affair grow; and is so madly 
recorded in those inextricable, dateless, chaotic Books. We 
have now come to regions of Narrative, which seem to consist 
of murky Nothingness put on boil ; not land, or water, or air, 
or fire, but a tumultuously whirling commixture of all the 
four ; of immense extent too. Which must be got crossed, 
in some human manner. Courage, patience, good reader ! 

Queen Sophie Dorothee has taken Time by the Forelock. 

Already, for a dozen years, this matter has been treated of. 
Queen Sophie Dorothee, ever since the birth of her Wilhel- 
mina, has had the notion of it ; and, on her first visit after- 
wards to Hanover, proposed it to "Princess Caroline," 
Queen Caroline of England who was to be, and who in due 
course was ; an excellent accomplished Brandenburg-Anspacb. 


Lady, familiar from of old in the Prussian Court : " You, Caro- 
line, Cousin dear, have a little Prince, Fritz, or let us call him 
Fred, since he is to be English ; little Fred, who will one day, 
if all go right, be King of England. He is two years older 
than my little Wilhelmina: why should not they wed, and 
the two chief Protestant Houses, and Nations, thereby be 
united ? " Princess Caroline was very willing ; so was Elec- 
tress Sophie, the Great-Grandmother of both the parties ; so 
were the Georges, Father and Grandfather of Fred: little 
Fred himself was highly charmed, when told of it ; even little 
Wilhelmina, with her dolls, looked pleasantly demure on the 
occasion. So it remained settled in fact, though not in form ; 
and little Fred (a florid milk-faced foolish kind of Boy, I guess) 
made presents to his little Prussian Cousin, wrote bits of love- 
letters to her ; and all along afterwards fancied himself, and 
at length ardently enough became, her little lover and in- 
tended, always rather a little fellow: to which sentiments 
Wilhelmina signifies that she responded with the due maidenly 
indifference, but not in an offensive manner. 

After our Prussian Fritz's birth, the matter took a still 
closer form : " You, dear Princess Caroline, you have now two 
little Princesses again, either of whom might suit my little 
Fritzchen; let us take Amelia, the second of them, who is 
nearest his uge ? " " Agreed ! " answered Princess Caroline 
again. " Agreed ! " answered all the parties interested : and 
so it was settled, that the Marriage of Prussia to England 
should be a Double one, Fred of Hanover and England to 
Wilhelmina, Fritz of Prussia to Amelia; and children and 
parents lived thenceforth in the constant understanding that 
such, in due course of years, was to be the case, though noth- 
ing yet was formally concluded by treaty upon it. 1 

Queen Sophie Dorothee of Prussia was always eager enough 

for treaty, and conclusion to her scheme. True to it, she, as 

needle to the pole in all weathers ; sometimes in the wildest 

weather, poor lady. Nor did the Hanover Serene Highnesses, 

at any time, draw back or falter : but having very soon got 

wafted across to England, into new more complex conditions, 

i PSUnitz, Memmrm, U. 193. 

and wider anxieties in that new country, they were not so 
impressively eager as Queen Sophie, on this interesting point. 
Electress Sophie, judicious Great-Grandmother, was not now 
there : Electress Sophie had died about a month before Queen 
Anne ; and never saw the English Canaan, much as she had 
longed for it. George I., her son, a taciturn, rather splenetic 
elderly Gentleman, very foreign in England, and oftenest 
rather sulky there and elsewhere, was not in a humor to be 
forward in that particular business. 

George I. had got into quarrel with his Prince of Wales, 
Fred's Father, him who is one day to be George II., always 
a rather foolish little Prince, though his Wife Caroline was 
Wisdom's self in a manner : George I. had other much more 
urgent cares than that of marrying his disobedient foolish 
little Prince of Wales's offspring; and he always pleaded 
difficulties, Acts of Parliament that would be needed, and the 
like, whenever Sophie Dorothee came to visit him at Hanover, 
and urge this matter. The taciturn, inarticulately thoughtful, 
rather sulky old Gentleman, he had weighty burdens lying on 
him ; felt fretted and galled, in many ways ; and had found 
life, Electoral and even Royal, a deceptive sumptuosity, little 
better than a more or less extensive " feast of shells," next to 
no real meat or drink left in it to the hungry heart of man. 
Wife sitting half-frantic in the Castle of Ahlden, waxing more 
and more into a gray-haired Megsera (with whom Sophie Doro- 
thee under seven seals of secrecy corresponds a little, and 
even the Prince of Wales is suspected of wishing to corre- 
spond) ; a foolish disobedient Prince of Wales ; Jacobite Pre- 
tender people with their Mar Rebellions, with their Alberoni 
combinations ; an English Parliament jangling and debating 
unmelodiously, whose very language is a mystery to us, noth- 
ing but Walpole in dog-latin to help us through it : truly it is 
not a Heaven-on-Earth altogether, much as Mother Sophie and 
her foolish favorite, our disobedient Prince of Wales, might 
long for it ! And the Hanover Tail, the Robethons, Berns- 
torfs, Fabrices, even the Blackamoor Porters, they are not 
beautiful either, to a taciturn Majesty of some sense, if he 
cared about their doings or them. Voracious, plunderous, all 


of them ; like hounds, long hungry, got into a rich house which 
has no master, or a mere imaginary one. "Mentiris impu- 
dentissime," said Walpole in his dog-latin once, in our Eoyal 
presence, to one of these official pkmderous gentlemen, " You 
tell an impudent lie ! " at which we only laughed. 1 

His Britannic Majesty by no means wanted sense, had not 
his situation been incurably absurd. In his young time he 
had served creditably enough against the Turks ; twice com- 
manded the Seichs-Axmy in the Marlborough Wars, and did 
at least testify his indignation at the inefficient state of it. 
His Foreign Politics, so called, were not madder than those of 
others. Bremen and Verden he had bought a bargain ; and it 
was natural to protect them by such resources as he had, Eng- 
lish or other. Then there was the World-Spectre of the Pre- 
tender, stretching huge over Creation, like the Brocken-Spectre 
in hazy weather ; against whom how protect yourself, except 
by cannonading for the Zaiser at Messina ; by rushing into 
every brabble that rose, and hiring the parties with money to 
fight it out well ? It was the established method in that mat- 
ter ; method not of George's inventing, nor did it cease with 
George. As to Domestic Politics, except it were to keep quiet, 
and eat what the gods had provided, one does not find that he 
had any. The sage Leibnitz would very fain have followed 
him to England; but, for reasons indifferently good, could 
never be allowed. If the truth must be told, the sage Leibnitz 
had a wisdom which now looks dreadfully like that of a wise- 
acre ! In Mathematics even, he did invent the Differential 
Calculus, but it is certain also he never could believe in New- 
ton's System of the Universe, nor would read the Principia at 
all. For the rest, he was in quarrel about Newton with the 
Eoyal Society here ; ill seen, it is probable, by this sage and 
the other. To the Hanover Official Gentlemen devouring their 
English dead-horse, it did not appear that his presence could 
be useful hi these parts. 8 

* Horace Walpole, Bttamucenca of George 1. and Gmrge II. (London, 

Gnhwner, Gottfried Fniherr van Leibnitz, erne Biograpkie (Bwalaii,184a); 
Eei of Kersland, Memoirs of Seer* Transaction, (London, 1727). 

Nor axe the Hanover womankind his Majesty has about him, 
quasi-wives or not, of a soul-entrancing character ; far indeed 
from that. Two in chief there are, a fat and a lean : the lean, 
called" Maypole" by the English populace, is "Duchess of 
Kendal," with excellent pension, in the English Peerages ; 
Schulenburg the former German name of her; decidedly a 
quasi-wife (influential, against her will, in that sad Konigs- 
mark Tragedy, at Hanover long since), who is fallen thin and 
old. " Maypole," or bare Hop-pole; with the leaves all 
stript ; lean, long, hard ; though she once had her summer 
verdures too ; and still, as an old quasi-wife, or were it only 
as an old article of furniture, has her worth to the royal mind. 
Schuknburgs, kindred of hers, are high in the military line ; 
some of whom we may meet. 

Then besides this lean one, there is a fat ; of whom Walpole 
(Horace, who had seen her in boyhood) gives description. Big 
staring black eyes, with rim of circular eyebrow, like a coach- 
wheel round its nave, very black the eyebrows also ; vast red 
face ; cheeks running into neck, neck blending indistinguisha- 
bly with stomach, a mere cataract of fluid tallow, skinned 
over and curiously dizened, according to Walpole's portraiture. 
This charming creature, Kielmannsegge by German name, was 
called "Countess of Darlington" in this country with ex- 
cellent pension, as was natural. They all had pensions : even 
Queen Sophie Dorothee, I have noticed in our State-Paper 
Office, has her small pension, "800 a year on the Irish Estab- 
lishment:" Irish Establishment will never miss such a pit- 
tance for our poor Child, and it may be useful over yonder ! 
This Kielmannsegge Countess of Darlington was, and is, 
believed by the gossiping English to have been a second simul- 
taneous Mistress of his Majesty's ; but seems, after all, to have 
been his Half-Sister and nothing more. Half-Sister (due to 
Gentleman Ernst and a Countess Platen of bad Hanover fame) ; 
grown dreadfully fat; but not without shrewdness, perhaps 
affection; and worth something in this dull foreign country, 
mere cataract of animal oils as she has become. These Two 
are the amount of his Britannic Majesty's resources in that 
matter ; resources surely not extensive, after all ! 


His Britannic Majesty's day, in St. James's, is not of an in- 
teresting sort to him ; and every evening he comes precisely 
at a certain hour to drink beer, seasoned with a little tobacco, 
and the company of these two women. Drinks diligently 
in a sipping way, says Horace; and smokes, with such dull 
speech as there may be, not till he is drunk, but only 
perceptibly drunkish; raised into a kind of cloudy narcotic 
Olympus, and opaquely superior to the ills of life; in which 
state he walks uncomplainingly to bed. Government, when it 
can by any art be avoided, he rarely meddles with ; shows a 
rugged sagacity, where he does and must meddle : consigns it 
to Walpole in dog-latin, laughs at his "mentiris." This is 
the First George ; first triumph of the Constitutional Princi- 
ple, which has since gone to such sublime heights among us, 
heights which we at last begin to suspect might be depths, 
leading down, all men now ask : Whitherwards ? A much- 
admired invention in its time, that of letting go the rudder, or 
setting a wooden figure expensively dressed to take charge of 
it, and discerning that the ship would sail of itself so much 
more easily ! Which it will, if a peculiarly good sea-boat, 
in certain kinds of sea, for a time. Till tha Sinbad " Mag- 
netic Mountains" begin to be felt pulling, or the circles of 
Charybdis get you in their sweep ; and then -what an invention 
it was ! Thir, we say, is the new Sovereign Man, whom the 
English People, being in some perplexity about the Pope and 
other points, have called in from Hanover, to walk before 
them in the ways of heroism, and by command and by ex- 
ample guide Heavenwards their affairs and them. And they 
hope that he will do it ? Or perhaps that their affairs will go 
thither of their own accord ? Always a singular People ! 

Poor George, careless of these ulterior issues, has always 
trouble enough with the mere daily details, Parliamentary in- 
solences, Jacobite plottings, South-Sea Bubbles; and wishes 
to hunt, when he gets over to Hanover, rather than to make 
Marriage-Treaties. Besides, as Wilhelmina tells us,*hey have 
filled him with lies, these Hanover Women and their emissa- 
ries : " Your Princess "Wilhelmina is a monster of ill-temper, 

crooked in the back and what not," say they. If there is to 
be a Marriage, double or single, these Improper Females must 
first be persuaded to consent. 1 Difficulties enough. And 
there is none to help ; Friedrich Wilhelm cares little about 
the matter, though he has given his Yes, Yes, since you 

But Sophie Dorothee is diligent and urgent, by all opportu- 
nities ; and, at length, in 1723, the conjuncture is propitious. 
Domestic Jacobitism, in the shape of Bishop Atterbury, has 
got itself well banished ; Alberoni and his big schemes, years 
ago they are blown into outer darkness ; Charles XII. is well 
dead, and of our Bremen and Verden no question henceforth ; 
even the Kaiser's Spectre-Hunt, or Spanish Duel, is at rest for 
the present, and the Congress of Cambrai is sitting, or trying 
all it can to sit : at home or abroad, there is nothing, not even 
Wood's Irish Halfpence, as yet making noise. And on the 
other hand, Czar Peter is rumored (not without foundation) 
to be coming westward, with some huge armament; which, 
whether "intended for Sweden" or not, renders a Prussian 
alliance doubly valuable. 

And so now at last, in this favorable aspect of the stars, 
"King George, over at Herrenhausen, was by much management 
of his Daughter Sophie's, and after many hitches, brought to 
the mark. And Friedrich Wilhelm came over too ; ostensibly 
to bring home his Queen, but in reality to hear his Father- 
in-law's compliance to the Double-Marriage, for which his 
Prussian Majesty is willing enough, if others are willing. 
Praised be Heaven, King George has agreed to everything; 
consents, one propitious day (Autumn 1723, day not otherwise 
dated), Czar Peter's Armament, and the questionable as- 
pects in France, perhaps quickening his volitions a little. 
Upon which Friedrich Wilhelm and Queen Sophie have re- 
turned home, content in that matter ; and expect shortly his 
Britannic Majesty's counter-visit, to perfect the details, and 
make a Treaty of it. 

His Brif&anic Majesty, we say, has in substance agreed to 
everything. And now, in the silence of Nature, the brown 

1 MAnmra it Bartith. 



leaves of October still hanging to the trees in a picturesque 
manner, and Wood's Halfpence not yet begun to jingle in the 
Drapier's Letters of Dean Swift, his Britannic Majesty is 
expected at Berlin. At Berlin; properly at Charlottenburg 
a pleasant rural or suburban Palace (built by his Britannic 
Majesty's late noble Sister, Sophie Charlotte, "the Bepubli- 
can Queen," and named after her, as was once mentioned), a 
mile or two Southwest of that City. There they await King 
George's counter-visit. 

Poor Wilhelmina is in much trepidation about it; and im- 
parts her poor little feelings, her anticipations and experi- 
ences, in readable terms: 

" There came, in those weeks, one of the Duke of Glouces- 
ter's gentlemen to Berlin," Duke of Gloucester is Fred our 
intended, not yet Prince of Wales, and if the reader should 
ever hear of a Duke of Edinburgh, that too is Fred, "Duke 
of Gloucester's gentlemen to Berlin," says Wilhelmina : " the 
Queen had Soiree (Appartement) ; he was presented to her as 
well as to me. He made me a very obliging compliment on 
his Master's part ; I blushed, and answered only by a courtesy. 
The Queen, who had her eye on me, was very angry I had 
answered the Duke's compliments in mere silence ; and rated 
me sharply (-ne lava la tete & importance) for it ; and ordered 
me, under pain of her indignation, to repair that fault to-mor- 
row. I retired, all in tears, to my room ; exasperated against 
the Queen and against the Duke ; I swore I would never marry 
him, would throw myself at the feet " And so on, as young 
ladies of vivacious temper, in extreme circumstances, are wont : 
did speak, however, next day, to my Hanover gentleman 
about his Duke, a little, though in an embarrassed manner. 
Alas, I am yet but fourteen, gone the 3d of July last : tremu- 
lous as aspen-leaves; or say, as sheet-lightning bottled in 
one of the thinnest human skins ; and have no experience of 
foolish Dukes and affairs ! 

"Meanwhile," continues Wilhelmina, "the King of Eng- 
land's time of arrival was drawing nigh. We repaired, on the 
6th of October, to Charlottenburg to receive him. The heart 


Oct. 1723. 

of me kept beating, and I was in cruel agitations. King 
George [my Grandfather, and Grand Uncle] arrived on the 
8th, about seven in the evening;" dusky shades already 
sinking over Nature everywhere, and all paths growing dim. 
Abundant flunkies, of course, rush out with torches or what 
is needful. " The King of Prussia, the Queen and all their 
Suite received him in the Court of the Palace, the ' Apart- 
ments ' being on the ground-floor. So soon as he had saluted 
the King and Queen, I was presented to him. He embraced 
me; and turning to the Queen said to her, 'Your daughter is 
very big of her age ! ' He gave the Queen his hand, and led 
her into her apartment, whither everybody followed them. As 
soon as I came in, he took a light from the table, and surveyed 
me from head to foot. I stood motionless as a statue, and was 
much put out of countenance. All this went on without his 
uttering the least word. Having thus passed me in review, he 
addressed himself to my Brother, whom he caressed much, and 
amused himself with, for a good while." Pretty little Grand- 
son this, your Majesty ; any future of history in this one, 
think you ? " I," says Wilhelmina, " took the opportunity of 
slipping out;" hopeful to get away; but could not, the 
Queen having noticed. 

" The Qaeen made me a sign to follow her ; and passed into 
a neighboring apartment, where she had the English and Ger- 
mans of King George's Suite successively presented to her. 
After some talk with these gentlemen, she withdrew ; leaving 
me to entertain them, and saying: 'Speak English to my 
Daughter ; you will find she speaks it very well.' I felt much 
less embarrassed, once the Queen was gone ; and picking up 
a little courage, I entered into conversation with these Eng- 
lish. As I spoke their language like my mother-tongue, I got 
pretty well out of the affair, and everybody seemed charmed 
with me. They made my eulogy to the Queen; told her T had 
quite the English air, and was made to be their Sovereign one 
day. It was saying a great deal on their part : for these Eng- 
lish think themselves so much above all other people, that 
they imagine they are paying a high compliment when they 
tell any one he has got English manners. 


" Their King [my Grandpapa] had got Spanish manners, I 
should say : he was of an extreme gravity, and hardly spoke 
a word to anybody. He saluted Madam Sonsfeld [my inval- 
uable thrice-dear Governess] very coldly ; and asked her ' If 
I was always so serious, and if my humor was of the melan- 
choly turn ? ' 'Anything but that, Sire/ answered the other : 
' but the respect she has for your Majesty prevents her from 
being as sprightly as she commonly is.' He wagged his head, 
and answered nothing. The reception he Lad given me, and 
this question, of which I heard, gave me such a chill, that I 
never had the courage to speak to him," was merely looked 
at with a candle by Grandpapa. 

" We were summoned to supper at last, where this grave 
Sovereign still remained dumb. Perhaps he was right, periiaps 
he was wrong ; but I think he followed the proverb, which 
says, Better hold your tongue than speak badly. At the end 
of the repast he felt indisposed. The Queen would have per- 
suaded him to quit table ; they bandied compliments a good 
while on the point ; but at last she threw down her napkin, 
and rose. The King of England naturally rose too ; but began 
to stagger ; the King of Prussia ran up to help him, all the 
company ran bustling about him ; but it was to no purpose : 
he sank on his knees; his peruke falling on one side, and 
his hat [or at least his head, Madam !] on the other. They 
stretched him softly on the floor ; where he remained a good 
hour without consciousness. The pains they took with him 
brought back his senses, by degrees, at last. The Queen and 
the King [of Prussia] were in despair all this while. Many 
have thought this attack was a herald of the stroke of apo- 
plexy which came by and by," within four years from this 
date, and carried off his Majesty in a very gloomy manner. 

" They passionately entreated him to retire now," continues 
Wilhelmina ; " but he would not by any means. He led out the 
Queen, and did the other ceremonies, according to rule ; had a 
very bad night, as we learned underhand ; " but persisted stoi- 
cally nevertheless, being a crowned Majesty, and bound to it. 
He stoically underwent four or three other days, of festival, 
sight-seeing, "pleasure" so called; among other sights, saw 

little Fritz drilling his Cadets at Berlin; and on the fourth 
day (12th October, 1723, so thinks Wilhelmina) fairly signed 
the Treaty of the Double-Marriage," English Townshend and 
the Prussian Ministry having settled all things. 1 

" Signed the Treaty," thinks Wilhelmina, " all things being 
settled." Which is an error on the part of Wilhelmina. Set- 
tled many or all things were by Townshend and the others : 
but before signing, there was Parliament to be apprised, there 
were formalities, expenditure of time ; between the cup and 
the lip, such things to intervene; and the sad fact is, the 
Trouble-Marriage Treaty never was signed at all ! However, 
all things being now settled ready for signing, his Britannic 
Majesty, next morning, set off for the Gohrde again, to try if 
there were any hunting possible. 

This authentic glimpse, one of the few that are attainable, 
of their first Constitutional King, let English readers make 
the most of. The act done proved dreadfully momentous to 
our little Friend, his Grandson ; and will much concern us t 

Thus, at any rate, was the Treaty of the Double-Marriage 
settled, to the point of signing, thought to be as good as 
signed. It was at the time when Czar Peter was making 
armaments to burn Sweden; when Wood's Halfpence (on 
behalf of her Improper Grace of Kendal, the lean Quasi-Wife, 
Maypole " or Hop-pole, who had run short of money, as she 
often did) were about beginning to jingle in Ireland ; * when 
Law's Bubble System " had fallen, well flaccid, into Chaos 
again; when Dubois the unutterable Cardinal had at length 
died, and d'Orleans the unutterable Regent was unexpectedly 
about to do so, in a most surprising Sodom-and-Gomorrah 
manner.* Not to mention other dull and vile phenomena of 

i Wilhelmina, Memoir* de BareiA, i. 83, 87. In Coxe (Memoir, of Sir 
Robert Walpole, London, 1798), ii. 266, 272, 273, are some faint hints, from 
Townshend, of this Berlin journey. 

Coxe (i.216, 217, and reppJythe dates); Walpole to Townuhend, 13th 
October, 1723 (ib. ii. 375) : " The Drapier't Letter* " are of 1734. 

* Bd December, 1723 : Barbier, Journal Historigiu da f&gne de Louis XV. 
fPvat, 1847), i. 192, 196 ; Lacretelle, EiOaire dt France, IB 1 " t&ck ; Ac. 


putrid fermentation, which were transpiring, or sluttishly bub- 
bling up, in poor benighted rotten Europe here or there ; 
since these axe sufficient to date the Transaction for us ; and 
what does not stick to our Fritz and his affairs it is more 
pleasant to us to forget than to remember, of such an epoch. 

Hereby, for the present, is a great load rolled from Queen 
Sophie Dorothee's heart. One, and that the highest, of her ab- 
struse negotiations, cherished, labored in, these fourteen years, 
she has brought to a victorious issue, has she not? Her 
poor Mother, once so radiant, now so dim and angry, shut in 
the Castle of Ahlden, does not approve this Double-Marriage; 
not she for her part ; as indeed evil to all Hanoverian inter- 
ests is now chiefly her good, poor Lady ; and she is growing 
more and more of a Megsera every day. With whom Sophie 
Dorothee has her own difficulties and abstruse practices ; but 
struggles always to maintain, under seven-fold secrecy, some 
thread of correspondence and pious filial ministration wherever 
possible ; that the poor exasperated Mother, wretchedest and 
angriest of women, be not quite cut off from the kinship of the 
living, but that some soft breath of pity may cool her burning 
heart now and then. 1 A dark tragedy of Sophie's, this ; the 
Bluebeard Chamber of her mind, into which no eye but her 
own must ever look. 

Princess Amelia comes into the World. 

In reference to Queen Sophie, and chronologically if not 
otherwise connected with this Double-Marriage Treaty, I will 
mention one other thing. Her Majesty had been in fluctuating 
health, all summer; unaccountable symptoms turning up in 
her Majesty's constitution, languors, qualms, especially a ten- 
dency to swelling or increase of size, which had puzzled and 
alarmed her Doctors and her. Friedrich Wilhelm, on con- 
clusion of the Marriage-Treaty, had been appointed to join 
his Father-in-law, Britannic George, at the Gohrde, in some 
three weeks' time, and have a bout of hunting. On the 8th of 

i In Memoirs of Sophia Dorothea (London, 1845), ii. 385, 393, are certain 
fractions of this Correspondence, "edited" in an amazing manner. 

November, bedtime being come, lie kissed his Wilhelmina and 
the rest, by way of good-by; intending to start very early on 
the morrow : long journey (150 miles or so), to be done all 
in one day. In the dead of the night, Queen Sophie was seized 
with dreadful colics, pangs of colic or who knows what ; 
Friedrich Wilhelm is summoned ; rises in the highest alarm ; 
none but the maids and he at hand to help ; and the colic, or 
whatever it may be, gets more and more dreadful. 

Colic? poor Sophie, it is travail, and no colic; and a 
clever young Princess is suddenly the result ! None but Fried- 
rich Wilhelm and the maid for midwives ; mother and infant, 
nevertheless, doing perfectly weU. Friedrich Wilhelm did not 
go on the morrow, but next day ; laughed, ever and anon in 
loud hahas, at the part he had been playing; and was very 
glad and merry. How the experienced Sophie, whose twelfth 
child this is, came to commit such an oversight is unaccounta- 
ble; but the fact is certain, and made a merry noise in Court 
circles. 1 

The clever little Princess, now born in this manner, is known 
by name to idle readers. She was christened Amelia ; and we 
shall hear of her in time coming. But there was, as the Cir- 
culating Libraries still intimate, a certain loud-spoken braggart 
of the histrionic-heroic sort, called Baron Trenck, windy, rash, 
and not without mendacity, who has endeavored to associate 
her with his own transcendent and not undeserved ill-luck; 
hinting the poor Princess into a sad fame in that way. For 
which, it would now appear, there was no basis whatever ! 
Most condemnable Trenck; whom, however, Eobespierre 
guillotined finally, and so settled that account and others. 

Of Sophie Dorothee's twelve children, including this Amelia, 
there are now eight living, two boys, six girls ; and after 
Amelia, two others, boys, are successively to come : ten in all, 
who grew to be men and women. Of whom perhaps I had 
better subjoin a List; now that the eldest Boy and Girl are 
about to get settled in life ; and therewith close this Chapter. 

1 Pollnitz, ii. 199 ; Wilhelmina, i. 87, 88. 


Friedrich WUhelm's Ten Children. 

Marriage to Sophie Dorothea, 28th November, 1706. 

A little Prince, born 23d November, 1707, died in six months. Then 

1. FBEDERIKA SOPHIE WILHELMINA, ultimately Margravine of Bai- 
reuth, after strange adventures in the marriage-treaty way. Wrote her 
Memoires there, about 1744. Of whom we shall hear much. Left a 
Daughter, her one child; Daughter badly married, to "Karl reigning 
Duke of Wurtemberg" (Poet Schiller's famous Serene Highness there), 
from whom she had to separate, &c., with anger enough, by and by. 

After Wilhelmina in the Family series came a second Prince, who 
died in the eleventh month. Then, 24th January, 1712, 


After whom (1713) a little Princess, who died in few months. And 

3. FKEDERIKA LOUISA, born 28th September, 1714; age now about 
nine. Margravine of Anspaeh, 30th May, 1729; Widow 1757. Her 
one Sou, born 1736, was the Lady- Craven's Anspaeh. Frederika Louisa 
died 4th February, 1784. 

4. PHILIPPINA CHARLOTTE, born 13th of March, 1716 ; became 
Duchess of Brunswick (her Husband was Eldest Brother of the " Prince 
Ferdinand " so famous in England in the Seven- Years War) ; her Son 
was the Duke who invaded France in 1792, and was tragically hurled 
to ruiu in the Battle of Jena, 1806. The Mother lived till 1801 ; Widow 
since 1780. 

After whom, in 1717, again a little Prince, who died within two years 
(our Fritz then seven, probably the first time Death ever came before 
Mm, practically into his little thoughts in this world) : then, 

5. SOPHIE DOKOTHEE MABIA, born 25th January, 1719 ; Margravine 
of Schwedt, 1734 (eldest Margraf of Schwedt, mentioned above as a 
comrade of the Crown-Prince). Her life not very happy; she died 1765. 
Left no son (Brother-in-law succeeded, last of the Schwedt Margraves) : 
her Daughter, wedded to Prince Friedrich Eugen, a Prussian Officer, 
Cadet of Wttrtemberg and ultimately Heir there, is Ancestress of the 
Wurtemberg Sovereignties that now are, and also (by one of hei- 
daughters married to Paul of Eussia) of all the Czar kindred of our 
time. 1 

6. LOUISA ULEMJUB, born 24th July, 1720 , married Adolf Friedrich, 

Heir- Apparent, subsequently King of Sweden, 17th July, 1744; Queen 

1 Preuss, iv. 278 ; Erman, Vie de Sopkie Charlotte, p. 272. 

(he having acceded) 6ih April, 1751 ; Widow 1771 ; died, at Stockholm, 
16th July, 1782. Mother of the subsequent Kings ; her Grandson the 

7. AUGUST WILBOELM, born 9th August, 1722; Heir- Apparent after 
Friedrich (so declared by Friedrich, 30th June, 1744); Father of the 
Kings who have since Mowed. He himself died, in sad circumstances, 
as we shall see, 12th June, 1758. 

8. ANNA AMELIA, born 9th November, 1723, on the terms we 

9. FRIEDRIOH HEINBICH LUDWIG, born 18th January, 1726; the 
filmed Prince Henri, of whom we shall hear. 

10. AUGUST FEEDINAND, born 23d May, 1730 : a brilliant enough 
little soldier under his Brother, full of spirit and talent, but liable to 
weak health; was Father of the " Prince Louis Ferdinand," a tragic 
Failure of something considerable, who went off in Liberalism, wit, iu 
high sentiment, expenditure and debauchery, greatly to the admiration of 
some persons ; and at length rushed desperate upon the French, and 
found his quietus (10th October, 1806), four days before the Battle 6f 

TBEATY of Double-Marriage is ready for signing, once the 
needful Parliamentary preludings are gone through; Treaty 
is signed, thinks Wilhelmina, forgetting the distance be- 
tween cup and lip! As to signing, or even to burning, and 
giving up the thought of signing, alas, how far are we yet 
from that! Imperial spectre-huntings and the politics of 
most European Cabinets will connect themselves with that ; 
and send it wandering wide enough, lost in such a jungle 
of intrigues, pettifoggings, treacheries, diplomacies domestic 
and foreign, as the course of true-love never got entangled 
in before. 

The whole of which extensive Cabinet operations, covering 

square miles of paper at this moment, having nevertheless, 

1 CErtel, p. 83 ; Hubner, tt. 91, 227. 


after ten years of effort, ended in absolute zero, were of no 
worth even to the managers of them; and are of less than' 
none to any mortal now or henceforth. So that the method 
of treating them becomes a problem to History. To pitch 
them utterly out of window, and out of memory, never to be 
mentioned in human speech again: this is the manifest 
prompting of Nature ; and this, were not our poor Crown- 
Prince and one or two others involved in them, would be our 
ready and thrice-joyful course. Surely the so-called " Politics 
of Europe " in that day are a thing this Editor would other- 
wise, with his whole soul, forget to all eternity! "Putrid 
fermentation," ending, after the endurance of much mal-odor, 
in mere zero to you and to every one, even to the rotting 
bodies themselves: is there any wise Editor that would 
connect himself with that ? These are the fields of History 
which are to be, so soon as humanly possible, suppressed; 
which only Mephistopheles, or the bad Genius of Mankind, 
can contemplate with pleasure. 

Let us strive to touch lightly the chief summits, here and 
there, of that intricate, most empty, mournful Business, 
which was really once a Fact in practical Europe, not the 
mere nightmare of an Attorney's Dream; and indicate, so 
far as indispensable, how the young Friedrich, Friedrich's 
Sister, Father, Mother, were tribulated, almost heart-broken 
and done to death, by means of it 

Imperial Majesty on the Treaty of Utrecht. 

Kaiser Karl VI., head of the Holy Romish Empire at this 
time, was a handsome man to look upon ; whose life, full of 
expense, vicissitude, futile labor and adventure, did not prove 
of much use to the world. Describable as a laborious futility 
rather. He was second son of that little Leopold, the solemn 
little Herr in red stockings, who had such troubles, frights, 
and runnings to and fro with the sieging Turks, liberative 
Sobieskis, acquisitive Louis Fourteenths; and who at length 
ended in a sea of futile labor, which they call the Spanish- 
Succession War. 


This Karl, second son, bad been appointed " King of Spain " 
in that futile business; and with much sublimity, though 
internally in an impoverished condition, he proceeded towards 
Spain, landing in England to get cash for the outfit; 
arrived in Spain; and roved about there as Titular King for 
some years, with the fighting Peterboroughs, Galways, Stah- 
rembergs; but did no good there, neither he nor his Peter- 
boroughs. At length, his Brother Joseph, Father Leopold's 
successor, having died, 1 Karl came home from Spain to be 
Kaiser. At which point, Karl would have been wise to give 
up his Titular Kingship in Spain; for he never got, nor will 
get, anything but futile labor from hanging to it. He did 
hang to it nevertheless; and still, at this date of George's 
visit and long afterwards, hangs, with notable obstinacy. 
To the woe of men and nations : punishment doubtless of his 
sins and theirs ! 

Kaiser Karl shrieked mere amazement and indignation, 
when the English tired of fighting for him and it. When 
the English said to their great Marlborough: "Enough, you 
sorry Marlborough! You have beaten Louis XIV. to the 
suppleness of wash-leather, at our bidding ; that is true, and 
that may have had its difficulties : but, after all, we prefer to 
have the thing precisely as it would have been without any 
fighting. You, therefore, what is the good of you ? You are 
a person whom we fling out like sweepings, now that onr 
eyesight returns, and accuse of common stealing. Go and 
be !" 

Nothing ever had so disgusted and astonished Kaiser Karl 
as this treatment, not of Marlborough, whom he regarded 
only as he would have done a pair of military boots or a 
holster-pistol of superior excellence, for the uses that were in 
him, but of the Kaiser Karl his own sublime self, the heart 
and focus of Political Nature ; left in this manner, now when 
the sordid English and Dutch declined spending blood and 
money for him farther. "Ungrateful, sordid, inconceivable 
Bouls," answered Karl, "was there ever, since the early 
Christian times, such a martyr as you have now made of me 1 " 

1 17th April, 1711. 


So answered Karl, in diplomatic groans and shrieks, to all 
ends of Europe. But the sulky English and Allies, thoroughly 
tired of paying and bleeding, did not heed him ; made their 
Peace of Utrecht 1 with Louis XIV., who was now beaten 
supple; and Karl, after a year of indignant protests, and 
futile attempts to fight Louis on his own score, was obliged to 
do the like. He has lost the Spanish crown; but still holds 
by the shadow of it ; will not quit that, if he can help it. He 
hunts much, digests well ; is a sublime Kaiser, though inter- 
nally rather poor, carrying his head high ; and seems to him- 
self, on some sides of his life, a martyred much-enduring man. 

Imperial Majesty has got happily wedded. 
Kaiser Karl, soon after the time of going to Spain, had 
decided that a Wife would be necessary. He applied to Caro- 
line of Anspach, now English Princess of Wales, but at that 
time an orphaned Brandenburg-Anspach Princess, very beauti- 
ful, graceful, gifted, and altogether unprovided for; living 
at Berlin under the guardianship of Friedrich the first King. 
Her young Mother had married again, high enough match 
(to Kur-Sachsen, elder Brother of August the Strong, August 
at that time without prospects of the Electorate); but it 
lasted short while : Caroline's Mother and Saxon Step-father 
were both now, long since, dead. So she lived at Berlin, bril- 
liant though unportioned ; with the rough cub Friedrich 
Wilhelm much following her about, and passionately loyal to 
her, as the Beast was to Beauty ; whom she did not mind, 
except as a cub loyal to her ; being five years older than he. a 
Indigent bright Caroline, a young lady of fine aquiline fea- 
tures and spirit, was applied for to be Queen of Spain ; wooer 
a handsome man, who might even be Kaiser by and by. Indi- 
gent bright Caroline at once answered, ]So. She was never 
very orthodox in Protestant theology ; but could not think of 
taking up Papistry for lucre's and ambition's sake: be that 
always remembered on Caroline's behalf. 

Peace of Utrecht, llth April, 1713 ; Peace of Bastadt (following upon the 
Preliminaries of Baden), 6th March, 1714. 


The Spanish Majesty next applied at Brunswick Wolfen- 
biittel; no lack of Princesses there: Princess Elizabeth, for 
instance ; Protestant she too, but perhaps not so squeamish ? 
Old Anton Ulrich, whom some readers know for the idle 
Books, long-winded Novels chiefly, which he wrote, was the 
Grandfather of this favored Princess ; a good-natured old 
gentleman, of the idle ornamental species, in whose head most 
things, it is likely, were reduced to vocables, scribble and sen- 
timentality ; and only a steady internal gravitation towards 
praise and pudding was traceable as very real in him. Anton 
Ulrich, affronted more or less by the immense advancement of 
Gentleman Ernst and the Hanoverian or Younger Brunswick 
Line, was extremely glad of the Imperial offer ; and persuaded 
his timid Grand-daughter, ambitious too, but rather conscience- 
stricken, That the change from Protestant to Catholic, the 
essentials being so perfectly identical in both, was a mere 
trifle ; that he himself, old as he was, would readily change 
along with her, so easy was it. Whereupon the young Lady 
made the big leap ; abjured her religion ; * went to Spain 
as Queen (with sad injury to her complexion, but otherwise 
successfully more or less) ; and sits now as Empress beside 
her Karl VI. in a grand enough, probably rather dull, but not 

She, a Brunswick Princess, with Nephews and Nieces who 
may concern ns, is Kaiserinn to Kaiser Karl : for aught I 
know of her, a kindly simple Wife, and unexceptionable 
Sovereign Majesty, of the sort wanted ; whom let us remem- 
ber, if we meet her again one day. I add only of this poor 
Lady, distinguished to me by a Daughter she had, that her 
mind still had some misgivings about the big leap she had made 
in the Protestant-Papist way. Finding Anton Ulrich still con- 
tinue Protestant, she wrote to hi out of Spain : " Why, 
honored Grandpapa, have you not done as you promised ? 
Ah, there must be a taint of mortal sin in it, after all ! " Upon 
which the absurd